Documented early #circulation of #Coronavirus Disease 2019 (#COVID19) in #Florida, #USA, since February 2020 (J Pub Health, abstract)

[Source: Journal of Public Health, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Documented early circulation of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Florida, USA, since February 2020

Alessandro Miglietta, Miriam Levi

Journal of Public Health, fdaa054,

Published: 20 April 2020



In this Update, we document the circulation of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Florida, USA, since February 2020. On 8th March 2020, a confirmed case of COVID-19 was notified to the Health Authority of Central Tuscany, Florence, Italy. The patient developed symptoms on 3rd March while staying in Miami where he arrived on 12th February. The case returned to Italy on 6th March and was admitted to a local hospital of Florence on 7th March with fever (38.2°C/100.4°F), cough and breathing difficulties. First COVID-19 cases in Florida where confirmed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on 2nd March as imported cases. Therefore, this event documents COVID-19 circulation in Florida at least since mid-February 2020.

Case Report, COVID-19

Topic: fever – florida – italy  – covid-19

Issue Section:   Not Selected

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; USA; Florida; Italy.


#Zika Virus #IgM 25 Months after Symptom Onset, #Miami-Dade County, #Florida, #USA (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 12—December 2019 / Dispatch

Zika Virus IgM 25 Months after Symptom Onset, Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA

Isabel Griffin  , Stacey W. Martin, Marc Fischer, Trudy V. Chambers, Olga L. Kosoy, Cynthia Goldberg, Alyssa Falise, Vanessa Villamil, Olga Ponomareva, Leah D. Gillis, Carina Blackmore, and Reynald Jean

Author affiliations: Florida Department of Health in Miami-Dade County, Miami, Florida, USA (I. Griffin, C. Goldberg, A. Falise, V. Villamil, O. Ponomareva, R. Jean); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA (S.W. Martin, M. Fischer, T.V. Chambers, O.L. Kosoy); Bureau of Public Health Laboratories, Miami (L.D. Gillis); Florida Department of Health, Tallahassee, Florida, USA (C. Blackmore)



We assessed IgM survival in Zika patients from the 2016 outbreak in Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA. Of those with positive or equivocal IgM after 12–19 months, 87% (26/30) had IgM 6 months later. In a survival analysis, ≈76% had IgM at 25 months. Zika virus IgM persists for years, complicating serologic diagnosis.

Keywords: Zika Virus; Serology; Immunoglobulins; Diagnostic tests; USA; Florida.


How Localized #Outbreaks and Changes in #Media Coverage Affect #Zika #Attitudes in National and Local Contexts (Health Commun., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Health Commun. 2019 Sep 2:1-12. doi: 10.1080/10410236.2019.1662556. [Epub ahead of print]

How Localized Outbreaks and Changes in Media Coverage Affect Zika Attitudes in National and Local Contexts.

Haglin K1, Chapman D2, Motta M3, Kahan D4.

Author information: 1 Department of History, Political Science and International Studies, University of Minnesota-Duluth. 2 Annenberg Public Policy Center, University of Pennsylvania. 3 Department of Political Science, Oklahoma State University. 4 Yale Law School, Yale University.



Public opinion researchers often find changing attitudes about pressing public health issues to be a difficult task and even when attitudes do change, behaviors often do not. However, salient real-world events have the ability to bring public health crises to the fore in unique ways. To assess the impact of localized public health events on individuals’ self-reported behavior, this paper examines Floridians’ intentions to take preventative measures against the Zika virus before and after the first locally transmit- ted case of Zika emerged in Florida. We find that local and national media coverage of Zika increased significantly following its first transmission in the U.S. Critically, we also find that Floridians surveyed after this increase in media coverage were more likely to pay attention to Zika-related news, and self-report intentions to take protective action against the virus. These results suggest that behavioral intentions can shift as health threats become more proximate.

