[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]
Polyclonal gut colonization with extended-spectrum cephalosporin- and/or colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: a normal status for hotel employees on the island of Zanzibar, Tanzania
Thomas Büdel, Esther Kuenzli, Mathieu Clément, Odette J Bernasconi, Jan Fehr,Ali Haji Mohammed, Nadir Khatib Hassan, Jakob Zinsstag, Christoph Hatz,Andrea Endimiani
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dkz296, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz296
Published: 30 July 2019
For low-income countries, data regarding the intestinal colonization with extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant (ESC-R) and colistin-resistant (CST-R) Enterobacteriaceae in the community are still scarce. Here, we investigated this phenomenon by analysing hotel employees in Zanzibar.
During June to July 2018, rectal swabs from 59 volunteers were screened implementing selective enrichments and agar plates. Species identification was achieved using MALDI-TOF MS. Strains were characterized using microdilution panels (MICs), microarray, PCRs for mcr-1/-8, repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (rep-PCR) and WGS.
Colonization prevalence with ESC-R-, CST-R- and mcr-1-positive Enterobacteriaceae were 91.5%, 66.1% and 18.6%, respectively (average: 2.2 strains per volunteer). Overall, 55 ESC-R Escherichia coli (3 also CST-R), 33 ESC-R Klebsiella pneumoniae (1 also CST-R), 17 CST-R E. coli and 21 CST-R K. pneumoniae were collected. The following main resistance genes were found: ESC-R E. coli (blaCTX-M-15-like, 51.0%), ESC-R K. pneumoniae (blaCTX-M-9-like, 42.9%), CST-R E. coli (mcr-1, 55%) and CST-R K. pneumoniae (D150G substitution in PhoQ). ESBL-producing E. coli mainly belonged to ST361, ST636 and ST131, whereas all those that were mcr-1 positive belonged to ST46 that carried mcr-1 in a 33 kb IncX4 plasmid. ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae mainly belonged to ST17, ST1741 and ST101, whereas CST-R strains belonged to ST11.
We recorded remarkably high colonization prevalence with ESC-R and/or CST-R Enterobacteriaceae in hotel staff. Further research in the local environment, livestock and food chain is warranted to understand this phenomenon. Moreover, as Zanzibar is a frequent holiday destination, attention should be paid to the risk of international travellers becoming colonized and thereby importing life-threatening pathogens into their low-prevalence countries.
Keywords: Enterobacteriaceae; Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Cephalosporins; Colistin; MCR1; Tanzania.