#Pandemic #H1N1 #influenza virus #infection in a #Canadian #cat (Can Vet J., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Can Vet J. 2016 May;57(5):497-500.

Pandemic H1N1 influenza virus infection in a Canadian cat.

Knight CG1, Davies JL1, Joseph T1, Ondrich S1, Rosa BV1.

Author information: 1Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4Z6 (Knight, Davies, Rosa); Animal Health Centre, Ministry of Agriculture, Abbotsford, British Columbia (Joseph); Varsity Veterinary Clinic, Calgary, Alberta (Ondrich).



[in English, French]

Infection par le virus de l’influenza H1N1 pandémique chez un chat canadien. Un chat a été présenté pour une nécropsie après avoir été trouvé mort à son domicile. Les résultats histologiques ont suggéré une pneumonie virale. Une amplification en chaîne par polymérase et un typage viral ont révélé l’influenza A(H1N1) pdm09. Il s’agit du premier rapport de l’influenza chez un chat canadien et il souligne l’importance de considérer le virus de l’influenza dans le diagnostic différentiel lors de détresse respiratoire féline.(Traduit par Isabelle Vallières).

A cat was presented for necropsy after being found dead at home. Histologic findings suggested viral pneumonia. Polymerase chain reaction and viral typing revealed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. This is the first report of influenza in a Canadian cat and highlights the importance of considering influenza virus in the differential diagnosis for feline respiratory distress.

PMID: 27152036 [PubMed – in process]

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Seasonal Influenza; H1N1pdm09; Cats.


#Tissue #distribution of #human and #avian type #sialicacid #influenza #virus #receptors in domestic #cat (Acta Vet Hung., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Acta Vet Hung. 2013 Dec;61(4):537-46. doi: 10.1556/AVet.2013.030.

Tissue distribution of human and avian type sialic acid influenza virus receptors in domestic cat.

Wang H1, Wu X, Cheng Y, An Y, Ning Z.

Author information: 1South China Agricultural University College of Veterinary Medicine Guangzhou 510642 People’s Republic of China.



Infection of host cells with the influenza virus is mediated by specific interactions between the viral haemagglutinin (HA) and cell oligosaccharides containing sialic acid (SA) residues. Avian and human influenza viruses bind to alpha-2, 3 and alpha-2, 6 sialic acid-linked receptors, respectively. To date, there have been no detailed tissue distribution data on alpha-2, 3 and alpha-2, 6 sialic acid-linked receptors in the domestic cat, a relatively new mammalian host for influenza virus infections. In this study, the tissue distribution of human and avian type sialic acid influenza receptors was determined in various organs (respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, brain, cerebellum, spleen, kidney, heart and pancreas) of domestic cat by binding with the lectins Maackia amurensis agglutinin II (MAA II) and Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA), respectively. The results revealed that both alpha-2, 3 and alpha-2, 6 sialic acid-linked receptors were extensively detected in the trachea, bronchus, lung, kidney, spleen, pancreas and gastrointestinal tract. Endothelial cells of gastrointestinal tract organs were negative for alpha-2, 3 sialic acid-linked receptors in cats. The presence of alpha-2, 3 and alpha-2, 6 sialic acid-linked receptors in the major organs examined in the present study suggests that each major organ may be affected by influenza virus infection. Because of receptor distribution in the gastrointestinal tract, the experimental infection of cats with human influenza virus may be relatively easy while their infection with avian influenza virus may be difficult. These data can explain the involvement of multiple organs in influenza virus infection and should help investigators interpret the results obtained when cats are infected with influenza virus and estimate the risk of infection between cats and humans.

KEYWORDS: Tissue distribution; domestic cat; influenza virus receptors

PMID: 23974928 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Seasonal Influenza; Avian Influenza; Cats.


Possible #Transmission of #mcr1–Harboring #Escherichia coli between Companion #Animals and #Human (@CDC_EIDjournal, edited)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Edited.]

Volume 22, Number 9—September 2016 / Letter

Possible Transmission of mcr-1–Harboring Escherichia coli between Companion Animals and Human


To the Editor:

Plasmid-mediated, colistin-resistance mechanism gene mcr-1 was first identified in Escherichia coli isolates from food, food animals, and human patients in November 2015 (1). Reports on detection of mcr-1 in Enterobacteriaceae from humans and food animals soon followed from ≈12 countries (2–5). Here we report detection of mcr-1 in colistin-resistant E. coli isolated from companion animals and the possible transmission of mcr-1–harboring E. coli between companion animals and a person.

Three mcr-1–harboring E. coli clinical isolates were identified from specimens of 3 patients admitted to a urology ward of a hospital in Guangzhou, China. E. coli isolate EC07 was identified in the urine of a 50-year-old male patient with glomerulonephritis in October 2015. Isolate EC08 was cultured from the urine of a 48-year-old male patient with prostatitis in December 2015. Isolate EC09 was identified in the blood of an 80-year-old male patient with bladder cancer 3 weeks after EC08 was identified.

