Investigation of prevalence of free #STEC-specific #bacteriophages and its correlation with STEC bacterial hosts in a #produce-growing area in Salinas, #California (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: PLoS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Investigation of prevalence of free Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC)-specific bacteriophages and its correlation with STEC bacterial hosts in a produce-growing area in Salinas, California

Yen-Te Liao, Irwin A. Quintela, Kimberly Nguyen, Alexandra Salvador, Michael B. Cooley, Vivian C. H. Wu

Published: January 4, 2018 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0190534

 

Abstract

Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) causes approximately 265,000 illnesses and 3,600 hospitalizations annually and is highly associated with animal contamination due to the natural reservoir of ruminant gastrointestinal tracts. Free STEC-specific bacteriophages against STEC strains are also commonly isolated from fecal-contaminated environment. Previous studies have evaluated the correlation between the prevalence of STEC-specific bacteriophages and STEC strains to improve animal-associated environment. However, the similar information regarding free STEC-specific bacteriophages prevalence in produce growing area is lacking. Thus, the objectives of this research were to determine the prevalence of STEC-specific phages, analyze potential effects of environmental factors on the prevalence of the phages, and study correlations between STEC-specific bacteriophages and the bacterial hosts in pre-harvest produce environment. Surface water from 20 samples sites was subjected to free bacteriophage isolation using host strains of both generic E. coli and STEC (O157, six non-O157 and one O179 strains) cocktails, and isolation of O157 and non-O157 STEC strains by use of culture methods combined with PCR-based confirmation. The weather data were obtained from weather station website. Free O145- and O179-specific bacteriophages were the two most frequently isolated bacteriophages among all (O45, O145, O157 and O179) in this study. The results showed June and July had relatively high prevalence of overall STEC-specific bacteriophages with minimum isolation of STEC strains. In addition, the bacteriophages were likely isolated in the area—around or within city—with predominant human impact, whereas the STEC bacterial isolates were commonly found in agriculture impact environment. Furthermore, there was a trend that the sample sites with positive of free STEC bacteriophage did not have the specific STEC bacterial hosts. The findings of the study enable us to understand the ecology between free STEC-specific phages and STEC bacteria for further pre-harvest food safety management in produce environment.

____

Citation: Liao Y-T, Quintela IA, Nguyen K, Salvador A, Cooley MB, Wu VCH (2018) Investigation of prevalence of free Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC)-specific bacteriophages and its correlation with STEC bacterial hosts in a produce-growing area in Salinas, California. PLoS ONE 13(1): e0190534. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0190534

Editor: A. Mark Ibekwe, USDA-ARS Salinity Laboratory, UNITED STATES

Received: September 12, 2017; Accepted: December 11, 2017; Published: January 4, 2018

This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.

Data Availability: The raw data used for both Fig 2 and Fig 3 are within the Supporting Information files. In addition, our findings indicate the isolation of STEC strains, and some sample sites may be in close proximity to farms. Since the data were only used for research purpose and the isolation of STEC strains were likely derived from wild animals, we have requested not to reveal the geographical information. Data queries can be made to the authors, who may be contacted at vivian.wu@ars.usda.gov.

Funding: This work was supported by USDA-ARS CRIS projects 2030-42000-050-00D.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Food Safety; STEC; E. Coli; Environmental Pollution; USA; California; Bacteriophages.

——

#Diagnosis of #Fatal #Human Case of St. Louis #Encephalitis Virus #Infection by Metagenomic Sequencing, #California, 2016 (@CDC_EIDjournal, abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 23, Number 10—October 2017 / Dispatch

Diagnosis of Fatal Human Case of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Infection by Metagenomic Sequencing, California, 2016

Charles Y. Chiu  , Lark L. Coffey, Jamie Murkey, Kelly Symmes, Hannah A. Sample, Michael R. Wilson, Samia N. Naccache, Shaun Arevalo, Sneha Somasekar, Scot Federman, Doug Stryke, Paul Vespa, Gary Schiller, Sharon Messenger, Romney Humphries, Steve Miller, and Jeffrey D. Klausner

