[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Excerpt.]

Eurosurveillance, Volume 22, Issue 10, 09 March 2017 / Letter


C Adlhoch 1 , P Penttinen 1

Author affiliations: 1. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Solna, Sweden

Correspondence: Cornelia Adlhoch (cornelia.adlhoch@ecdc.europa.eu)

Citation style for this article: Adlhoch C, Penttinen P. Letter to the editor: Just a coincidence? Two severe human cases due to swine influenza (SIV) A(H1N1)v in Europe, October 2016. Euro Surveill. 2017;22(10):pii=30478. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2017.22.10.30478

Received:24 February 2017; Accepted:07 March 2017


To the editor:

We read with concern the reports of two human cases infected with swine influenza virus (SIV) that both occurred in October 2016 in Europe [1,2]. One case was a school-aged child in the Netherlands with history of eczema, while the other was a middle-aged man in Italy with obesity as underlying condition. The similarities of these cases were striking: both developed severe respiratory symptoms with a rapid progression, finally requiring admission to intensive care and use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Antiviral treatment was initiated in both cases more than three days after onset of symptoms, and only after the symptoms worsened, invasive mechanical ventilation and ECMO support were initiated. Both cases recovered and were discharged from hospital.


Keywords: Swine Influenza; H1N1; Pigs; Human; European Region.



[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Eurosurveillance, Volume 22, Issue 7, 16 February 2017 / Rapid communication


E Kissling 1 2 , M Rondy 1 2 , I-MOVE/I-MOVE+ study team 3

Author affiliations: 1. EpiConcept, Paris, France; 2. Both authors have contributed equally to the study and manuscript writing; 3. The members of I-MOVE/I-MOVE+ study team are listed at the end of the article

Correspondence: Esther Kissling (e.kissling@epiconcept.fr)

Citation style for this article: Kissling E, Rondy M, I-MOVE/I-MOVE+ study team. Early 2016/17 vaccine effectiveness estimates against influenza A(H3N2): I-MOVE multicentre case control studies at primary care and hospital levels in Europe. Euro Surveill. 2017;22(7):pii=30464. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2017.22.7.30464

Received:09 February 2017; Accepted:16 February 2017



We measured early 2016/17 season influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) against influenza A(H3N2) in Europe using multicentre case control studies at primary care and hospital levels. IVE at primary care level was 44.1%, 46.9% and 23.4% among 0–14, 15–64 and ≥ 65 year-olds, and 25.7% in the influenza vaccination target group. At hospital level, IVE was 2.5%, 7.9% and 2.4% among ≥ 65, 65–79 and ≥ 80 year-olds. As in previous seasons, we observed suboptimal IVE against influenza A(H3N2).

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; H3N2; Vaccines, European Region.



[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Eurosurveillance, Volume 22, Issue 2, 12 January 2017 / Rapid communication


A Heitmann 1 2 , S Jansen 1 2 3 , R Lühken 1 , M Leggewie 1 3 , M Badusche 1 , B Pluskota 4 , N Becker 4 5 , O Vapalahti 6 , J Schmidt-Chanasit 1 3 , E Tannich 1 3

Author affiliations: 1. Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Hamburg, Germany; 2. These authors contributed equally to this work; 3. German Centre for Infection Research (DZIF), partner site Hamburg-Luebeck-Borstel, Hamburg, Germany; 4. Institute for Dipterology (IfD), Speyer, Germany; 5. University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; 6. University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

Correspondence: Renke Lühken (renkeluhken@gmail.com)

Citation style for this article: Heitmann A, Jansen S, Lühken R, Leggewie M, Badusche M, Pluskota B, Becker N, Vapalahti O, Schmidt-Chanasit J, Tannich E. Experimental transmission of Zika virus by mosquitoes from central Europe . Euro Surveill. 2017;22(2):pii=30437. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2017.22.2.30437

Received:15 November 2016; Accepted:10 January 2017



Mosquitoes collected in Germany in 2016, including Culex pipiens pipiens biotype pipiens, Culex torrentium and Aedes albopictus, as well as Culex pipiens pipiens biotype molestus (in colony since 2011) were experimentally infected with Zika virus (ZIKV) at 18 °C or 27 °C. None of the Culex taxa showed vector competence for ZIKV. In contrast, Aedes albopictus were susceptible for ZIKV but only at 27 °C, with transmission rates similar to an Aedes aegypti laboratory colony tested in parallel.