Review of medical records identified the patient carrying E. coli isolate EC07 as a worker at a pet shop. In light of this finding, we collected a total of 53 fecal samples from 39 dogs and 14 cats in the pet shop where the man worked. We isolated and identified colonies consistent with E. coli from fecal samples on MacConkey agar plates (Thermo Fisher, Beijing, China) and API 20E system (bioMérieux, Durham, NC, USA). We prepared crude DNA samples of isolates for PCR testing by boiling cells in water. Among them, 6 were positive for mcr-1 by PCR and sequencing (4 from dogs and 2 from cats). All 6 isolates were resistant to colistin, polymyxin B, cephalosporin, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin by using the agar dilution method, in accordance with the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (http://www.eucast.org) for colistin and polymyxin B and Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines (http://www.clsi.org) for the other antimicrobial drugs. We identified various resistance genes accounting for the multidrug resistance in these 9 mcr-1–positive isolates (6,7) (Table). We noted that E. coli Isolate EC09 was also resistant to carbapenems and positive for blaIMP-4. We observed co-production of mcr-1 and IMP-type metallo-β-lactamase in E. coli.

We subjected all isolates to multilocus sequence typing, in accordance with the protocol described at http://mlst.warwick.ac.uk/mlst/dbs/Ecoli, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis as described previously (8–10). We identified 5 mcr-1–positive isolates from 4 dogs (PET02–04 and PET06) and isolate EC07 as sequence type (ST) 354. Isolates PET01 and PET05, identified from cats, belonged to ST93 and a new ST strain, respectively. Isolates EC08 and EC09, from the patients who shared the same hospital room with the pet shop worker, were ST156 (Table). Results of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were consistent with multilocus sequence typing results and showed that isolates consisted of 5 types (types I to V). Isolate EC07 was clonally related to 4 E. coli strains from dogs, according criteria described by Tenover et al. (10), suggesting possible transmission of mcr-1–harboring E. coli between dogs and the patient. Colistin resistance was successfully transferred to E. coli C600 through conjugation in all isolates, suggesting that mcr-1 was located on transferable plasmids.

These findings suggest that mcr-1–producing E. coli can colonize companion animals and be transferred between companion animals and humans. The findings also suggest that, in addition to food animals and humans, companion animals can serve as a reservoir of colistin-resistant E. coli, adding another layer of complexity to the rapidly evolving epidemiology of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance in the community.


Xue-Fei Zhang, Yohei Doi, Xi Huang, Hong-Yu Li, Lan-Lan Zhong, Kun-Jiao Zeng, Yan-Fen Zhang, Sandip Patil, and Guo-Bao TianComments to Author

Author affiliations: Sun Yat-Sen University Zhongshan School of Medicine, Guangzhou, China (X.-.F Zhang, X. Huang, L.-L. Zhong, K.-J. Zeng, Y.-F. Zhang, S. Patil, G.-B. Tian); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Tropical Diseases Control, Guangzhou (X.-F. Zhang, X. Huang, L.-L. Zhong, K.-J. Zeng, Y.-F. Zhang, S. Patil, G.-B. Tian); University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA (Y. Doi); Sun Yat-Sen University Memorial Hospital, Guangzhou (H.-Y. Li)


We sincerely thank the patients and the owners of companion animals for giving written consent for publication.

This work was supported by research grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 81471988), the 111 Project (nos. B13037 and B12003), the Guangdong Natural Science Foundation (no. S2013010015810), and the Program of Science and Technology New Star of Guangzhou (no. 2014J2200038).



  1. Liu Y-Y, Wang Y, Walsh TR, Yi L-X, Zhang R, Spencer J, Emergence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance mechanism MCR-1 in animals and human beings in China: a microbiological and molecular biological study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2016;16:161–8.
  2. Nordmann P, Lienhard R, Kieffer N, Clerc O, Poirel L. Plasmid-mediated colistin-resistant Escherichia coli in bacteremia in Switzerland. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Mar 1:ciw124.
  3. Falgenhauer L, Waezsada SE, Yao Y, Imirzalioglu C, Käsbohrer A, Roesler U, Colistin resistance gene mcr-1 in extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing and carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria in Germany. Lancet Infect Dis. 2016;16:282–3.
  4. Tse H, Yuen KY. Dissemination of the mcr-1 colistin resistance gene. Lancet Infect Dis. 2016;16:145–6.
  5. Malhotra-Kumar S, Xavier BB, Das AJ, Lammens C, Butaye P, Goossens H. Colistin resistance gene mcr-1 harboured on a multidrug resistant plasmid. Lancet Infect Dis. 2016;16:283–4.
  6. Tian GB, Huang YM, Fang ZL, Qing Y, Zhang XF, Huang X. CTX-M-137, a hybrid of CTX-M-14-like and CTX-M-15–like β-lactamases identified in an Escherichia coli clinical isolate. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2014;69:2081–5.
  7. Yong D, Toleman MA, Giske CG, Cho HS, Sundman K, Lee K, Characterization of a new metallo-beta-lactamase gene, blaNDM-1, and a novel erythromycin esterase gene carried on a unique genetic structure in Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type 14 from India. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:5046–54.
  8. Wirth T, Falush D, Lan R, Colles F, Mensa P, Wieler LH, Sex and virulence in Escherichia coli: an evolutionary perspective. Mol Microbiol. 2006;60:1136–51.
  9. Tian GB, Wang HN, Zhang AY, Zhang Y, Fan WQ, Xu CW, Detection of clinically important β-lactamases in commensal Escherichia coli of human and swine origin in western China. J Med Microbiol. 2012;61:233–8.
  10. Tenover FC, Arbeit RD, Goering RV, Mickelsen PA, Murray BE, Persing DH, Interpreting chromosomal DNA restriction patterns produced by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis: criteria for bacterial strain typing. J Clin Microbiol. 1995;33:2233–9


