Successful #treatment of #Pseudomonas aeruginosa infective #endocarditis via #haemodialysis outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy: case report (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Successful treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosainfective endocarditis via haemodialysis outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy: case report

Hector Maxwell-Scott, Rajeni Thangarajah, Amber Arnold, Paul Wade, John L Klein

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dkz096, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz096

Published: 04 March 2019

___

Sir,

Pseudomonas aeruginosa infective endocarditis (IE) is rare and difficult to treat, often requiring long hospital admissions for intravenous antibiotics. Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) is one option for the management of infection allowing for shorter inpatient stays. Certain antibiotics can be dosed for administration on haemodialysis, allowing for haemodialysis OPAT (HD-OPAT), but less is known about their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in this setting. Here we present a case of P. aeruginosa IE successfully treated with HD-OPAT using ceftazidime and oral ciprofloxacin.

(…)

Keywords: Antibiotics; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Endocarditis; Ceftazidime; Azithromycin.

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The first #isolation of #Clostridium difficile RT078/ST11 from #pigs in #China (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: PLoS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

The first isolation of Clostridium difficile RT078/ST11 from pigs in China

Li-Juan Zhang, Ling Yang, Xi-Xi Gu, Pin-Xian Chen, Jia-Li Fu, Hong-Xia Jiang

Published: February 26, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0212965

 

Abstract

We investigated the molecular characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium difficile isolated from animals in China. We obtained 538 rectal swabs from pigs, chickens and ducks in 5 provinces during 2015 and 2016. C. difficile isolates were characterized by detection of toxin genes, multilocus sequence typing and ribotyping. And antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the agar dilution method. Out of 538 samples, 44 (8.2%) were C. difficile positive with high prevalence in pigs (n = 31). Among these, 39 (88.6%) were toxigenic including 14 (31.8%) that were A+B+CDT+ and 13 (29.5%) A+B+. The remaining 12 (27.3%) were A-B+. We identified 7 ST types and 6 PCR ribotypes. The most predominant type was ST11/RT078 with toxin profile A+B+CDT+ and all were isolated from piglets with diarrhea. ST109 isolates possessed two different toxigenic profiles (A-B-CDT- and A-B+CDT-) and although it was not the most prevalent sequence type, but it was widely distributed between chickens, ducks and pigs in the 5 provinces. All C. difficile isolates were fully susceptible to vancomycin, metronidazole, fidaxomicin, amoxicillin/clavulanate and meropenem but retained resistance to 4 or 5 of the remaining antibiotics, especially cefotaxime, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, cefoxitin. The RT078/ST11 isolates were simultaneously resistant to cefotaxime, tetracycline, cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin and imipenem. This is the first report of the molecular epidemiology of C. difficile isolated from food animals in China. We identified the epidemic strain RT078/ST11 as the predominate isolate among the animals we screened in our study.

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Citation: Zhang L-J, Yang L, Gu X-X, Chen P-X, Fu J-L, Jiang H-X (2019) The first isolation of Clostridium difficile RT078/ST11 from pigs in China. PLoS ONE 14(2): e0212965. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0212965

Editor: Pradeep Dudeja, University of Illinois at Chicago, UNITED STATES

Received: November 2, 2018; Accepted: February 12, 2019; Published: February 26, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Zhang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper.

Funding: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31272602) (H-XJ) and Graduate Student Oversea Study Program of South China Agriculture University (2017LHPY029) (LY). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Clostridium difficile; Pigs; China.

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High #incidence of #MDR and #XDR #Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates obtained from #patients with #ventilator-associated #pneumonia in #Greece, #Italy and #Spain as part of the MagicBullet clinical trial (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

High incidence of MDR and XDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates obtained from patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia in Greece, Italy and Spain as part of the MagicBullet clinical trial

Astrid Pérez, Eva Gato, José Pérez-Llarena, Felipe Fernández-Cuenca, María José Gude, Marina Oviaño, María Eugenia Pachón, José Garnacho, Verónica González, Álvaro Pascual, José Miguel Cisneros, Germán Bou

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dkz030, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz030

Published: 08 February 2019

 

Abstract

Objectives

To characterize the antimicrobial susceptibility, molecular epidemiology and carbapenem resistance mechanisms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates recovered from respiratory tract samples from patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia enrolled in the MagicBullet clinical trial.

Methods

Isolates were collected from 53 patients from 12 hospitals in Spain, Italy and Greece. Susceptibility was determined using broth microdilution and Etest. MALDI-TOF MS was used to detect carbapenemase activity and carbapenemases were identified by PCR and sequencing. Molecular epidemiology was investigated using PFGE and MLST.