PMID: 31475575 DOI: 10.1080/10410236.2019.1662556

Keywords: Zika Virus; Society; USA; Florida.


#Wolbachia pipientis occurs in #Aedes aegypti populations in #NM and #Florida, #USA (Ecol Evol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Ecol Evol. 2019 Apr 26;9(10):6148-6156. doi: 10.1002/ece3.5198. eCollection 2019 May.

Wolbachia pipientis occurs in Aedes aegypti populations in New Mexico and Florida, USA.

Kulkarni A1, Yu W1, Jiang J1, Sanchez C1, Karna AK1, Martinez KJL1, Hanley KA1, Buenemann M2, Hansen IA1, Xue RD3, Ettestad P4, Melman S4, Duguma D5, Debboun M5, Xu J1.

Author information: 1 Biology Department New Mexico State University Las Cruces New Mexico. 2 Department of Geography New Mexico State University Las Cruces New Mexico. 3 Anastasia Mosquito Control District St. Augustine Florida. 4 New Mexico Department of Health Santa Fe New Mexico. 5 Harris County Public Health Mosquito and Vector Control Division Houston Texas.



The mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (L.) and Ae. albopictus Skuse are the major vectors of dengue, Zika, yellow fever, and chikungunya viruses worldwide. Wolbachia, an endosymbiotic bacterium present in many insects, is being utilized in novel vector control strategies to manipulate mosquito life history and vector competence to curb virus transmission. Earlier studies have found that Wolbachia is commonly detected in Ae. albopictus but rarely detected in Ae. aegypti. In this study, we used a two-step PCR assay to detect Wolbachia in wild-collected samples of Ae. aegypti. The PCR products were sequenced to validate amplicons and identify Wolbachia strains. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed and used for detecting Wolbachia in selected mosquito specimens as well. We found Wolbachiain 85/148 (57.4%) wild Ae. aegypti specimens from various cities in New Mexico, and in 2/46 (4.3%) from St. Augustine, Florida. Wolbachiawas not detected in 94 samples of Ae. aegypti from Deer Park, Harris County, Texas. Wolbachia detected in Ae. aegypti from both New Mexico and Florida was the wAlbB strain of Wolbachia pipientis. A Wolbachia-positive colony of Ae. aegypti was established from pupae collected in Las Cruces, New Mexico, in 2018. The infected females of this strain transmitted Wolbachia to their progeny when crossed with males of Rockefeller strain of Ae. aegypti, which does not carry Wolbachia. In contrast, none of the progeny of Las Cruces males mated to Rockefeller females were infected with Wolbachia.

KEYWORDS: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Florida; New Mexico; Texas; Wolbachia; wAlbB

PMID: 31161026 PMCID: PMC6540660 DOI: 10.1002/ece3.5198

Keywords: Arbovirus; Mosquitoes; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; New Mexico; Florida; USA.


Local #Transmission of #Zika Virus in #Miami-Dade County: The #Florida Department of Health Rises to the Challenge (J Public Health Manag Pract., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Public Health Manag Pract. 2019 May/Jun;25(3):277-287. doi: 10.1097/PHH.0000000000000990.

Local Transmission of Zika Virus in Miami-Dade County: The Florida Department of Health Rises to the Challenge.

Philip C1, Novick CG, Novick LF.

Author information: 1 Stamford, Connecticut (Ms Novick); Department of Public Health, East Carolina School of Medicine, Greenville, North Carolina (Dr Novick). Dr Philip is Former Surgeon General, State of Florida, Tallahassee, Florida.



