#Genetic and #serologic #surveillance of #canine (CIV) and #equine (EIV) #influenza virus in Nuevo León State, #México (PeerJ., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

PeerJ. 2019 Dec 17;7:e8239. doi: 10.7717/peerj.8239. eCollection 2019.

Genetic and serologic surveillance of canine (CIV) and equine (EIV) influenza virus in Nuevo León State, México.

Plata-Hipólito CB1, Cedillo-Rosales S2, Obregón-Macías N3, Hernández-Luna CE4, Rodríguez-Padilla C1, Tamez-Guerra RS1, Contreras-Cordero JF1.

Author information: 1 Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Laboratorio de Inmunología y Virología, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, México. 2 Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Departamento de Virología, Escobedo, Nuevo León, México. 3 Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Departamento de Grandes Especies, Escobedo, Nuevo León, México. 4 Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Departamento de Química, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, México.




Despite the uncontrolled distribution of the Influenza A virus through wild birds, the detection of canine influenza virus and equine influenza virus in Mexico was absent until now. Recently, outbreaks of equine and canine influenza have been reported around the world; the virus spreads quickly among animals and there is potential for zoonotic transmission.


Amplification of the Influenza A virus matrix gene from necropsies, nasal and conjunctival swabs from trash service horses and pets/stray dogs was performed through RT-PCR. The seroprevalence was carried out through Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system using the M1 recombinant protein and polyclonal antibodies anti-M1.


The matrix gene was amplified from 13 (19.11%) nasal swabs, two (2.94%) conjunctival swabs and five (7.35%) lung necropsies, giving a total of 20 (29.41%) positive samples in a pet dog population. A total of six (75%) positive samples of equine nasal swab were amplified. Sequence analysis showed 96-99% identity with sequences of Influenza A virus matrix gene present in H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes. The phylogenetic analysis of the sequences revealed higher identity with matrix gene sequences detected from zoonotic isolates of subtype H1N1/2009. The detection of anti-M1 antibodies in stray dogs showed a prevalence of 123 (100%) of the sampled population, whereas in horses, 114 (92.68%) positivity was obtained.


The results unveil the prevalence of Influenza A virus in the population of horses and dogs in the state of Nuevo Leon, which could indicate a possible outbreak of equine and Canine Influenza in Mexico. We suggest that the prevalence of Influenza virus in companion animals be monitored to investigate its epizootic and zoonotic potential, in addition to encouraging the regulation of vaccination in these animal species in order to improve their quality of life.

© 2019 Plata-Hipólito et al.

KEYWORDS: Canine Influenza Virus (CIV); Equine Influenza Virus (EIV); Matrix gene (M); Polyclonal antibodies

PMID: 31871842 PMCID: PMC6924343 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.8239

Keywords: Influenza A; Equine Influenza; Canine Avian Influenza; H1N1pdm09; H1N2; H3N2; H1N1; Reassortant strains; Dogs; Horses; Mexico; Serology.


#Adaptation of #H3N2 #canine #influenza virus to #feline cell culture

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

PLoS One. 2019 Oct 10;14(10):e0223507. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0223507. eCollection 2019.

Adaptation of H3N2 canine influenza virus to feline cell culture.

Kamiki H1, Matsugo H1, Ishida H1, Kobayashi-Kitamura T1, Sekine W1, Takenaka-Uema A1, Murakami S1, Horimoto T1.

Author information: 1 Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.



H3N2 canine influenza viruses are prevalent in Asian and North American countries. During circulation of the viruses in dogs, these viruses are occasionally transmitted to cats. If this canine virus causes an epidemic in cats too, sporadic infections may occur in humans because of the close contact between these companion animals and humans, possibly triggering an emergence of mutant viruses with a pandemic potential. In this study, we aimed to gain an insight into the mutations responsible for inter-species transmission of H3N2 virus from dogs to cats. We found that feline CRFK cell-adapted viruses acquired several mutations in multiple genome segments. Among them, HA1-K299R, HA2-T107I, NA-L35R, and M2-W41C mutations individually increased virus growth in CRFK cells. With a combination of these mutations, virus growth further increased not only in CRFK cells but also in other feline fcwf-4 cells. Both HA1-K299R and HA2-T107I mutations increased thermal resistance of the viruses. In addition, HA2-T107I increased the pH requirement for membrane fusion. These findings suggest that the mutations, especially the two HA mutations, identified in this study, might be responsible for adaptation of H3N2 canine influenza viruses in cats.

PMID: 31600274 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0223507

Keywords: Canine Avian Influenza; H3N2; Cats; Dogs.