Suggested citation for this article: Zhang X-F, Doi Y, Huang X, Li H-Y, Zhong L-L, Zeng K-J, et al. Possible transmission of mcr-1–harboring Escherichia coli between companion animals and human. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016 Sep [date cited]. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2209.160464

DOI: 10.3201/eid2209.160464

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; E. Coli; Colistin; Cats.


#Ebola #virus mediated #infectivity is restricted in #canine and #feline #cells (Vet Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vet Microbiol. 2016 Jan 15;182:102-7. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2015.11.011. Epub 2015 Nov 17.

Ebola virus mediated infectivity is restricted in canine and feline cells. [      ]

Han Z1, Bart SM2, Ruthel G1, Vande Burgt NH2, Haines KM2, Volk SW1, Vite CH1, Freedman BD1, Bates P2, Harty RN3.

Author information: 1Departments of Pathobiology and Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. 2Department of Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. 3Departments of Pathobiology and Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address: rharty@vet.upenn.edu.



Ebolaviruses and marburgviruses belong to the Filoviridae family and often cause severe, fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates. The magnitude of the 2014 outbreak in West Africa and the unprecedented emergence of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in the United States underscore the urgency to better understand the dynamics of Ebola virus infection, transmission and spread. To date, the susceptibility and possible role of domestic animals and pets in the transmission cycle and spread of EVD remains unclear. We utilized infectious VSV recombinants and lentivirus pseudotypes expressing the EBOV surface glycoprotein (GP) to assess the permissiveness of canine and feline cells to EBOV GP-mediated entry. We observed a general restriction in EBOV-mediated infection of primary canine and feline cells. To address the entry mechanism, we used cells deficient in NPC1, a host protein implicated in EBOV entry, and a pharmacological blockade of cholesterol transport, to show that an NPC1-dependent mechanism of EBOV entry is conserved in canine and feline cells. These data demonstrate that cells of canine and feline origin are susceptible to EBOV GP mediated infection; however, infectivity of these cells is reduced significantly compared to controls. Moreover, these data provide new insights into the mechanism of EBOV GP mediated entry into cells of canine and feline origin.

Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Canine; Ebola virus; Entry; Feline; Filovirus; Infectivity; Pseudotypes; Susceptibility; VSV recombinant

PMID: 26711035 [PubMed – in process]

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Ebola; Cats; Dogs.


#Serological #evidence of #avian #influenza #virus and #canine influenza virus #infections among stray #cats in live #poultry #markets, #China (Vet Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vet Microbiol. 2015 Feb 25;175(2-4):369-73. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.12.018. Epub 2014 Dec 27.

Serological evidence of avian influenza virus and canine influenza virus infections among stray cats in live poultry markets, China. [      ]

Zhou H1, He SY1, Sun L1, He H1, Ji F1, Sun Y1, Jia K1, Ning Z1, Wang H1, Yuan L1, Zhou P1, Zhang G2, Li S3.

Author information: 1College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province 510642, People’s Republic of China. 2College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province 510642, People’s Republic of China. Electronic address: guihongzh@scau.edu.cn. 3College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province 510642, People’s Republic of China. Electronic address: shoujunli@scau.edu.cn.



From January 2010 to January 2012, we collected sera samples from 700 stray cats living in close proximity to poultry farms or poultry markets in 4 provinces in China. A number of cats had evidence of avian and canine influenza virus infection: avian H9N2 [24 by HI ≥1:20 and 16 by microneutralization (MN) assay ≥1:80]; avian H5N1 (9 by HI ≥1:20 and 3 by MN assay ≥1:80) and canine H3N2 (32 by HI ≥1:20 and 18 by MN ≥1:80). Bivariate analyses revealed that cats sampled near live poultry markets and cats with influenza-like-illness were at increased risk of having elevated antibody titers by HI against avian H9N2, avian H5N1, or canine H3N2 viruses. Hence, cats may play a very important role in the ecology of novel influenza viruses and periodic epidemiological surveillance for novel influenza infections among stray cats could serve as an early warning system for human threats.

Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Cats; First report; H5N1; LPM

PMID: 25575880 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Avian Influenza; Canine Avian Influenza; China; Poultry; Cats; H5N1; H9N2; CAIV H3N2.