As early as 2015, Florida and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) public health officials recognized the potential danger of Zika for US residents and visitors. The Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is transmitted through the bite of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. A physician in Miami-Dade notified the Florida Department of Health (DOH) of the first non-travel-related Zika case in the United States. A 23-year old pregnant woman had presented on July 7, 2016, at 23 weeks of gestation, with a 3-day history of fever, widespread pruritic rash, and sore throat. Three more cases, involving men, were reported in Dade and Broward counties. These notifications set into motion additional activities from the DOH’s Zika Playbook: increased mosquito surveillance; collaboration with the CDC on recommendations for mosquito abatement techniques; and increased awareness of the risks of Zika. In August, the department reported that active transmission of Zika virus was occurring in one small area in Miami-Dade County known as Wynwood. Mosquito trapping in the area with local transmission identified large numbers of the Zika vector, Aedes aegypti females and a large number of mosquito larval sites. Control efforts included larviciding, eliminating standing water, and backpack and truck spraying of insecticides. A communication strategy was developed that addressed risk mitigation, public concerns over application of noxious pesticides, loss of tourist revenue, and reproductive issues. It was reported on December 28, 2016, that there had been 256 locally acquired cases of infection of Zika, 1011 travel-related cases, and 208 pregnant women with laboratory evidence of Zika. At the end of 2018, 2 years after active Zika virus transmission was controlled in Florida, there have been 101 reported cases of Zika during 2018 but none have been linked to local transmission.

PMID: 30933006 DOI: 10.1097/PHH.0000000000000990

Keywords: Zika Virus; Aedes aegypti; Moquitoes; Florida; USA.


#Construction sites in #Miami-Dade County, #Florida are highly favorable #environments for vector #mosquitoes (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

PLoS One. 2018 Dec 20;13(12):e0209625. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0209625. eCollection 2018.

Construction sites in Miami-Dade County, Florida are highly favorable environments for vector mosquitoes.

Wilke ABB1, Vasquez C2, Petrie W2, Caban-Martinez AJ1, Beier JC1.

Author information: 1 Department of Public Health Sciences, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, United States of America. 2 Miami-Dade County Mosquito Control Division, Miami, FL, United States of America.



Urbanization is increasing globally, and construction sites are an integral part of the urbanization process. It is unknown to what extent construction sites create favorable breeding conditions for mosquitoes. The main objectives of the present study were to identify what species of mosquitoes are present at construction sites and the respective physical features associated with their production. Eleven construction sites were cross-sectionally surveyed for the presence of mosquitoes in Miami-Dade County, Florida including in areas previously affected by the Zika virus outbreak in 2016. A total of 3.351 mosquitoes were collected; 2.680 adults and 671 immatures. Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus comprised 95% of all collected mosquitoes and were the only species found in their immature forms breeding inside construction sites. Results for the Shannon and Simpson indices, considering both immature and adult specimens, yielded the highest values for Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti. The individual rarefaction curves indicated that sampling sufficiency was highly asymptotic for Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, and the plots of cumulative species abundance (ln S), Shannon index (H) and log evenness (ln E) (SHE) revealed the lack of heterogeneity of species composition, diversity and evenness for the mosquitoes found breeding in construction sites. The most productive construction site breeding features were elevator shafts, Jersey plastic barriers, flooded floors and stair shafts. The findings of this study indicate that vector mosquitoes breed in high numbers at construction sites and display reduced biodiversity comprising almost exclusively Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Such findings suggest that early phase construction sites have suitable conditions for the proliferation of vector mosquitoes. More studies are needed to identify modifiable worker- and organizational-level factors to improve mosquito control practices and guide future mosquito control strategies in urban environments.

PMID: 30571764 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0209625

Keywords: Mosquitoes; Aedes spp.; Culex spp.; Aedes aegypti; Culex quinquefasciatus; USA; Florida.


Managing #Aedes aegypti #populations in the first #Zika #transmission zones in the continental #US (Acta Trop., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Acta Trop. 2018 Jul 31. pii: S0001-706X(18)30810-6. doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.07.031. [Epub ahead of print]

Managing Aedes aegypti populations in the first Zika transmission zones in the continental United States.

Stoddard PK1.

