Association between #particulate matter #air #pollution and #lung #cancer (Thorax, abstract)

[Source: Thorax, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Association between particulate matter air pollution and lung cancer

Zhenyu Zhang 1, Dawei Zhu 2, Bin Cui 3, Ruoxi Ding 4, Xuefeng Shi 5, Ping He 2

Author affiliations: 1 Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; 2 China Center for Health Development Studies, Peking University, Beijing, China; 3 School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, China; 4 Institute of Population Research, Peking University, Beijing, China; 5 School of Management, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China

Correspondence to Professor Ping He, China Center for Health Development Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China; phe@pku.edu.cn; Professor Xuefeng Shi; shixuefeng981206@163.com

 

Abstract

Long-term exposure to particulate matter 2.5 μm (PM2.5) air pollution is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. However, the evidence is limited in low-income and middle-income countries. We estimated the association between the incidence of lung cancer and PM2.5 air pollution exposure in the Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI) beneficiaries in China. A total of 16 483 new lung cancer cases diagnosed from 12 966 137 UEBMI beneficiaries from 36 cities between 2013 and 2016. The relative risk for lung cancer associated with a 10 µg/m3 increase in 3-year PM2.5 exposure was 1.12 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.26). The population attributable risk estimated for a reduction in PM2.5 concentration to 35 µg/m3 corresponded to a decrease of 14% in cases of lung cancer. Reducing PM2.5 air pollution has a significant public health benefit.

___

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/thoraxjnl-2019-213722

 

Footnotes

XS and PH are joint senior authors.

ZZ and DZ contributed equally.

Funding 

This work was supported by the Peking University’s Start-up Fund (BMU2018YJ004)

Competing interests 

None declared.

Patient consent for publication 

Not required.

Ethics approval 

The study was deemed as exempt from ethical approval by the institutional review board of the Beijing University of Chinese medicine (No.2019BZHYLL0201).

Provenance and peer review 

Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.

Copyright information: © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

Keywords: Environmental pollution; Cancer; China.

——

Emergence of #KPC-2-producing #Raoultella ornithinolytica isolated from #hospital #wastewater treatment plant (Antimicrob Agents Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Emergence of KPC-2-producing Raoultella ornithinolytica isolated from hospital wastewater treatment plant

Xiaohui Chi, Jing Zhang, Hao Xu, Xiao Yu, Ping Shen, Jinru Ji, Chaoqun Ying, Beiwen Zheng, Yonghong Xiao

DOI: 10.1128/AAC.01983-19

 

ABSTRACT

Bacterial carbapenem resistance is a threat to the public health worldwide (1).…

Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Carbapenem; Environmental pollution; Raoultella ornithinolytica.

——

#Surge of #respiratory #illnesses in #children due to #fires in #Brazil’s #Amazon region (Lancet Resp Med., summary)

[Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Surge of respiratory illnesses in children due to fires in Brazil’s Amazon region

Lise Alves

Published: October 29, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(19)30410-2

___

As thousands of kilometres of forest burned in the Amazon during the months of June through August, the world cried out for the preservation of the largest rainforest in the world. Environmentalists denounced the widespread deforestation of the area, with fires being set in protected areas and even very near indigenous reserves.

(…)

This article is available free of charge.

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Environmental disasters; Environmental pollution; Brazil.

——

Application of national #pollutant #inventories for #monitoring trends on #dioxin #emissions from stationary #industrial sources in #Australia, #Canada and #EU (PLOS One, abstract)

[Source: PLOS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Application of national pollutant inventories for monitoring trends on dioxin emissions from stationary industrial sources in Australia, Canada and European Union

Khushbu Salian , Vladimir Strezov, Tim J. Evans, Mark Taylor, Peter F. Nelson

___

Published: October 25, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0224328

 