Results

Of the 53 isolates, 2 (3.8%) were considered pandrug resistant (PDR), 19 (35.8%) were XDR and 16 (30.2%) were MDR. Most (88.9%) of the isolates from Greece were MDR, XDR or PDR, whereas fewer of the isolates from Spain (33.3%) and Italy (43.5%) showed antibiotic resistance. Three Greek isolates were resistant to colistin. Overall, the rates of resistance of P. aeruginosa isolates to imipenem, ciprofloxacin, ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam were 64.1%, 54.7%, 22.6% and 24.5%, respectively. All isolates resistant to ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam (Greece, n = 10; and Italy, n = 2) carried blaVIM-2. Spanish isolates were susceptible to the new drug combinations. Forty-eight restriction patterns and 27 STs were documented. Sixty percent of isolates belonged to six STs, including the high-risk clones ST-111, ST-175 and ST-235.

Conclusions

MDR/XDR isolates were highly prevalent, particularly in Greece. The most effective antibiotic against P. aeruginosa was colistin, followed by ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam. blaVIM-2 is associated with resistance to ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam, and related to highly resistant phenotypes. ST-111 was the most frequent and disseminated clone and the clonal diversity was lower in XDR and PDR strains.

Topic: antibiotics – phenotype – polymerase chain reaction – pseudomonas aeruginosa – antibiotic resistance, bacterial – colistin – ciprofloxacin – ceftazidime – clone cells – drug combinations – electrophoresis, gel, pulsed-field – epidemiology, molecular – greece – ichthyosis, x-linked – imipenem – italy – respiratory system – sequence tagged sites – spain – spectrometry, mass, matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization – sodium thiosulfate – antimicrobial susceptibility – tazobactam – ventilator-associated pneumonia – ceftolozane – avibactam – carbapenem resistance

Issue Section:

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Pneumonia; Italy; Spain; Greece; Colistin; Ciprofloxacin; Ceftazidime; Iminpenem; Tazobactam; Ceftolozane; Avibactam.

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#Antibiotic #Resistance of #Campylobacter spp. in a #Pediatric Cohort Study (Antimicrob Agents Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Antibiotic Resistance of Campylobacter spp. in a Pediatric Cohort Study

Francesca Schiaffino, Josh M. Colston, Maribel Paredes Olortegui, Ruthly François, Nora Pisanic, Rosa Burga, Pablo Peñataro Yori, Margaret N. Kosek

DOI: 10.1128/AAC.01911-18

 

ABSTRACT

Objectives

To determine phenotypic patterns of antibiotic resistance and epidemiology of drug-resistant Campylobacter spp. from a low-resource setting.

Methods

A birth cohort of 303 was followed until 5 years of age. Stool from asymptomatic (n= 10,008) and diarrhea samples (n=3175) were cultured for Campylobacter. Disk diffusion to CIP, NAL, ERY, AZM, TET, GM, AMP, AMC, CRO, C and TMS were determined. Antibiotic resistance between C. jejuni and non-C. jejuni isolates, and surveillance and diarrhea samples were compared and the association between personal macrolide exposure and subsequent occurrence of a macrolide resistant Campylobacter spp. was assessed.

Results

Of 917 Campylobacter isolates, 77.4% of C. jejuni isolates and 79.8% non-C. jejuni isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin while 4.9% of C. jejuni isolates and 24.8% of non-C. jejuniisolates were not susceptible to azithromycin. Of the 303 children, 33.1% were ever diagnosed with a Campylobacter strain non-susceptible to both azithromycin and ciprofloxacin. Personal macrolide exposure did not affect the risk of macrolide resistant Campylobacter. Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (94.0%) was one of the antibiotics with the highest rates of susceptibility.

Conclusion

There is a high incidence of quinolone and macrolide resistant Campylobacter infections in infants under 24 months of age. Given the lack of association between personal exposure to macrolides and a subsequent Campylobacter infection resistant to macrolides, there is a need to evaluate the source of MDR Campylobacter. This study provides compelling evidence to propose amoxicillin/clavulanic acid as a treatment for Campylobacteriosis.

Copyright © 2018 Schiaffino et al.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Campylobacter spp.; Amoxicillin; Macrolides; Quinolones; Ciprofloxacin; Azithromycin.

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#Antibiotic susceptibility of #Legionella pneumophila strains isolated in #England and #Wales 2007–17 (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Antibiotic susceptibility of Legionella pneumophilastrains isolated in England and Wales 2007–17

R E Wilson, R L R Hill, V J Chalker, M Mentasti, D Ready

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dky253, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dky253

Published: 24 July 2018

 

Abstract

Objectives

Antibiotic susceptibility of Legionella pneumophila is poorly understood, with treatment of Legionnaires’ disease often based on empirical choice. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility of L. pneumophilastrains.

