#Outbreak of invasive #pneumococcal disease among #shipyard #workers, Turku, #Finland, May to November 2019 (Euro Surveill., abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Outbreak of invasive pneumococcal disease among shipyard workers, Turku, Finland, May to November 2019

Marius Linkevicius 1,2, Veronica Cristea 3,4, Lotta Siira 1, Henna Mäkelä 3, Maija Toropainen 1, Marjaana Pitkäpaasi 3, Timothee Dub 3, Hanna Nohynek 3, Taneli Puumalainen 3, Esa Rintala 5, Merja E. Laaksonen 5, Thijs Feuth 6,7, Juha O. Grönroos 8, Jutta Peltoniemi 9, Heikki Frilander 10, Irmeli Lindström 10, Jussi Sane 3

Affiliations: 1 Expert Microbiology Unit, Department of Health Security, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Helsinki, Finland; 2 European Programme for Public Health Microbiology Training (EUPHEM), European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Stockholm, Sweden; 3 Infectious Disease Control and Vaccinations Unit, Department of Health Security, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Helsinki, Finland; 4 European Programme for Intervention Epidemiology Training (EPIET), European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Stockholm, Sweden; 5 Department of Hospital Hygiene and Infection Control, Turku University Hospital (TYKS), Turku, Finland; 6 Division of Medicine, Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Turku University Hospital (TYKS), Turku Finland; 7 Department of Pulmonary Diseases and Clinical Allergology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; 8 Department of Clinical Microbiology, Turku University Hospital (TYKS), Turku, Finland; 9 Infection Control Unit, Welfare Division, City of Turku, Finland10 Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland

Correspondence:  Marius Linkevicius

Citation style for this article: Linkevicius Marius, Cristea Veronica, Siira Lotta, Mäkelä Henna, Toropainen Maija, Pitkäpaasi Marjaana, Dub Timothee, Nohynek Hanna, Puumalainen Taneli, Rintala Esa, Laaksonen Merja E., Feuth Thijs, Grönroos Juha O., Peltoniemi Jutta, Frilander Heikki, Lindström Irmeli, Sane Jussi. Outbreak of invasive pneumococcal disease among shipyard workers, Turku, Finland, May to November 2019. Euro Surveill. 2019;24(49):pii=1900681. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.49.1900681

Received: 08 Nov 2019;   Accepted: 05 Dec 2019

 

Abstract

We report an outbreak of invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumococcal pneumonia among shipyard workers, in Turku, Southwest Finland. In total, 31 confirmed and six probable cases were identified between 3 May and 28 November 2019. Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 12F, 4 and 8 were isolated from blood cultures of 25 cases. Occupational hygiene measures and vaccination of ca 4,000 workers are underway to control the outbreak at the shipyard.

©  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Keywords: Streptococcus pneumoniae; IPD; Pneumonia; Finland.

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First #Report of #Coronaviruses in Northern #European #Bats (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

First Report of Coronaviruses in Northern European Bats

Ilkka Kivistö, Eeva-Maria Tidenberg, Thomas Lilley, Kati Suominen, Kristian M. Forbes, Olli Vapalahti, Anita Huovilainen, and Tarja Sironen

Published Online: 10 Sep 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2018.2367

 

Abstract

Coronaviruses (CoVs) represent a global public health threat, exemplified by the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreaks. Using fecal samples collected from five bat species between 2014 and 2016 in Finland and RT-PCR, RT-qPCR, and NGS, we identified CoVs in 10 of 79 (13%) samples, including two novel bat species–CoV relationships. Phylogenetic analysis revealed Alphacoronavirus and Betacoronavirus species clustered among previously identified bat and human viruses. These results expand the known northern distribution and host species range of bat-borne CoVs.

Keywords: Coronavirus; Betacoronavirus; Alphacoronavirus; Bats; Wildlife; Finland.

