#Series of #Norovirus #Outbreaks Caused by #Consumption of Green Coral #Lettuce, Denmark, April 2016 (PLoS Curr., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Currents Outbreaks, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Series of Norovirus Outbreaks Caused by Consumption of Green Coral Lettuce, Denmark, April 2016

OCTOBER 4, 2016 · RESEARCH ARTICLE

REVISIONS: This article is either a revised version or has previous revisions

AUTHORS: Luise Müller, Lasse Dam Rasmussen, Tenna Jensen, Anna Charlotte Schultz, Charlotte Kjelsø, Celine Barnadas, Kim Sigsgaard, Anne Ribert Larsen, Carl Widstrup Jensen,  Simon Jeppesen, Katrine Uhrbrand, Nikolas Hove, Kåre Mølbak, Steen Ethelberg

 

ABSTRACT

Introduction:

In early April 2016, an unusual high number of point-source outbreaks of gastrointestinal disease were reported to occur in Denmark.

Methods:

Outbreaks were individually investigated. Two analytical studies were performed. Patient stool samples collected and analysed; positive stool samples were sequenced over the polymerase and/or capsid gene areas. Implicated lettuce heads were collected and analysed for the presence of norovirus. Foods were traced-back and traced-forward and international alert systems applied.

Results:

A total of 23 linked point-source outbreaks occurred over the course of one week. Fresh green coral lettuce (Lollo Bionda lettuce) had been consumed in all settings. In a cohort study including 234 participants a dish containing green lettuce was associated with illness. Norovirus of Genogroup I (GI) was detected in samples from 28 patients comprising eight of the outbreaks. Sequencing showed GI.P2-GI.2. GI norovirus was detected in one of 20 examined lettuce heads. All lettuce consumed was supplied by the same packer who in turn had bought the lettuce from a wholesaler in France. The two lots of lettuce came from two different growers in different parts of France.

Discussion:

Green coral lettuce produced in France was found to have caused a large series of linked norovirus outbreaks in Denmark as established by a number of lines of evidence. A similar incidence occurred in 2010. Fresh lettuce increasingly appear to be a risk food for norovirus infections.

FUNDING STATEMENT

The authors received no specific funding for this work.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Norovirus; Denmark; Food Safety.

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#EPIDEMIOLOGY OF #PERTUSSIS IN #DENMARK, 1995 TO 2013 (@eurosurveillanc, abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Eurosurveillance, Volume 21, Issue 36, 08 September 2016 / Surveillance and outbreak report

EPIDEMIOLOGY OF PERTUSSIS IN DENMARK, 1995 TO 2013

T Dalby 1 , PH Andersen 2 , S Hoffmann 1

Author affiliations: 1. Statens Serum Institut, Microbiology and Infection Control, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2. Statens Serum Institut, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Copenhagen, Denmark

Citation style for this article: Dalby T, Andersen PH, Hoffmann S. Epidemiology of pertussis in Denmark, 1995 to 2013. Euro Surveill. 2016;21(36):pii=30334. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.36.30334

Received:06 October 2015; Accepted:22 May 2016

 

Abstract

We describe incidence and age distribution of laboratory-confirmed pertussis in Denmark from 1995 to 2013. Notification has been mandatory since 2007. Since 1997, an acellular monocomponent vaccine has been used. The latest epidemic occurred in 2002 with an incidence of 36 per 100,000; since 1995, only six infant deaths have been recorded. The inter-epidemic incidence lies below 10 per 100,000. In 1995, the mean age of confirmed cases was 9.2 years (95% confidence interval (CI): 7.9–10.5; median: 5.1), this gradually increased to 23.9 years in 2013 (95% CI: 22.0–25.8; median: 15.7). In 1995, 14% of laboratory-confirmed cases were 20 years and older, 43% in 2013. In the study period, the highest incidence among children was among those younger than one year with incidences between 84 and 331 per 100,000 in inter-epidemic periods (mean: 161/100,000) and 435 for the epidemic in 2002. After introduction of a preschool booster in 2003, the highest incidence among children one year and older changed gradually from three to five-year-olds in 2003 to 12 to 14-year-olds in 2013. In 2013, PCR was the primary method used for laboratory-diagnosis of pertussis in Denmark, while serology was the method with the highest percentage of positive results.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Pertussis; Denmark.

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#Genomic #analysis of 495 #vancomycin-resistant #Enterococcus faecium reveals broad #dissemination of a vanA #plasmid in more than 19 clones from #Copenhagen, #Denmark (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Genomic analysis of 495 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium reveals broad dissemination of a vanA plasmid in more than 19 clones from Copenhagen, Denmark

Mette Pinholt1,2,*, Heidi Gumpert1, Sion Bayliss3, Jesper B. Nielsen1, Veronika Vorobieva4, Michael Pedersen5, Edward Feil3, Peder Worning1 and Henrik Westh1,2

Author Affiliations: 1Department of Clinical Microbiology, Hvidovre University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark; 2Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath, UK; 4Department of Clinical Microbiology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; 5Department of Clinical Microbiology, Herlev University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark

*Corresponding author. Department of Clinical Microbiology, Hvidovre University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark. Tel: +45-38623210; Fax: +45-38623357; E-mail: mette.pinholt@regionh.dk

Received April 21, 2016. Revision requested June 22, 2016. Revision received July 23, 2016. Accepted August 2, 2016.