Keywords: Aedes Albopictus; Culex spp.; European Region; Zika Virus.


Occurrence of #carbapenemase-producing #Klebsiella pneumoniae and #Escherichia coli in the #EuSCAPE: a prospective, multinational study (Lancet Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]


Occurrence of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli in the European survey of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (EuSCAPE): a prospective, multinational study

Prof Hajo Grundmann, MD, Corinna Glasner, PhD*, Barbara Albiger, PhD, David M Aanensen, PhD, Chris T Tomlinson, PhD, Prof Arjana Tambić Andrasević, MD, Prof Rafael Cantón, MD, Prof Yehuda Carmeli, MD, Prof Alexander W Friedrich, MD, Christian G Giske, MD, Prof Youri Glupczynski, MD, Prof Marek Gniadkowski, PhD, Prof David M Livermore, PhD, Prof Patrice Nordmann, PhD, Laurent Poirel, PhD, Prof Gian M Rossolini, MD, Prof Harald Seifert, MD, Prof Alkiviadis Vatopoulos, MD, Prof Timothy Walsh, PhD, Prof Neil Woodford, PhD, Dominique L Monnet, PhD the European Survey of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae (EuSCAPE) Working Group†

* These authors contributed equally

†A list of the EuSCAPE Working Group can be found at the end of the manuscript and in the appendix

Published: 17 November 2016 / Article has an altmetric score of 1 / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(16)30257-2

© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.




Gaps in the diagnostic capacity and heterogeneity of national surveillance and reporting standards in Europe make it difficult to contain carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. We report the development of a consistent sampling framework and the results of the first structured survey on the occurrence of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli in European hospitals.


National expert laboratories recruited hospitals with diagnostic capacities, who collected the first ten carbapenem non-susceptible clinical isolates of K pneumoniae or E coli and ten susceptible same-species comparator isolates and pertinent patient and hospital information. Isolates and data were relayed back to national expert laboratories, which made laboratory-substantiated information available for central analysis.


Between Nov 1, 2013, and April 30, 2014, 455 sentinel hospitals in 36 countries submitted 2703 clinical isolates (2301 [85%] K pneumoniae and 402 (15%) E coli). 850 (37%) of 2301 K pneumoniae samples and 77 (19%) of 402 E coli samples were carbapenemase (KPC, NDM, OXA-48-like, or VIM) producers. The ratio of K pneumoniae to E coli was 11:1. 1·3 patients per 10 000 hospital admissions had positive clinical specimens. Prevalence differed greatly, with the highest rates in Mediterranean and Balkan countries. Carbapenemase-producing K pneumoniae isolates showed high resistance to last-line antibiotics.


This initiative shows an encouraging commitment by all participants, and suggests that challenges in the establishment of a continent-wide enhanced sentinel surveillance for carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaeceae can be overcome. Strengthening infection control efforts in hospitals is crucial for controlling spread through local and national health care networks.


European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Carbapenem; Enterobacteriaceae; K. Pneumoniae; E. Coli; European Region.


#MRSA #infections among #patients in the #emergency #department: a European multicentre study (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

MRSA infections among patients in the emergency department: a European multicentre study

C. Bouchiat1,*, S. Curtis2, I. Spiliopoulou3, M. Bes1, C. Cocuzza4, I. Codita5, C. Dupieux1, N. Giormezis3, A. Kearns2, F. Laurent1, S. Molinos6,7, R. Musumeci4, C. Prat6,7, M. Saadatian-Elahi8, E. Tacconelli9, A. Tristan1, B. Schulte10 and F. Vandenesch1 on behalf of the ESCMID Study Group on Staphylococci and Staphylococcal Infections (ESGS)

Author Affiliations: 1National Reference Center for Staphylococci, 59 Bd Louis Pinel, 69677 Bron cedex, Lyon, France; 2Staphylococcus Reference Service, Public Health England, 61 Colindale Avenue London NW9 5EQ, UK; 3National Reference Laboratory for Staphylococci, University of Patras, University Campus, Rion 26504, Patras, Greece; 4Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology and Virology, University of Milano-Bicocca, Via Cadore 48, Monza, Italy; 5Cantacuzino National Institute of Research, Splaiul Independentei 103, RO-050096 Bucharest, Romania; 6Servei de Microbiologia Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Spain; 7CIBER Enfermedades Respiratorias. Carretera del Canyet s/n. 08916 Badalona, Spain; 8Epidemiology unit, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Place d’Arsonval, 69008 Lyon, France; 9Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine 1, University Hospital Tuebingen, Geissweg 3, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany; 10Institut für Mikrobiologie und Infektionsmedizin, University Hospital Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 28, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany

