#Antibiotic #Resistance of #Campylobacter spp. in a #Pediatric Cohort Study (Antimicrob Agents Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Antibiotic Resistance of Campylobacter spp. in a Pediatric Cohort Study

Francesca Schiaffino, Josh M. Colston, Maribel Paredes Olortegui, Ruthly François, Nora Pisanic, Rosa Burga, Pablo Peñataro Yori, Margaret N. Kosek

DOI: 10.1128/AAC.01911-18

 

ABSTRACT

Objectives

To determine phenotypic patterns of antibiotic resistance and epidemiology of drug-resistant Campylobacter spp. from a low-resource setting.

Methods

A birth cohort of 303 was followed until 5 years of age. Stool from asymptomatic (n= 10,008) and diarrhea samples (n=3175) were cultured for Campylobacter. Disk diffusion to CIP, NAL, ERY, AZM, TET, GM, AMP, AMC, CRO, C and TMS were determined. Antibiotic resistance between C. jejuni and non-C. jejuni isolates, and surveillance and diarrhea samples were compared and the association between personal macrolide exposure and subsequent occurrence of a macrolide resistant Campylobacter spp. was assessed.

Results

Of 917 Campylobacter isolates, 77.4% of C. jejuni isolates and 79.8% non-C. jejuni isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin while 4.9% of C. jejuni isolates and 24.8% of non-C. jejuniisolates were not susceptible to azithromycin. Of the 303 children, 33.1% were ever diagnosed with a Campylobacter strain non-susceptible to both azithromycin and ciprofloxacin. Personal macrolide exposure did not affect the risk of macrolide resistant Campylobacter. Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (94.0%) was one of the antibiotics with the highest rates of susceptibility.

Conclusion

There is a high incidence of quinolone and macrolide resistant Campylobacter infections in infants under 24 months of age. Given the lack of association between personal exposure to macrolides and a subsequent Campylobacter infection resistant to macrolides, there is a need to evaluate the source of MDR Campylobacter. This study provides compelling evidence to propose amoxicillin/clavulanic acid as a treatment for Campylobacteriosis.

Copyright © 2018 Schiaffino et al.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Campylobacter spp.; Amoxicillin; Macrolides; Quinolones; Ciprofloxacin; Azithromycin.

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#Antibiotic susceptibility of #Legionella pneumophila strains isolated in #England and #Wales 2007–17 (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Antibiotic susceptibility of Legionella pneumophilastrains isolated in England and Wales 2007–17

R E Wilson, R L R Hill, V J Chalker, M Mentasti, D Ready

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dky253, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dky253

Published: 24 July 2018

 

Abstract

Objectives

Antibiotic susceptibility of Legionella pneumophila is poorly understood, with treatment of Legionnaires’ disease often based on empirical choice. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility of L. pneumophilastrains.

Methods

Antibiotic susceptibility of 92 L. pneumophila strains isolated in England and Wales between 2007 and 2017 was determined using a microbroth dilution methodology for each agent tested. MICs and MBCs were determined and compared with published intracellular concentrations of each agent tested.

Results

The MIC range of erythromycin was 0.06–1 mg/L, the MIC range of rifampicin was 0.0001 mg/L, the MIC range of ciprofloxacin was 0.004–0.25 mg/L and the MIC range of levofloxacin and moxifloxacin was 0.03–0.25 mg/L. The MBC range of erythromycin was 1–32 mg/L, but the MBC range of ciprofloxacin was the same as the MIC range. For levofloxacin and moxifloxacin the MBC range was elevated by one dilution and two dilutions, respectively. Typically, intracellular bronchial secretion concentrations of erythromycin might be expected to reach a suitable level to exceed the MIC range; however, 91 of 92 (98.9%) isolates had an MBC below the expected intracellular concentrations, which indicated erythromycin may have variable efficacy. MIC and MBC values of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin were below achievable intracellular levels within bronchial secretions. Comparison of the MIC/MBC correlation showed very little clustering for erythromycin, but strong clustering for levofloxacin and to a lesser extent ciprofloxacin.

Conclusions

Use of the MIC/MBC linkage analysis seems an appropriate way forward for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and supports current guidance recommending levofloxacin for the treatment of Legionnaires’ disease.

Topic: antibiotics – rifampin – erythromycin – genetic linkage analysis – ciprofloxacin – bodily secretions – legionella pneumophila – legionnaires’ disease – country of wales – levofloxacin – moxifloxacin – antimicrobial susceptibility – antimicrobial susceptibility test – dilution technique – dilute (action) – malnutrition-inflammation-cachexia syndrome

Issue Section: ORIGINAL RESEARCH

© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/about_us/legal/notices)

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Legionalla pneumophila; England; Wales; rifampin; erythromycin; ciprofloxacin; levofloxacin; moxifloxacin.

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#Neisseria meningitidis #antimicrobial #resistance in #Italy, 2006-2016 (Antimicrob Agents Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Neisseria meningitidis antimicrobial resistance in Italy, 2006-2016

Paola Vacca1, Cecilia Fazio1, Arianna Neri1, Luigina Ambrosio1, Annapina Palmieri1 and Paola Stefanelli1#

Author Affiliations: 1 Department Infectious Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy

 

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of 866 Neisseria meningitidis invasive strains during 11-years of surveillance in Italy. Two and six strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin and rifampin, respectively. Forty-five percent were penicillin intermediate (PenI) associated with hypervirulent serogroup C clonal complex 11. All the strains were susceptible to cephalosporins.

 

FOOTNOTES

#Corresponding author: Dr. Paola Stefanelli, Phone: +39 06 49902126, Fax: +39 06 49387112, Email: paola.stefanelli@iss.it

Copyright © 2018 Vacca et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Neisseria meningitidis; Ciprofloxacin; Rifampin.