Methods

Antibiotic susceptibility of 92 L. pneumophila strains isolated in England and Wales between 2007 and 2017 was determined using a microbroth dilution methodology for each agent tested. MICs and MBCs were determined and compared with published intracellular concentrations of each agent tested.

Results

The MIC range of erythromycin was 0.06–1 mg/L, the MIC range of rifampicin was 0.0001 mg/L, the MIC range of ciprofloxacin was 0.004–0.25 mg/L and the MIC range of levofloxacin and moxifloxacin was 0.03–0.25 mg/L. The MBC range of erythromycin was 1–32 mg/L, but the MBC range of ciprofloxacin was the same as the MIC range. For levofloxacin and moxifloxacin the MBC range was elevated by one dilution and two dilutions, respectively. Typically, intracellular bronchial secretion concentrations of erythromycin might be expected to reach a suitable level to exceed the MIC range; however, 91 of 92 (98.9%) isolates had an MBC below the expected intracellular concentrations, which indicated erythromycin may have variable efficacy. MIC and MBC values of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin were below achievable intracellular levels within bronchial secretions. Comparison of the MIC/MBC correlation showed very little clustering for erythromycin, but strong clustering for levofloxacin and to a lesser extent ciprofloxacin.

Conclusions

Use of the MIC/MBC linkage analysis seems an appropriate way forward for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and supports current guidance recommending levofloxacin for the treatment of Legionnaires’ disease.

Topic: antibiotics – rifampin – erythromycin – genetic linkage analysis – ciprofloxacin – bodily secretions – legionella pneumophila – legionnaires’ disease – country of wales – levofloxacin – moxifloxacin – antimicrobial susceptibility – antimicrobial susceptibility test – dilution technique – dilute (action) – malnutrition-inflammation-cachexia syndrome

Issue Section: ORIGINAL RESEARCH

© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/about_us/legal/notices)

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Legionalla pneumophila; England; Wales; rifampin; erythromycin; ciprofloxacin; levofloxacin; moxifloxacin.

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#Neisseria meningitidis #antimicrobial #resistance in #Italy, 2006-2016 (Antimicrob Agents Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Neisseria meningitidis antimicrobial resistance in Italy, 2006-2016

Paola Vacca1, Cecilia Fazio1, Arianna Neri1, Luigina Ambrosio1, Annapina Palmieri1 and Paola Stefanelli1#

Author Affiliations: 1 Department Infectious Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy

 

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of 866 Neisseria meningitidis invasive strains during 11-years of surveillance in Italy. Two and six strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin and rifampin, respectively. Forty-five percent were penicillin intermediate (PenI) associated with hypervirulent serogroup C clonal complex 11. All the strains were susceptible to cephalosporins.

 

FOOTNOTES

#Corresponding author: Dr. Paola Stefanelli, Phone: +39 06 49902126, Fax: +39 06 49387112, Email: paola.stefanelli@iss.it

Copyright © 2018 Vacca et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Neisseria meningitidis; Ciprofloxacin; Rifampin.

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Molecular characterization of qnrVC and their novel alleles in #Vibrio spp. isolated from #food products in #China (Antimicrob Agents Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Molecular characterization of qnrVC and their novel alleles in Vibrio spp. isolated from food products in China

Yanyan Zhang1,2,  Zhiwei Zheng1,2,  Edward Wai-Chi Chan3,  Ning Dong2,3, Xiaodong Xia1* and  Sheng Chen2,3*

Author Affiliations: 1 College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China; 2 Shenzhen Key Lab for Food Biological Safety Control, Food Safety and Technology Research Center, Hong Kong PolyU Shen Zhen Research Institute, Shenzhen, P. R. China; 3 The State Key Lab of Chirosciences, Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR

 

ABSTRACT

This study reported the prevalence of qnrVC genes in 74 ciprofloxacin-resistant Vibrio spp. isolates. Two novel functional qnrVC alleles, qnrVC8 and qnrVC9, sharing 98% and 99% nucleotide similarity with qnrVC6 and qnrVC7 respectively, were identified. Our findings suggested that carriage of qnrVC alleles, together with target mutations in gyrA and parC genes, may contribute to development of fluoroquinolone resistance in Vibrio species, posing serious threat to public health.

 

FOOTNOTES

*Corresponding authors: Xiaodong Xia, email: foodscixiaodong@yahoo.com; or Sheng Chen, email: sheng.chen@polyu.edu.hk

Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; China; Food Safety; Vibrio spp.; Fluoroquinolones; Ciprofloxacin.

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