*Corresponding author. CNR des Staphylocoques—Centre de Biologie Est, 59 Boulevard Louis Pinel, 69677 Bron cedex, France. Tel: +33-4-27-85-52-57; Fax: +33-4-72-35-73-35; E-mail: coralie.bouchiat@chu-lyon.fr

Received July 26, 2016. Revision requested August 26, 2016. Revision received September 9, 2016. Accepted September 13, 2016.




MRSA is a therapeutic concern worldwide, and a major agent of community-acquired skin and soft tissue infections (CA-SSTIs). While the US epidemiology of MRSA in CA-SSTIs is well described and reports the high prevalence of the USA300 clone, data on the European situation are lacking.


To determine the prevalence and clonal characteristics of MRSA in CA-SSTIs in seven European emergency departments.

Patients and methods

From April to June 2015, patients presenting to the tertiary hospital emergency department with a Staphylococcus aureus CA-SSTI were prospectively enrolled. S. aureus isolates were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, detection of Panton–Valentine leucocidin encoding genes and spa-typing, MLST and/or DNA microarray.


Two-hundred and five cases of S. aureus-associated CA-SSTIs were included, comprising folliculitis, furuncles, abscesses, paronychia, impetigo, carbuncles and cellulitis. Of the 205 cases, we report an MRSA prevalence rate of 15.1%, with a north (0%) to south (29%) increasing gradient. Fifty-one isolates were Panton–Valentine leucocidin-positive (24.9%), whether MSSA or MRSA, with a heterogeneous distribution between countries. Clonal distribution of MSSA and MRSA showed high diversity, with no predominant circulating clone and no archetypical USA300 CA-MRSA clone.


This original prospective multicentre study highlights stark differences in European MRSA epidemiology compared with the USA, and that the USA300 CA-MRSA clone is not predominant among community-infected patients in Europe.

© The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

Keywords: Staphylococcus Aureus; MRSA; Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; European Region.


Improving #influenza #virological #surveillance in #Europe: strain-based reporting of #antigenic and genetic characterisation data, 11 European countries, influenza season 2013/14 (@eurosurveillanc, abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Eurosurveillance, Volume 21, Issue 41, 13 October 2016  / Surveillance and outbreak report

Improving influenza virological surveillance in Europe: strain-based reporting of antigenic and genetic characterisation data, 11 European countries, influenza season 2013/14

E Broberg 1 , O Hungnes 2 , B Schweiger 3 , K Prosenc 4 , R Daniels 5 , R Guiomar 6 , N Ikonen 7 , A Kossyvakis 8 , F Pozo 9 , S Puzelli 10 , I Thomas 11 , A Waters 12 , Å Wiman 13 , A Meijer 14

Author affiliations: 1. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), Stockholm, Sweden; 2. Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway; 3. National Influenza Reference Centre, Robert Koch-Institute, Berlin, Germany; 4. Laboratory for Public Health Virology, National Laboratory for Health, Environment and Food Slovenia, Ljubljana, Slovenia; 5. Crick Worldwide Influenza Centre, The Francis Crick Institute, Mill Hill Laboratory, London, United Kingdom; 6. National Influenza Reference Laboratory, National Institute of Health Dr Ricardo Jorge, Lisbon, Portugal; 7. Viral Infections Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Helsinki, Finland; 8. National Influenza Reference Laboratory of Southern Greece, Hellenic Pasteur Institute, Athens, Greece; 9. Respiratory Viruses and Influenza Unit, National Center of Microbiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; 10. National Influenza Centre, Instituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy; 11. National Influenza Reference Centre, Scientific Institute of Public Health, Brussels, Belgium; 12. National Virus Reference Laboratory, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; 13. Public Health Agency of Sweden, Solna, Sweden; 14. National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands

Correspondence: Eeva Broberg (eeva.broberg@ecdc.europa.eu)