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Molecular characterization of qnrVC and their novel alleles in #Vibrio spp. isolated from #food products in #China (Antimicrob Agents Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Molecular characterization of qnrVC and their novel alleles in Vibrio spp. isolated from food products in China

Yanyan Zhang1,2,  Zhiwei Zheng1,2,  Edward Wai-Chi Chan3,  Ning Dong2,3, Xiaodong Xia1* and  Sheng Chen2,3*

Author Affiliations: 1 College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China; 2 Shenzhen Key Lab for Food Biological Safety Control, Food Safety and Technology Research Center, Hong Kong PolyU Shen Zhen Research Institute, Shenzhen, P. R. China; 3 The State Key Lab of Chirosciences, Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR

 

ABSTRACT

This study reported the prevalence of qnrVC genes in 74 ciprofloxacin-resistant Vibrio spp. isolates. Two novel functional qnrVC alleles, qnrVC8 and qnrVC9, sharing 98% and 99% nucleotide similarity with qnrVC6 and qnrVC7 respectively, were identified. Our findings suggested that carriage of qnrVC alleles, together with target mutations in gyrA and parC genes, may contribute to development of fluoroquinolone resistance in Vibrio species, posing serious threat to public health.

 

FOOTNOTES

*Corresponding authors: Xiaodong Xia, email: foodscixiaodong@yahoo.com; or Sheng Chen, email: sheng.chen@polyu.edu.hk

Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; China; Food Safety; Vibrio spp.; Fluoroquinolones; Ciprofloxacin.

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Efficacy of #Ceftriaxone, Cefepime, #Doxycycline, #Ciprofloxacin, and Combination #Therapy for #Vibrio vulnificus #Foodborne #Septicemia (AAC, abstract)

[Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Efficacy of Ceftriaxone, Cefepime, Doxycycline, Ciprofloxacin, and Combination Therapy for Vibrio vulnificus Foodborne Septicemia

Sonya A. Trinh a, Hannah E. Gavin b and Karla J. F. Satchell b*

Author Affiliations: a Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, 645 North Michigan Avenue, Suite 900, Chicago, Illinois, 60611, USA; b Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Microbiology-Immunology, 303 East Chicago Avenue, Ward 6-225, Chicago, Illinois, 60611, USA

 

ABSTRACT

Vibrio vulnificus foodborne infections have higher rates of sepsis and mortality compared to wound infections; however, antibiotic efficacy studies have not been performed in foodborne infection models. The efficacy of ceftriaxone, cefepime, doxycycline, ciprofloxacin, and combination therapy was assessed in a V. vulnificus intestinal infection in mice to model foodborne infections. Consistent with prior studies of cefotaxime, cefepime was synergistic with doxycycline and ciprofloxacin in vitro; combination therapy significantly decreased bacterial growth by ≥2log10 compared to antibiotic monotherapy (p<0.01). In vivo, survival in the ceftriaxone (50%), doxycycline (79%), and ciprofloxacin (80%) groups were significantly higher than the control group (0%) (p<0.0001). Survival with ceftriaxone-doxycycline (91%) and ceftriaxone-ciprofloxacin (100%) therapy was significantly higher than with ceftriaxone (50%) (p≤0.05). Survival with cefepime-doxycycline (96%) and cefepime-ciprofloxacin (90%) therapy was significantly higher than with cefepime (20%) (p<0.001). There was no difference in survival between the combination therapy groups. Thus, we conclude that combination therapy was the most effective treatment for V. vulnificus foodborne septicemia. In a septic patient with a recent ingestion of raw seafood, cefepime in combination with doxycycline or ciprofloxacin should be initiated for coverage of resistant Gram-negative organisms and V. vulnificus while awaiting a microbiological diagnosis. Once a diagnosis of V. vulnificus foodborne septicemia is established, treatment can be safely transitioned to ceftriaxone in combination with doxycycline or ciprofloxacin.

 

FOOTNOTES

*Corresponding Author: Karla J. F. Satchell, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Microbiology-Immunology, 303 East Chicago Avenue, Ward 6-205, Chicago, Illinois, 60611, USA, k-satchell@northwestern.edu

Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Vibrio Vulnificus; Ceftriaxone; Ciprofloxacin; Cefepime; Doxycycline.

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Successful #Treatment of #Human #Plague with Oral #Ciprofloxacin (@CDC_EIDjournal, abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention  (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 23, Number 3—March 2017 / Research Letter

Successful Treatment of Human Plague with Oral Ciprofloxacin

Titus Apangu, Kevin Griffith1, Janet Abaru, Gordian Candini, Harriet Apio, Felix Okoth, Robert Okello, John Kaggwa, Sarah Acayo, Geoffrey Ezama, Brook Yockey, Christopher Sexton, Martin Schriefer, Edward Katongole Mbidde, and Paul Mead

Author affiliations: Uganda Virus Research Institute, Entebbe, Uganda (T. Apangu, J. Abaru, G. Candini, H. Apio, F. Okoth, R. Okello, J. Kaggwa, S. Acayo, G. Ezama, E.K. Mbidde); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA (K. Griffith, B. Yockey, C. Sexton, M. Schriefer, P. Mead)

 

Abstract

The US Food and Drug Administration recently approved ciprofloxacin for treatment of plague (Yersina pestis infection) based on animal studies. Published evidence of efficacy in humans is sparse. We report 5 cases of culture-confirmed human plague treated successfully with oral ciprofloxacin, including 1 case of pneumonic plague.

Keywords: Yersinia Pestis; Plague; Ciprofloxacin.

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