Abstract

Industrial sources, including iron ore sintering, municipal waste incineration and non-ferrous metal processing have been prominent emitters of dioxins to the environment. With the expanding industrial sectors, many international conventions were established in order to reduce the emission of dioxins in the past two decades. The Stockholm convention, a global monitoring treaty, entered into force in 2004 with the aim to promote development of strategies to reduce or eliminate dioxin emissions. According to the convention, parties are required to develop national inventory databases to report emission levels and develop a national implementation plan (NIP) to reduce further dioxin emissions. In order to understand the trend of dioxin emissions since 1990s this study provides a comparative assessment of dioxin emissions from different industrial sources by deriving emission data from the national inventory databases of Australia, Canada and the 28 European countries (EU-28). According to the data collected, iron and steel production and electricity generation were the highest emitters of dioxins in 2017 for Europe, Canada and Australia, when compared to other stationary industrial sources. The change in the trend of dioxin emissions from the iron and steel industry and the public electricity sector was also assessed. The emission of dioxins during 1990–2017 from both iron and steel production and electricity generation revealed a relative decreasing trend, except for Spain and Italy who showed higher level of emissions from iron and steel production in 2017. Furthermore, comparing emission data for metal production revealed that the blast furnace process was the prominent emitter of dioxins comparing to electric arc furnace process. Further investigation was performed to compare the amount of dioxin emitted from three different fuel types, black coal, brown coal and natural gas, used for electricity generation in Australia. The study showed that dioxin emissions from brown coal were higher than black coal for the last two years, while power production from natural gas emits the lowest amounts of dioxins to the environment.

___

Citation: Salian K, Strezov V, Evans TJ, Taylor M, Nelson PF (2019) Application of national pollutant inventories for monitoring trends on dioxin emissions from stationary industrial sources in Australia, Canada and European Union. PLoS ONE 14(10): e0224328. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0224328

Editor: Bing Xue, Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies, GERMANY

Received: May 21, 2019; Accepted: October 10, 2019; Published: October 25, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Salian et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Sources are referenced.

Funding: This research was funded by the Australian Government through the Australian Research Council Linkage Projects funding scheme, project number LP160101600 (https://www.arc.gov.au/) to VS, TE, MT and PF. ARC played no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Environmental pollution; Toxic chemicals; Dioxins; EU; Australia; Canada.

——

Occurrence of #antibiotics and their associations with antibiotic #resistance genes and #bacterial communities in #Guangdong #coastal areas (Ecotoxicol Environ Saf., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2019 Oct 16;186:109796. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.109796. [Epub ahead of print]

Occurrence of antibiotics and their associations with antibiotic resistance genes and bacterial communities in Guangdong coastal areas.

Xu K1, Wang J2, Gong H1, Li Y1, Zhou L1, Yan M3.

Author information: 1 College of Marine Sciences, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China; Joint Laboratory of Guangdong Province and Hong Kong Region on Marine Bioresource Conservation and Exploitation, College of Marine Sciences, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China. 2 College of Marine Sciences, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China; Joint Laboratory of Guangdong Province and Hong Kong Region on Marine Bioresource Conservation and Exploitation, College of Marine Sciences, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China. Electronic address: wangjun2016@scau.edu.cn. 3 College of Marine Sciences, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China; Joint Laboratory of Guangdong Province and Hong Kong Region on Marine Bioresource Conservation and Exploitation, College of Marine Sciences, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China. Electronic address: marineymt@scau.edu.cn.

 

Abstract

The concentration of 8 antibiotics and 21 antibiotic resistance genes were investigated in the coastal areas of Guangdong, China. Total concentrations of antibiotics ranged from 0.43 ng/L to 1040.31 ng/L. The concentrations of tetracyclines were much higher than that of sulfonamides in most sampling sites. The abundance of target antibiotic resistance genes ranged from 1.82 × 105 to 5.9 × 109 copies/mL and tetM accounted for the highest percentages of detected antibiotic resistance genes in most sampling sites. Furthermore, the dominant phyla in water samples were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. The relationship between antibiotics, antibiotic resistance genes, and bacterial communities was also investigated. As a result, the abundance of sul1 was positively correlated with the concentration of sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole and sulfonamide p-methyl oxypyrimidine. Besides, sulfonamide p-methyl oxypyrimidine, sulfadiazine and p-aminobenzenesulfonamide were significantly correlated with the bacterial communities. These findings suggested that the residues of antibiotics in coastal areas of Guangdong affect the distribution of antibiotic resistance genes and alter the microbial communities.

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID: 31629908 DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.109796

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Guangdong; China; Environmental pollution.

——

Low #serum #IgA and #airway #injury in #WTC-exposed #firefighters: a 17-year longitudinal study (Thorax, abstract)

[Source: Thorax, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Low serum IgA and airway injury in World Trade Center-exposed firefighters: a 17-year longitudinal study

Barbara Putman 1,2, Lies Lahousse 2, Rachel Zeig-Owens 3,4, Ankura Singh 3,5, Charles B Hall 4, Yang Liu 3,5, Theresa Schwartz 3,5, David Goldfarb 3,5, Mayris P Webber 3,4, David J Prezant 3,5, Michael D Weiden 1,3

Author affiliations: 1 Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA; 2 Department of Bioanalysis, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium; 3 The Bureau of Health Services, Fire Department of the City of New York, Brooklyn, New York, USA; 4 Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA; 5 Department of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Centre, Bronx, New York, USA