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#Sindbis virus #polyarthritis #outbreak signalled by virus prevalence in the #mosquito vectors (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Sindbis virus polyarthritis outbreak signalled by virus prevalence in the mosquito vectors

Jan O. Lundström , Jenny C. Hesson, Martina L. Schäfer, Örjan Östman, Torsten Semmler, Michaël Bekaert, Manfred Weidmann, Åke Lundkvist, Martin Pfeffer

Published: August 29, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007702 / This is an uncorrected proof.

 

Abstract

Polyarthritis and rash caused by Sindbis virus (SINV), was first recognised in northern Europe about 50 years ago and is known as Ockelbo disease in Sweden and Pogosta disease in Finland. This mosquito-borne virus occurs mainly in tropical and sub-tropical countries, and in northern Europe it is suggested to cause regularly reoccurring outbreaks. Here a seven-year cycle of SINV outbreaks has been referred to in scientific papers, although the hypothesis is based solely on reported human cases. In the search for a more objective outbreak signal, we evaluated mosquito abundance and SINV prevalence in vector mosquitoes from an endemic area in central Sweden. Vector mosquitoes collected in the River Dalälven floodplains during the years before, during, and after the hypothesised 2002 outbreak year were assayed for virus on cell culture. Obtained isolates were partially sequenced, and the nucleotide sequences analysed using Bayesian maximum clade credibility and median joining network analysis. Only one SINV strain was recovered in 2001, and 4 strains in 2003, while 15 strains were recovered in 2002 with significantly increased infection rates in both the enzootic and the bridge-vectors. In 2002, the Maximum Likelihood Estimated infection rates were 10.0/1000 in the enzootic vectors Culex torrentium/pipiens, and 0.62/1000 in the bridge-vector Aedes cinereus, compared to 4.9/1000 and 0.0/1000 in 2001 and 0.0/1000 and 0.32/1000 in 2003 Sequence analysis showed that all isolates belonged to the SINV genotype I (SINV-I). The genetic analysis revealed local maintenance of four SINV-I clades in the River Dalälven floodplains over the years. Our findings suggest that increased SINV-I prevalence in vector mosquitoes constitutes the most valuable outbreak marker for further scrutinising the hypothesized seven-year cycle of SINV-I outbreaks and the mechanisms behind.

 

Author summary

The mosquito-borne Sindbis virus (SINV) causes polyarthritis and rash known as Ockelbo disease in Sweden and Pogosta disease in Finland. This mainly tropical and sub-tropical virus occurs in many countries, and in northern Europe it is suggested to cause reoccurring outbreaks every seventh year. The seven-year SIN outbreak cycle is commonly referred to in scientific papers, although the hypothesis is based solely on reported clinical cases. In the search for a more objective outbreak risk signal, we evaluated abundance and SINV prevalence in vector mosquitoes from Sweden. Vector mosquitoes collected in the River Dalälven floodplains the years before, during and after the hypothesized 2002 outbreak, were assayed for SINV. SINV prevalence was significantly increased in vector mosquitoes during the hypothesized 2002 outbreak, as compared to the 2001 pre-outbreak and the 2003 post-outbreak years. Genetic analysis showed a close relationship between the virus strains, indicating SINV has remained in local annual enzootic circulation since been introduced into the River Dalälven floodplains. We conclude that increased SINV prevalence in vector mosquitoes constitutes a marker most valuable for studying the seven-year outbreak cycle.

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Citation: Lundström JO, Hesson JC, Schäfer ML, Östman Ö, Semmler T, Bekaert M, et al. (2019) Sindbis virus polyarthritis outbreak signalled by virus prevalence in the mosquito vectors. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(8): e0007702. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007702

Editor: Jason L. Rasgon, The Pennsylvania State University, UNITED STATES

Received: August 29, 2018; Accepted: August 13, 2019; Published: August 29, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Lundström et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: The author(s) received no specific funding for this work.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Arbovirus; Sindbis virus; Polyarthritis; Sweden; Finland; Mosquitoes.