Citation style for this article: Broberg E, Hungnes O, Schweiger B, Prosenc K, Daniels R, Guiomar R, Ikonen N, Kossyvakis A, Pozo F, Puzelli S, Thomas I, Waters A, Wiman Å, Meijer A. Improving influenza virological surveillance in Europe: strain-based reporting of antigenic and genetic characterisation data, 11 European countries, influenza season 2013/14. Euro Surveill. 2016;21(41):pii=30370. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.41.30370

Received:25 February 2016; Accepted:25 April 2016



Influenza antigenic and genetic characterisation data are crucial for influenza vaccine composition decision making. Previously, aggregate data were reported to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control by European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries. A system for collecting case-specific influenza antigenic and genetic characterisation data was established for the 2013/14 influenza season. In a pilot study, 11 EU/EEA countries reported through the new mechanism. We demonstrated feasibility of reporting strain-based antigenic and genetic data and ca 10% of influenza virus-positive specimens were selected for further characterisation. Proportions of characterised virus (sub)types were similar to influenza virus circulation levels. The main genetic clades were represented by A/StPetersburg/27/2011(H1N1)pdm09 and A/Texas/50/2012(H3N2). A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses were more prevalent in age groups (by years) < 1 (65%; p = 0.0111), 20–39 (50%; p = 0.0046) and 40–64 (55%; p = 0.00001) while A(H3N2) viruses were most prevalent in those ≥ 65 years (34%; p = 0.0012). Hospitalised patients in the age groups 6–19 years (67%; p = 0.0494) and ≥ 65 years (52%; p = 0.0005) were more frequently infected by A/Texas/50/2012 A(H3N2)-like viruses compared with hospitalised cases in other age groups. Strain-based reporting enabled deeper understanding of influenza virus circulation among hospitalised patients and substantially improved the reporting of virus characterisation data. Therefore, strain-based reporting of readily available data is recommended to all reporting countries within the EU/EEA.

Keywords: European Region; Seasonal Influenza; H1N1pdm09; H3N2.


#Characterization of a Novel #Chimeric #Swine Enteric #Coronavirus from Diseased #Pigs in Central Eastern #Europe in 2016 (Transbound Emerg Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2016 Sep 12. doi: 10.1111/tbed.12579. [Epub ahead of print]

Characterization of a Novel Chimeric Swine Enteric Coronavirus from Diseased Pigs in Central Eastern Europe in 2016.

Belsham GJ1, Rasmussen TB1, Normann P1, Vaclavek P2, Strandbygaard B1, Bøtner A3.

Author information: 1DTU National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Lindholm, Kalvehave, Denmark. 2Department of Virology, State Veterinary Institute Jihlava, Jihlava, Czech Republic. 3DTU National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Lindholm, Kalvehave, Denmark. aneb@vet.dtu.dk.



During a severe outbreak of diarrhoea and vomiting in a pig herd in Central Eastern Europe, faecal samples were tested positive for porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) and negative for transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) using a commercial RT-qPCR assay that can detect both of these coronaviruses. However, further analyses, using other TGEV- and PEDV-specific RT-qPCR assays, provided results inconsistent with infection by either of these viruses. Sequencing of an amplicon (ca. 1.6 kb), generated by an RT-PCR specific for the PEDV S-gene, indicated a very close similarity (ca. 99% identity) to recently described chimeric viruses termed swine enteric coronaviruses (SeCoVs). These viruses (with an RNA genome of ca. 28 kb) were first identified in Italy in samples from 2009 but have not been detected there since 2012. A closely related virus was detected in archived samples in Germany from 2012, but has not been detected subsequently. Building on the initial sequence data, further amplicons were generated and over 9 kb of sequence corresponding to the 3′-terminus of the new SeCoV genome was determined. Sequence comparisons showed that the three known SeCoVs are ≥98% identical across this region and contain the S-gene and 3a sequences from PEDV within a backbone of TGEV, but the viruses are clearly distinct from each other. It is demonstrated, for the first time, that pigs from within the SeCoV-infected herd seroconverted against PEDV but tested negative in a TGEV-specific ELISA that detects antibodies against the S protein. These results indicate that SeCoV is continuing to circulate in Europe and suggest it can cause a disease that is very similar to PED. Specific detection of the chimeric SeCoVs either requires development of a new diagnostic RT-qPCR assay or the combined use of assays targeting the PEDV S-gene and another part of the TGEV genome.

© 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

KEYWORDS: porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus; recombination; transmissible gastroenteritis virus

PMID: 27619563 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.12579

[PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Swine Enteric Coronavirus; European Region; Pigs.