Author affiliations: University of California, San Francisco, California, USA (C.Y. Chiu, H.A. Sample, M.R. Wilson, S. Arevalo, S. Somasekar, S. Miller); University of California, San Francisco–Abbott Viral Diagnostics and Discovery Center, San Francisco (C.Y. Chiu, S. Arevalo, S. Somasekar, S. Miller); University of California, Davis, California, USA (L.L. Coffey, K. Symmes); University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA (J. Murkey, S. Federman, D. Stryke, P. Vespa, G. Schiller, R. Humphries, J.D. Klausner); University of Southern California, Los Angeles (S.N. Naccache); California Department of Public Health, Richmond, California, USA (S. Messenger)

 

Abstract

We used unbiased metagenomic next-generation sequencing to diagnose a fatal case of meningoencephalitis caused by St. Louis encephalitis virus in a patient from California in September 2016. This case is associated with the recent 2015–2016 reemergence of this virus in the southwestern United States.

Keywords: St Louis Encephalitis Virus; Encephalitis; USA; California.

——-

Highly Pathogenic #Eurasian #H5N8 #Avian #Influenza #Outbreaks in Two Commercial #Poultry Flocks in #California (Avian Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Avian Dis. 2016 Sep;60(3):688-93. doi: 10.1637/11314-110615-Case.1.

Highly Pathogenic Eurasian H5N8 Avian Influenza Outbreaks in Two Commercial Poultry Flocks in California.

Stoute S1, Chin R2, Crossley B3, Gabriel Sentíes-Cué C1, Bickford A1, Pantin-Jackwood M4, Breitmeyer R3, Jones A5, Carnaccini S1, Shivaprasad HL2.

Author information: 1 A California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System (CAHFS), University of California, Davis, Turlock Branch, 1550 N. Soderquist Road, Turlock, CA 95381. 2 B CAHFS, University of California, Davis, Tulare Branch, 18830 Road 112, Tulare, CA 93274. 3 C CAHFS, University of California, Davis, Davis Branch, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616. 4 D Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, United States National Poultry Research Center, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 934 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605. 5 E California Department of Food and Agriculture, Animal Health and Food Safety Services, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento, CA 95814.

 

Abstract

In January 2015, a highly pathogenic Eurasian lineage H5N8 avian influenza (AI) virus (AIV) was detected in a commercial meat turkey flock in Stanislaus County, CA. Approximately 3 wk later, a similar case was diagnosed in commercial brown layers from a different company located in Kings County, CA. Five 14-wk-old turkey hens were submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System (CAHFS), Turlock, and eleven 12-wk-old chickens were submitted to CAHFS, Tulare laboratory due to an acute increase in flock mortality. Gross lesions included enlarged and mottled pale spleens and pancreas in turkeys and chickens. Histologically, the major lesions observed in turkeys and chickens were splenitis, pancreatitis, encephalitis, and pneumonia. In both cases, diagnosis was based on real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RRT-PCR), sequencing, and virus isolation from oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs. Confirmatory diagnosis and AIV characterization was done at the National Veterinary Services Laboratory, Ames, IA. The sequence of the AIV from both cases was 99% identical to an H5N8 AI virus (A/gyrfalcon/Washington/41088-6/2014) isolated from a captive gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) from Washington State in December 2014. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) performed on various tissues from both cases indicated a widespread AIV tissue distribution. Except for minor variations, the tissue distribution of the AI antigen was similar in the chickens and turkeys. There was positive IHC staining in the brain, spleen, pancreas, larynx, trachea, and lungs in both chickens and turkeys. Hearts, ovaries, and air sacs from the turkeys were also positive for the AI antigen. The liver sections from the chickens had occasional AI-positive staining in mononuclear cells, but the IHC on liver sections from the turkeys were negative. The bursa of Fabricius, small intestine, kidney, and skeletal muscle sections were negative for the AI antigen in both chickens and turkeys.