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#EBV and #MS #risk in the #Finnish #Maternity #Cohort (Ann Neurol., abstract)

[Source: Annals of Neurology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Epstein‐Barr virus and multiple sclerosis risk in the Finnish Maternity Cohort

Kassandra L. Munger ScD,  Kira Hongell MD,  Marianna Cortese MD, PhD,  Julia Åivo MD, Merja Soilu‐Hänninen MD, PhD,  Heljä‐Marja Surcel PhD,  Alberto Ascherio MD, DrPH

First published: 21 June 2019 / DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.25532

This article has been accepted for publication and undergone full peer review but has not been through the copyediting, typesetting, pagination and proofreading process, which may lead to differences between this version and the Version of Record. Please cite this article as doi: 10.1002/ana.25532.

 

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether maternal Epstein‐Barr virus (EBV) IgG antibody levels are associated with risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) in the offspring.

Methods

We conducted a prospective nested case‐control study in the Finnish Maternity Cohort (FMC) with serum samples from over 800,000 women collected during pregnancy since 1983. Cases of MS among offspring born between 1983 and 1991 were identified via hospital and prescription registries; 176 cases were matched to up to 3 controls (n=326) on region and dates of birth, sample collection, and mother’s birth. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate relative risks (RR) and adjusted models for sex of the child, gestational age at sample collection, and maternal serum 25‐hydroxyvitamin D and cotinine levels. Similar analyses were conducted among 1,049 women with MS and 1,867 matched controls in the FMC.

Results

Maternal viral capsid antigen IgG levels during pregnancy were associated with an increased MS risk among offspring (RRtop vs. bottom quintile=2.44, 95%CI: 1.20‐5.00, p trend=0.004); no associations were found between maternal EBNA‐1, EA‐D, or cytomegalovirus IgG levels and offspring MS risk. Among women in the FMC, those in the highest versus lowest quintile of EBNA‐1 IgG levels had a 3‐fold higher risk of MS (RR=3.21, 95%CI: 2.37‐4.35, p trend <1.11e‐16). These associations were not confounded or modified by 25‐hydroxyvitamin D.

Interpretation

Offspring of mothers with high VCA IgG during pregnancy appear to have an increased risk of MS. The increase in MS risk among women with elevated pre‐diagnostic EBNA‐1 IgG levels is consistent with previous results.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Keywords: EBV; Multiple Sclerosis; Pregnancy; Finland; Neurology.

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Emergence of #ceftazidime – #avibactam- #resistant #Klebsiella pneumoniae during #treatment, #Finland, December 2018 (Euro Surveill., abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Emergence of ceftazidime-avibactam-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae during treatment, Finland, December 2018

Kati Räisänen 1, Irma Koivula 2, Heikki Ilmavirta 3, Santeri Puranen 4, Teemu Kallonen 1,5, Outi Lyytikäinen 1, Jari Jalava 1

Affiliations: 1 Department of Health Security, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland; 2 Kuopio University Hospital, Unit of Infections and Hospital hygiene, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland; 3 Eastern Finland laboratory Centre, Kuopio, Finland; 4 Aalto University, Department of Computer Science, Espoo, Finland; 5 Department of Biostatistics, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway

Correspondence:  Kati Räisänen

Citation style for this article: Räisänen Kati, Koivula Irma, Ilmavirta Heikki, Puranen Santeri, Kallonen Teemu, Lyytikäinen Outi, Jalava Jari. Emergence of ceftazidime-avibactam-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae during treatment, Finland, December 2018. Euro Surveill. 2019;24(19):pii=1900256. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.19.1900256

Received: 24 Apr 2019;   Accepted: 07 May 2019

 

Abstract

In December 2018, a ceftazidime-avibactam (CAZ-AVI)-resistant KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strain was isolated in Finland. CAZ-AVI resistance was observed 34 days after CAZ-AVI treatment in a trauma patient transferred from a hospital in Greece who had been colonised with blaKPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae ST39, and later developed a bloodstream infection. The CAZ-AVI-resistant strain contained a novel 15 amino acid insertion in the KPC-2 protein causing structural changes proximal to the KPC-2 active site.