 

Abstract

Objectives

From 2012 to 2014, there has been a huge increase in vancomycin-resistant (vanA) Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) in Copenhagen, Denmark, with 602 patients infected or colonized with VREfm in 2014 compared with just 22 in 2012. The objective of this study was to describe the genetic epidemiology of VREfm to assess the contribution of clonal spread and horizontal transfer of the vanA transposon (Tn1546) and plasmid in the dissemination of VREfm in hospitals.

Methods

VREfm from Copenhagen, Denmark (2012–14) were whole-genome sequenced. The clonal structure was determined and the structure of Tn1546-like transposons was characterized. One VREfm isolate belonging to the largest clonal group was sequenced using long-read technology to close a 37 kb vanA plasmid.

Results

Phylogeny revealed a polyclonal structure where 495 VREfm isolates were divided into 13 main groups and 7 small groups. The majority of the isolates were located in three groups (n = 44, 100 and 218) and clonal spread of VREfm between wards and hospitals was identified. Five Tn1546-like transposon types were identified. A dominant truncated transposon (type 4, 92%) was spread across all but one VREfm group. The closed vanA plasmid was highly covered by reads from isolates containing the type 4 transposon.

Conclusions

This study suggests that it was the dissemination of the type 4 Tn1546-like transposon and plasmid via horizontal transfer to multiple populations of E. faecium, followed by clonal spread of new VREfm clones, that contributed to the increase in and diversity of VREfm in Danish hospitals.

© The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Vancomycin; Enterococcus Faecium; Denmark.

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#Influenza #vaccine #effectiveness in #adults 65 years and older, #Denmark, 2015/16 – a rapid epidemiological and virological assessment (@eurosurveillanc, abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Eurosurveillance, Volume 21, Issue 14, 07 April 2016 / Rapid communication

Influenza vaccine effectiveness in adults 65 years and older, Denmark, 2015/16 – a rapid epidemiological and virological assessment

H Emborg 1 , TG Krause 1 , L Nielsen 2 , MK Thomsen 3 , CB Christiansen 4 , MN Skov 5 , XC Nielsen 6 , LS Weinreich 7 , TK Fischer 8 , J Rønn 8 , R Trebbien 8

Author affiliations: 1. Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2. Department of Clinical Microbiology, Herlev Hospital, Herlev, Denmark; 3. Department of Clinical Microbiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 4. Department of Clinical Microbiology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; 5. Department of Clinical Microbiology, Odense University Hospital, Odense C, Denmark; 6. Department of Clinical Microbiology, Slagelse Hospital, Slagelse, Denmark; 7. Department of Clinical Microbiology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; 8. Department of Microbiological Diagnostics and Virology, National Influenza Center, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark

Correspondence: Hanne-Dorthe Emborg (hde@ssi.dk)

Citation style for this article: Emborg H, Krause TG, Nielsen L, Thomsen MK, Christiansen CB, Skov MN, Nielsen XC, Weinreich LS, Fischer TK, Rønn J, Trebbien R. Influenza vaccine effectiveness in adults 65 years and older, Denmark, 2015/16 – a rapid epidemiological and virological assessment. Euro Surveill. 2016;21(14):pii=30189. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.14.30189

Received:16 March 2016; Accepted:07 April 2016

 

Abstract

In Denmark, both influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and influenza B co-circulated in the 2015/16 season. We estimated the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of the trivalent influenza vaccine in patients 65 years and older using the test-negative case–control design. The adjusted VE against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was 35.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 11.1–52.4) and against influenza B 4.1% (95% CI: −22.0 to 24.7). The majority of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 circulating in 2015/16 belonged to the new genetic subgroup subclade 6B.1.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Seasonal Influenza; Vaccines; H1N1pdm09; Denmark.

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#Denmark, a pan- #resistant #bacteria discovered with the help of novel #technology #platform (DTU, Dec. 7 ‘15)

[Source: Technical University of Denmark (DTU), full page: (LINK).]

New technology traces resistance gene quickly [      ]

Thursday 03 Dec 15 | by Heidi Kornholt

A new resistance gene has been found in coli bacteria among pigs, broiler meat and humans in China. Bacteria with the same resistance gene have now also been found in Denmark, according to a new Danish study. The National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, and Statens Serum Institut have been able to quickly create an overview of the situation in Denmark because many bacteria have had their DNA-profile mapped with the help of whole genome sequencing.

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Keywords: Research; Denmark; Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Colistin.

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