KEYWORDS: California; avian influenza; chickens; commercial; highly pathogenic; turkeys

PMID:  27610732 DOI: 10.1637/11314-110615-Case.1

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N8; Poultry; USA; California.

——

#Pathology and #Tissue #Distribution of an LPAI #H5N8 of North American Lineage Isolated … in Commercial Japanese #Quail … #California (Avian Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Avian Dis. 2017 Mar;61(1):70-76. doi: 10.1637/11492-091416-Reg.1.

Pathology and Tissue Distribution of an LPAI H5N8 of North American Lineage Isolated from an Outbreak in Commercial Japanese Quail (Coturnix c. japonica) in the Central Valley of California.

Carnaccini S1, Stoute ST1, Bickford AA1, Shivaprasad HL2.

Author information: 1 A California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, University of California, Davis, Turlock Branch, 1550 N. Soderquist Road, Turlock, CA 95380. 2 C California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, University of California, Davis, Tulare Branch, 18830 Road 112, Tulare, CA 93274.

 

Abstract

This report describes the pathology and tissue distribution of avian influenza (AI) antigens by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the tissues of commercial layer quail from a natural outbreak of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H5N8. LPAI virus H5N8 of North American lineage was diagnosed in commercial Japanese quail hens ( Coturnix coturnix japonica) in California based on serology, reverse-transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction, virus isolation, and sequencing. The sudden increase in mortality in a flock of laying quail hens had prompted the submission of 15 live and 5 dead, 10- to 15-wk-old quail to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, Turlock branch in the beginning of April 2014. There was mild bilateral swelling of the eyelids and greenish diarrhea in 4/15 live quail submitted. On postmortem examination, there were severe, extensive hemorrhages and multifocal, confluent pale foci in the pancreas in 10/20 birds. Liver gross lesions in five birds ranged from a few pale areas to numerous disseminated foci. Histology revealed moderate to severe necrosis of acinar cells in the pancreas with little or no inflammation in most of the birds. Livers had acute multifocal coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes with fibrin exudation and infiltration of few to large numbers of heterophils and lymphocytes randomly scattered throughout. The AI virus was detected in the nucleus and cytoplasm of pancreatic acinar cells and hepatocytes by IHC targeting the nucleoprotein of the AI virus. A few birds had AI antigen in the reticuloendothelial cells of the spleen, endothelial cells of the lungs, epithelium of the respiratory mucosa, and lamina propria of the intestine. The severity of the lesions observed in this natural outbreak of LPAI in quail was higher than that expected for the pathotypic presentation in this species.

KEYWORDS: avian influenza; immunohistochemistry; low pathogenic; pancreas; pathology; quail

PMID: 28301241 DOI: 10.1637/11492-091416-Reg.1

Keywords: Avian Influenza, H5N8, poultry, California, USA.

——

#Reemergence of #StLouis #Encephalitis Virus, #California, 2015 (@CDC_EIDjournal, abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 22, Number 12—December 2016 / Dispatch

Reemergence of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus, California, 2015

Gregory S. White1, Kelly Symmes1, Pu Sun, Ying Fang, Sandra Garcia, Cody Steiner, Kirk Smith, William K. Reisen, and Lark L. Coffey

Author affiliations: Coachella Valley Mosquito and Vector Control District, Indio, California, USA (G.S. White); School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California (K. Symmes, P. Sun, Y. Fang, S. Garcia, C. Steiner, W.K. Reisen, L.L. Coffey); Environmental Services Department, Maricopa County, Phoenix, Arizona, USA (K. Smith)

 

Abstract

St. Louis encephalitis virus infection was detected in summer 2015 in southern California after a 12-year absence, concomitant with an Arizona outbreak. Sequence comparisons showed close identity of California and Arizona isolates and a relationship with 2005 Argentine isolates, suggesting virus introduction from South America and underscoring the value of continued arbovirus surveillance.

Keywords: St Louis Encephalitis; USA; California.