Author information: 1 Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, 11200 SW 8th St., Miami, FL 33199, USA. Electronic address:



The African Zika virus swept across the Pacific, reaching the New World in 2014. In July, 2016, Miami-Dade County, Florida became the locus of the first mosquito-borne Zika transmission zones in the continental United States. Control efforts were guided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, including aerial and truck sprays of adulticides and larvicides. To improve our understanding of how best to fight Zika transmission in an urban environment in the developed world, trap counts of adult Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) mosquitoes from the treatment zones were analyzed to determine efficacy of the different insecticide treatments. Analysis revealed that application of four different ester pyrethroid and one non-ester pyrethroid had no statistically significant effect on mosquito counts. Aerial application of naled, a potent organophosphate adulticide, produced significant but short-lived drops in Ae. aegypti counts in the first two applications in the first active transmission zone (Wynwood), then lost some efficacy with subsequent application. In the other active transmission zone (Miami Beach), naled produced no measurable effect in the first three applications, and only a small, transient, and marginally significant reduction in the fourth application. Repeated application of the larvicidal bacterium Bti was accompanied by steady declines of Ae. aegypti populations in both sites. Zika transmission ceased in the first transmission zone, but expanded in the second transmission zone during this period. Specific recommendations are proposed for future treatments of urban mosquitoes.

KEYWORDS: Bti; Miami; Miami Beach; naled; vector control

PMID: 30075097 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.07.031

Keywords: Zika Virus; USA; Florida; Mosquitoes; Aedes aegypti; Insecticides.


#Chikungunya virus #vector #competency of #Brazilian and #Florida #mosquito vectors (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]


Chikungunya virus vector competency of Brazilian and Florida mosquito vectors

Nildimar Alves Honório , Keenan Wiggins, Daniel Cardoso Portela Câmara, Bradley Eastmond, Barry W. Alto

Published: June 7, 2018 / DOI: / This is an uncorrected proof.



Chikungunya virus is a vector-borne alphavirus transmitted by the bites of infected female Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. In Brazil between 2014 and 2016 almost 320 thousand autochthonous human cases were reported and in Florida numerous imported CHIKV viremic cases (> 3,800) demonstrate the potential high risk to establishment of local transmission. In the present study, we carried out a series of experiments to determine the viral dissemination and transmission rates of different Brazilian and Florida populations of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus at 2, 5, and 13 days post-infection for the emergent Asian genotype of CHIKV. Our results show that all tested populations of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus have a high proportion (> 0.80) of individuals with disseminated infection as early as 2 days-post exposure. We found no significant treatment effects of mosquito population origin effects on viral dissemination rates. Transmission rates had a heterogeneous pattern, with US Ae. aegypti and Brazilian Ae. albopictus having the highest proportion of individuals with successful infection (respectively 0.50 and 0.82 as early as 2 days-post infection). Model results found significant effects of population origin, population origin x species, population origin x days post-infection and population origin x species x days post infection.


Author summary

Chikungunya is considered a serious mosquito-borne disease in many tropical and subtropical countries throughout the world. It is already an epidemic disease in Brazil and poses as a potential risk in Florida. It is mainly transmitted by mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. These mosquito species are common and abundant throughout much of the year in Brazil and Florida. In this study, we determined two components of vector competence from Brazilian and Florida populations of both mosquitoes to the emergent Asian genotype of chikungunya virus: viral dissemination and transmission rates. Both Aedes populations exhibited a high proportion of disseminated infection as early as two days after ingestion of chikungunya virus infected blood. Transmission efficiency was higher in Ae. aegypti from Florida and Ae. albopictus from Brazil. Our findings suggest that mosquito-virus interactions of both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus may vary by geographic population, which may impact public health measures and should be considered during outbreaks of this arboviral disease.


Citation: Honório NA, Wiggins K, Câmara DCP, Eastmond B, Alto BW (2018) Chikungunya virus vector competency of Brazilian and Florida mosquito vectors. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 12(6): e0006521.