Correspondence to Dr Michael D Weiden, Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA; Michael.Weiden@nyumc.org

 

Abstract

Serum IgA ≤70 mg/dL (low IgA) is associated with exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The association of low IgA with longitudinal lung function is poorly defined. This study included 917 World Trade Center (WTC)-exposed firefighters with longitudinal spirometry measured between September 2001 and September 2018 and IgA measured between October 2001 and March 2002. Low IgA, compared with IgA >70 mg/dL, was associated with lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) % predicted in the year following 11 September 2001 (94.1% vs 98.6%, p<0.001), increased risk of FEV1/FVC <0.70 (HR 3.8, 95% CI 1.6 to 8.8) and increased antibiotic treatment (22.5/100 vs 11.6/100 person-years, p=0.002). Following WTC exposure, early IgA ≤70 mg/dL was associated with worse lung function and increased antibiotic treatment.

___

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/thoraxjnl-2019-213715

 

Footnotes

Contributors 

MDW had full access to all of the data in the study and agrees to be accountable for all aspects of the work so that questions related to the accuracy and integrity of the research are appropriately investigated and resolved. MDW conceived of the study, and designed it in conjunction with BP, LL, RZ-O, CBH and DJP. MDW, BP, AS, RZ-O, TS, YL and DG analysed and interpreted the data. MDW and BP drafted the first manuscript with critical revisions from LL, AS, RZ-O, CBH, DJP, MPW and TS. All authors approved the final manuscript.

Funding 

This research was funded by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, grant number U01 OH011302, U01OH011682 and contracts #200-2011-39383, #200-2011-39378, #200-2017-93426 and #200-2017-93326.

Competing interests 

BP, RZ-O, AS, CBH, YL, TS, DG, MPW, DJP and MDW report grants and/or contracts from the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, during the conduct of the study and outside the submitted work. LL reports grants from AstraZeneca and Chiesi (both awards), and expert consultation for Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH and Novartis outside the submitted work.

Patient consent for publication 

Not required.

Ethics approval 

The Montefiore Medical Center/Albert Einstein College of Medicine Institutional Review Board approved this study.

Provenance and peer review 

Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

Author note 

The sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study, the collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data, the preparation, review and approval of the manuscript, or the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s Rights. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.

Copyright information: 

© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

Keywords: Environmental pollution; COPD.

—–

Rapidly expanding #nuclear #arsenals in #Pakistan and #India portend #regional and #global #catastrophe (Sci Adv., abstract)

[Source: Science Advances, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Rapidly expanding nuclear arsenals in Pakistan and India portend regional and global catastrophe

Owen B. Toon1,*, Charles G. Bardeen2, Alan Robock3, Lili Xia3, Hans Kristensen4, Matthew McKinzie5, R. J. Peterson6, Cheryl S. Harrison7,8, Nicole S. Lovenduski9 and Richard P. Turco10

1 Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303, USA. 2 Atmospheric Chemistry Observations and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO 80307, USA. 3  Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA. 4 Federation of American Scientists, 1112 16th St., N.W. Suite 400, Washington, DC 20036, USA. 5 Natural Resources Defense Council, 40 West 20th St., 11th Floor, New York, NY 10011, USA.6 Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0390, USA. 7 School of Earth, Environmental, and Marine Sciences, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Port Isabel, TX 78597, USA. 8 Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0450, USA. 9 Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0450, USA. 10 Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

*Corresponding author. Email: toon@lasp.colorado.edu

Science Advances  02 Oct 2019: Vol. 5, no. 10, eaay5478 / DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aay5478

 

Abstract

Pakistan and India may have 400 to 500 nuclear weapons by 2025 with yields from tested 12- to 45-kt values to a few hundred kilotons. If India uses 100 strategic weapons to attack urban centers and Pakistan uses 150, fatalities could reach 50 to 125 million people, and nuclear-ignited fires could release 16 to 36 Tg of black carbon in smoke, depending on yield. The smoke will rise into the upper troposphere, be self-lofted into the stratosphere, and spread globally within weeks. Surface sunlight will decline by 20 to 35%, cooling the global surface by 2° to 5°C and reducing precipitation by 15 to 30%, with larger regional impacts. Recovery takes more than 10 years. Net primary productivity declines 15 to 30% on land and 5 to 15% in oceans threatening mass starvation and additional worldwide collateral fatalities.

Keywords: Environmental disasters; Environmental Pollution; Wars; Radiations; WMD.

——