©   This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Ceftazidime; Avibactam; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Greece; Finland.

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#Travellers as #sentinels of #chikungunya #epidemics: a #family #cluster among Finnish travellers to Koh Lanta, #Thailand, January 2019 (Euro Surveill., abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Travellers as sentinels of chikungunya epidemics: a family cluster among Finnish travellers to Koh Lanta, Thailand, January 2019

Anu Kantele 1

Affiliations: 1 Inflammation Center, Department of Infectious Diseases, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

Correspondence:  Anu Kantele

Citation style for this article: Kantele Anu. Travellers as sentinels of chikungunya epidemics: a family cluster among Finnish travellers to Koh Lanta, Thailand, January 2019. Euro Surveill. 2019;24(11):pii=1900162. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.11.1900162

Received: 04 Mar 2019;   Accepted: 14 Mar 2019

 

Abstract

In January 2019, five of 11 travellers to Koh Lanta, Thailand, contracted chikungunya, symptoms starting 4 days after presumed transmission. Four cases were hospitalised, one child treated in intensive care; 6 weeks after disease onset, all three adults have persistent arthralgias/arthritis, incapacitating for two. Together with a recent report of eight chikungunya cases among travellers to various destinations in Thailand, the high attack rate in our cluster points to an ongoing outbreak in the country.

© This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Keywords: Chikungunya fever; Finland; Thailand.

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Long-Term #Antibody Response to Human #Papillomavirus #Vaccines: up to 12 Years Follow-Up in the #Finnish Maternity Cohort (J Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Long-Term Antibody Response to Human Papillomavirus Vaccines: up to 12 Years Follow-Up in the Finnish Maternity Cohort

Hanna Artemchuk, Tiina Eriksson, Mario Poljak, Heljä-Marja Surcel, Joakim Dillner, Matti Lehtinen, Helena Faust

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, jiy545, https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy545

Published: 18 September 2018

 

Abstract

Background

Most cervical cancers are caused by vaccine-preventable infections with human papillomaviruses (HPV). HPV prophylactic vaccines Gardasil™ and Cervarix™ have been widely used for >10 years and are reported to induce high antibody levels. A head-to-head comparison of the antibody responses induced by the two vaccines has been performed only up to 5 years.

Methods

Virtually all 3,300 16- to 17-year-old Finnish females, who got one of the two HPV vaccines in phase III licensure trials, consented to registry-based long-term follow-up. Linkage with the Finnish Maternity Cohort found that they donated >2,500 serum samples up to 12 years later. Sera of 337 (38.6%) Gardasil™ and 730 (30.3%) Cervarix™ vaccine recipients were retrieved and HPV type-specific antibody levels were determined using in-house multiplexed heparin-HPV Pseudovirion Luminex assay.

Results

HPV16 and HPV18 antibody levels remained stable and above natural infection-related antibody levels for up to 12 years for most vaccine recipients. The median antibody levels were higher among Cervarix™ recipients 7 to 12 years post vaccination (p<0.0001).

Conclusions

The stability of vaccine-induced antibody levels is in accordance with the high long-term protection reported previously. The differences in antibody levels induced by the two vaccines imply that continued follow-up to identify possible breakthrough cases and estimation of the minimal protective levels of serum antibodies is a research priority.

Human papillomavirus (HPV), HPV vaccine, long-term follow-up, comparison, antibodies, serology, Gardasil™, Cervarix™, Finnish Maternity Cohort (FMC)

Issue Section: Major Article

© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: HPV; Cancer; Vaccines; Finland.

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