——

#Population #Effects of #Influenza #H1N1pdm09 #Pandemic among Health Plan Members, San Diego, #California, #USA, October–December 2009 (@CDC_EIDjournal, abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 22, Number 2—February 2016  / Research

Population Effects of Influenza A(H1N1) Pandemic among Health Plan Members, San Diego, California, USA, October–December 2009 [      ]

Roger Bitar

Author affiliation: Mission Infectious Disease and Infusion Consultants, Inc., at Palomar Medical Center, Escondido, California and Pomerado Medical Center, Poway, California, USA

 

Abstract

Lacking population-specific data, activity of seasonal and pandemic influenza is usually tracked by counting the number of diagnoses and visits to medical facilities above a baseline. This type of data does not address the delivery of services in a specific population. To provide population-specific data, this retrospective study of patients with influenza-like illness, influenza, and pneumonia among members of a Kaiser Permanente health plan in San Diego, California, USA, during October–December 2009 was initiated. Population data included the number of outpatients accessing healthcare; the number of patients diagnosed with pneumonia; antimicrobial therapy administered; number of patients hospitalized with influenza, influenza-like illnesses, or pneumonia; level of care provided; and number of patients requiring specialized treatments (e.g., oxygen, ventilation, vasopressors). The rate of admissions specific to weeks and predictions of 2 epidemiologic models shows the strengths and weaknesses of those tools. Data collected in this study may improve planning for influenza pandemics.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Pandemic Influenza; H1N1pdm09; USA; California.

——-

#Diagnosis and #Control of a LPAI #H5N8 #Outbreak in a Japanese #Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) Commercial #Flock in the Central Valley of #California (Avian Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Avian Dis. 2015 Jun;59(2):344-8. doi: 10.1637/11018-011515-Case.

Diagnosis and Control of a LPAI H5N8 Outbreak in a Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) Commercial Flock in the Central Valley of California. [      ]

Carnaccini S1, Crossley B2, Breitmeyer R2, Charlton BR1, Bland M3, Fowler K4, De La Torre F4, Torchetti MK5, Wong SS6, Wilson D4, Jones A4, Sentíes-Cué CG1.

Author information: 1A California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, Turlock Branch, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, 1550 N. Soderquist Road, Turlock, CA 95380. 2B University of California, California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, 620 West Health Sciences Drive, Davis, CA 95616. 3C Cutler Associates International, 3562 Jomar Drive, Napa, CA 94558. 4D California Department of Food and Agriculture, Animal Health and Food Safety Services Division, 1220 N. Street, Sacramento, CA 95814. 5E National Veterinary Services Laboratory, 1920 Dayton Avenue, Ames, IA 50010. 6F Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, TN, 38105-3678.

 

Abstract

In April 2014 an outbreak of low pathogenic avian influenza H5N8 North American genetic lineage was diagnosed in a commercial quail operation in Stanislaus County, California. Sudden increase in mortality prompted the submission of 20 Japanese quail hens (Coturnix c. japonica) to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory, Turlock Branch. Oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs tested positive for influenza A virus H5N8 by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The virus was subsequently isolated. In vivo assay and sequencing of the hemagglutinin protein cleavage site classified the virus as a North American genetic lineage of low pathogenicity for chickens. Following the diagnosis, a rapid and coordinated response took place to contain the outbreak. The affected premise was depopulated, cleaned, and disinfected. Three areas from the affected premises-a 3 kilometer (km) radius (High Risk Zone), a 3-10 km area (Buffer Zone), and a 10-20 km (Surveillance Zone)-were established for avian influenza testing of commercial and noncommercial poultry operations. Surveillance testing and rapid control measures were successful in the control and eradication of the outbreak and revealed no area of spread of the virus from the index flock. This report describes the history, diagnosis, surveillance, and control measures applied to manage this outbreak.

KEYWORDS: California; H5; LPAI; avian influenza; control; duck; outbreak; quail

PMID: 26473689 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; H5N8; Avian Influenza; poultry; USA; California.

——-