Editor: Pattamaporn Kittayapong, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, THAILAND

Received: November 20, 2017; Accepted: May 12, 2018; Published: June 7, 2018

Copyright: © 2018 Honório et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: This study was funded by the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, contract number 021802, BWA and LPL, The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Chikungunya Fever; Mosquitoes; Aedes Aegypti; Aedes Albopictus; USA; Florida; Brazil.


Ornamental #bromeliads of #Miami-Dade County, #Florida are important #breeding sites for #Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) (Parasit Vectors., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Parasit Vectors. 2018 May 17;11(1):283. doi: 10.1186/s13071-018-2866-9.

Ornamental bromeliads of Miami-Dade County, Florida are important breeding sites for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

Wilke ABB1, Vasquez C2, Mauriello PJ2,3, Beier JC4.

Author information: 1 Department of Public Health Sciences, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA. 2 Miami-Dade County Mosquito Control Division, Miami, FL, USA. 3 Miami-Dade County Department of Solid Waste Management, Miami, FL, USA. 4 Department of Public Health Sciences, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.




A major public health concern is the emergence and geographical spread of vector-borne diseases such as Zika and yellow fever. Ornamental bromeliads retaining water in their leaf axils represent potential breeding sites for mosquitoes. As the role of ornamental bromeliads in breeding Aedes aegypti in Miami-Dade County, Florida is unknown, we hypothesize that ornamental bromeliads are important breeding sites for Ae. aegypti. Our objective was to survey bromeliads in areas with high densities of adult Ae. aegypti, including those with 2016 local transmission of Zika virus.


Ornamental bromeliads were surveyed for the presence of immature mosquitoes at 51 locations of Miami-Dade County, Florida. Bromeliads were sampled for the presence of immature stages of mosquitoes, their reservoirs were drained and screened for the presence of immature mosquitoes. Immature mosquitoes were stored in plastic containers and preserved in 70% ethanol until morphological identification. Biodiversity of species assemblages was assessed by Shannon’s and Simpson’s indices, and individual rarefaction curves and plots of cumulative abundance, Shannon’s index and evenness profiles.


Ornamental bromeliads were present in all surveyed areas, yielding a total of 765 immature mosquitoes, comprising five taxonomic units: Ae. aegypti, Wyeomyia mitchellii, Wyeomyia vanduzeei, Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex biscaynensis. The biodiversity indices point to a low diversity scenario with a highly dominant species, Ae. aegypti.


Our findings suggest that ornamental bromeliads are contributing for the proliferation of Ae. aegypti in the County of Miami-Dade, which may indicate a shift in the paradigm of usage of bromeliads as breeding sites, highlighting that ornamental phytotelmata bromeliads are to be considered in future vector-control strategies to control Zika and other arboviruses.

KEYWORDS: Bromeliaceae; Urbanization; Vector ecology; Zika virus

PMID: 29769105 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-018-2866-9

Keywords: Zika Virus; Arbovirus; Florida; USA; Aedes aegypti.


#Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) From #Florida Transmitted #Zika Virus (Front Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Front Microbiol. 2018 Apr 26;9:768. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.00768. eCollection 2018.

Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) From Florida Transmitted Zika Virus.

Smartt CT1, Shin D1, Kang S2, Tabachnick WJ1.

Author information: 1 Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, Department of Entomology and Nematology, IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States. 2 Infectious Diseases & Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States.



We report a laboratory colony of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were experimentally able to salivate Zika virus (ZIKV, Flaviviridae; Flavivirus) at 16 days post infection (dpi). ZIKV RNA was detected in bodies and in saliva deposited on filter paper cards with subsequent studies demonstrating the presence of live ZIKV in saliva.

KEYWORDS: Culex quinquefasciatus; Zika virus; mosquito; saliva; transmission

PMID: 29755428 PMCID: PMC5932354 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.00768

Keywords: Culex quinquefasciatus; Zika Virus; Mosquitoes; USA; Florida.