#Animal #Influenza Virus #Infections in #Humans: A Commentary (Int J Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Int J Infect Dis. 2019 Aug 8. pii: S1201-9712(19)30327-3. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2019.08.002. [Epub ahead of print]

Animal Influenza Virus Infections in Humans: A Commentary.

Borkenhagen LK1, Salman MD2, Ma MJ3, Gray GC4.

Author information: 1 Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, & Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA. 2 Animal Population Health Institute, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. 3 State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, China. 4 Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, & Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; Global Health Research Center, Duke Kunshan University, Kunshan, China; Emerging Infectious Diseases Program, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore. Electronic address: gregory.gray@dm.duke.edu.



Here we review evidence for influenza A viruses (IAVs) moving from swine, avian, feline, equine, and canine species to infect humans. We review case reports, sero-epidemiological, archeo-epidemiological, environmental, and historical studies and consider trends in livestock farming. Although this focused review is not systematic, the aggregated data point to industrialized swine farming as the most likely source of future pandemic viruses, yet IAV surveillance on such farms is remarkably sparse. We recommend increased biosafety and biosecurity training for farm administrators and swine workers with One Health-oriented virus surveillance throughout industrialized farming and meat production lines. Collaborative partnerships with human medical researchers could aid in efforts to mitigate emerging virus threats by offering new surveillance and diagnostic technologies to livestock farming industries.

Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

KEYWORDS: One Health; global diseases; infectious animal diseases; influenza; pandemics; zoonosis

PMID: 31401200 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2019.08.002

Keywords: Influenza A; Swine Influenza; Avian Influenza; Canine Avian Influenza; Human.


#Canine #infectious #respiratory disease: New insights into the #etiology and #epidemiology of associated pathogens (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

PLoS One. 2019 Apr 25;14(4):e0215817. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0215817. eCollection 2019.

Canine infectious respiratory disease: New insights into the etiology and epidemiology of associated pathogens.

Maboni G1, Seguel M2, Lorton A1, Berghaus R3, Sanchez S1,4.

Author information: 1 Athens Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America. 2 Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America. 3 Department of Population Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America. 4 Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America.



Canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) is a syndrome where multiple viral and bacterial pathogens are involved sequentially or synergistically to cause illness. There is limited information regarding the prevalence of pathogens related to CIRD in the United States as well as the role of co-infections in the pathogenesis of the syndrome. We aimed to conduct a comprehensive etiologic and epidemiologic study of multiple CIRD agents in a diverse dog population using molecular methods and statistical modeling analyses. In addition, a novel probe-based multiplex real-time PCR was developed to simultaneously detect and differentiate two species of Mycoplasma (M. canis and M. cynos). Canine adenovirus, canine distemper virus, canine parainfluenza virus, coronavirus, influenza A virus (H3N2 and H3N8), Bordetella bronchiseptica, M. canis, M. cynos and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus were investigated in specimens from clinically ill and asymptomatic dogs received at the Athens Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. Results showed low occurrence of classical CIRD agents such as B. bronchiseptica, canine adenovirus and distemper virus, while highlighting the potential role of emerging bacteria such as M. canis and M. cynos. Statistical modeling analyses of CIRD pathogens emphasized the impact of co-infections on the severity of clinical presentation, and showed that host factors, such as animal age, are the most important predictors of disease severity. This study provides new insights into the current understanding of the prevalence and role of co-infections with selected viruses and bacteria in the etiology of CIRD, while underscoring the importance of molecular diagnosis and vaccination against this disease.

PMID: 31022218 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0215817

Keywords: Dogs; Canine Avian Influenza; H3N2; H3N8; Mycoplasma canis; Bordetella bronchiseptica; Canine adenovirus.


Emergence and #adaptation of #H3N2 #canine #influenza virus from #avian influenza virus: An overlooked role of #dogs in #interspecies transmission (Transbound Emerg Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2019 Mar;66(2):842-851. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13093. Epub 2019 Jan 5.

Emergence and adaptation of H3N2 canine influenza virus from avian influenza virus: An overlooked role of dogs in interspecies transmission.

He W1, Li G1, Zhu H2, Shi W3, Wang R1, Zhang C1, Bi Y4,5, Lai A6, Gao GF4,5, Su S1.

Author information: 1 MOE Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety, Engineering Laboratory of Animal Immunity of Jiangsu Province, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China. 2 MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Glasgow, UK. 3 Institute of Pathogen Biology, Taishan Medical College, Taian, China. 4 Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC), National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China. 5 CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. 6 College of Natural, Applied, and Health Sciences, Kentucky State University, Frankfort, Kentucky, USA.



H3N2 canine influenza virus (CIV) originated from avian species and emerged in dogs in Asia around 2005 where it became enzootic before reaching the USA in 2015. To investigate the key aspects of the evolution of H3N2 CIV regarding its emergence and adaptation in the canine host, we conducted an extensive analysis of all publicly available H3N2 CIV sequences spanning a 10-year period. We believe that H3N2 AIVs transferred to canines around 2002-2004. Furthermore, H3N2 CIVs could be divided into seven major clades with strong geographic clustering and some changed sites evidence of adaptive evolution. Most notably, the dN/dS of each H3N2 CIVs segment was higher than the correspondent of H3N2 AIVs and the U content of HA and NA was increasing over time, suggesting the idea that this avian-origin virus may be gradually adapting to the host. Our results provide a framework to elucidate a general mechanism for emergence of novel influenza viruses.

© 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

KEYWORDS: H3N2 canine influenza virus; evolution; virus host-adaptation

PMID: 30520554 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.13093 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Canine Avian Influenza; H3N2; Dogs.


#Canine #Influenza Virus A(#H3N2) Clade with #Antigenic Variation, #China, 2016–2017 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 1—January 2019 / Dispatch

Canine Influenza Virus A(H3N2) Clade with Antigenic Variation, China, 2016–2017

Yanli Lyu1, Shikai Song1, Liwei Zhou1, Guoxia Bing, Qian Wang, Haoran Sun, Mingyue Chen, Junyi Hu, Mingyang Wang, Honglei Sun, Juan Pu, Zhaofei Xia, Jinhua Liu, and Yipeng Sun

Author affiliations: China Agricultural University, Beijing, China (Y. Lyu, S. Song, L. Zhou, Q. Wang, Haoran Sun, M. Chen, J. Hu, M. Wang, Honglei Sun, J. Pu, Z. Xia, J. Liu, Y. Sun); China Animal Disease Control Center, Beijing (G. Bing)



During 2012–2017, we collected throat swabs from dogs in China to characterize canine influenza virus (CIV) A(H3N2) isolates. A new antigenically and genetically distinct CIV H3N2 clade possessing mutations associated with mammalian adaptation emerged in 2016 and replaced previously circulating strains. This clade probably poses a risk for zoonotic infection.

Keywords: Canine Avian Influenza; Dogs; China; H3N2.


#Mutation W222L at the receptor binding site of #hemagglutinin could facilitate viral adaption from #equine #influenza A(#H3N8) virus to #dogs (J Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Mutation W222L at the receptor binding site of hemagglutinin could facilitate viral adaption from equine influenza A(H3N8) virus to dogs

Feng Wen a, Sherry Blackmon a, Alicia K. Olivier b, Lei Li c, Minhui Guan a, Hailiang Sun a, Peng George Wang c and Xiu-Feng Wan a*

Author Affiliations: a Department of Basic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 USA; b Department of Pathobiology and Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 USA; c Department of Chemistry, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 USA



An outbreak of respiratory disease caused by the equine-origin influenza A(H3N8) virus was first detected in dogs in 2004 and since then, has been enzootic among dogs. Currently, the molecular mechanisms underlying host adaption of this virus from horses to dogs is unknown. Here, we have applied quantitative binding, growth kinetics, and immunofluorescence analyses to elucidate these mechanisms. Our findings suggest that a substituation of W222L in the hemagglutinin of the equine-origin A(H3N8) virus facilitated its host adaption to dogs. This mutation increased binding avidity of the virus specifically to receptor glycans with N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) and sialyl Lewis X (SLeX) motifs. We’ve demonstrated these motifs are abundantly located in the submucosal glands of dog trachea. Our findings also suggest that in addition to the type of glycosidic linkage (e.g., α 2,3-linkage or α2,6-linkage), the type of sialic acid (Neu5Gc or 5-N-acetyl neuraminic acid) and the glycan substructure (e.g., SLeX) also play an important role in host tropism of influenza A viruses.


Significance statement

Influenza A viruses (IAVs) cause a significant burden on human and animal health, and mechanisms for interspecies transmission of IAVs are far from being understood. Findings from this study suggest that an equine-origin A(H3N8) IAV with mutation W222L at its hemagglutinin increased binding to canine-specific receptors with sialyl Lewis X and Neu5Gc motifs and, thereby, may have facilitated viral adaption from horses to dogs. These findings suggest that in addition to the glycosidic linkage (e.g., α2,3-linked and α2,6-linked), the substructure in the receptor saccharides (e.g., sialyl Lewis X and Neu5Gc) could present an interspecies transmission barrier for IAVs and drive viral mutations to overcome such barriers.



*Correspondence: Dr. Xiu-Feng Wan by wan@cvm.msstate.edu.

Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Equine Influenza; Canine Influenza; H3N8; Dogs.