#Carbapenem and #Cephalosporin #Resistance among #Enterobacteriaceae in #Healthcare-Associated #Infections, #California, #USA (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 7—July 2019 / Dispatch

Carbapenem and Cephalosporin Resistance among Enterobacteriaceae in Healthcare-Associated Infections, California, USA1

Kyle Rizzo  , Sam Horwich-Scholefield, and Erin Epson

Author affiliations: California Department of Public Health, Richmond, California, USA

 

Abstract

We analyzed antimicrobial susceptibility test results reported in healthcare-associated infections by California hospitals during 2014–2017. Approximately 3.2% of Enterobacteriaceae reported in healthcare-associated infections were resistant to carbapenems and 26.9% were resistant to cephalosporins. The proportion of cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli increased 7% (risk ratio 1.07, 95% CI 1.04–1.11) per year during 2014–2017.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Carbapenem; Cephalosporins; Nosocomial Outbreraks; California; USA.

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#Plague in #SanFrancisco: #rats, #racism and #reform (Nature, summary)

[Source: Nature, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Plague in San Francisco: rats, racism and reform

Tilli Tansey

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An urban outbreak of a deadly infectious disease with no known cause is a disaster planner’s worst nightmare. In his rousing book Black Death at the Golden Gate, journalist David Randall describes just that: the bubonic-plague epidemic that struck San Francisco, California, in 1900. The race to identify, isolate and halt the disease is set against a rich background of official complacency, financial malfeasance, political intrigues and scientific disputes.

(…)

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Nature 568, 454-455 (2019) / doi: 10.1038/d41586-019-01239-x

Keywords: Plague; USA; California; History.

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#Antimicrobial susceptibility of 260 #Clostridium botulinum types A, B, Ba and Bf strains and a #neurotoxigenic Clostridium baratii type F strain isolated from #California infant #botulism patients (AAC, abstract)

[Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Antimicrobial susceptibility of 260 Clostridium botulinum types A, B, Ba and Bf strains and a neurotoxigenic Clostridium baratii type F strain isolated from California infant botulism patients

Jason R. Barash, Joe B. Castles, III, Stephen S. Arnon

DOI: 10.1128/AAC.01594-18

 

ABSTRACT

Infant botulism is an infectious intestinal toxemia that results from colonization of the infant large bowel by Clostridium botulinum (or rarely, by neurotoxigenic C. baratii or C. butyricum), with subsequent intraintestinal production and absorption of botulinum neurotoxin that then produces flaccid paralysis. The disease is often initially misdiagnosed as suspected sepsis or meningitis, diagnoses that require prompt empiric antimicrobial therapy. Antibiotics may also be needed to treat infectious complications of infant botulism, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection. Clinical evidence suggests (see included case report) that broad-spectrum antibiotics that are eliminated by biliary excretion may cause progression of the patient’s paralysis by lysing C. botulinum vegetative cells in the large bowel lumen and thereby increasing the amount of botulinum neurotoxin available for absorption. The purpose of this antimicrobial susceptibility study was to identify an antimicrobial agent with little or no activity against C. botulinum that could be used to treat infant botulism patients initially diagnosed with suspected sepsis or meningitis, or who acquired secondary infections, without lysing C. botulinum. Testing of 12 antimicrobial agents indicated that almost all California infant botulism patient isolates are susceptible to most clinically utilized antibiotics and are also susceptible to newer antibiotics not previously tested against large numbers of C. botulinum patient isolates. No antibiotic with little or no activity against C. botulinum was identified. These findings reinforce the importance of promptly treating infant botulism patients with Human Botulism Immune Globulin (BIG-IV; BabyBIG®).

Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Infant botulism; Antibiotics; USA; California; Clostridium botulinum.

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#Travel-Associated #Zika Cases and #Threat of Local #Transmission during Global #Outbreak, #California, #USA (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 24, Number 9—September 2018 / Synopsis

Travel-Associated Zika Cases and Threat of Local Transmission during Global Outbreak, California, USA

Charsey Cole Porse  , Sharon Messenger, Duc J. Vugia, Wendy Jilek, Maria Salas, James Watt, and Vicki Kramer

Author affiliations: California Department of Public Health, Sacramento, California, USA (C.C. Porse, W. Jilek, V. Kramer); California Department of Public Health, Richmond, California, USA (S. Messenger, D.J. Vugia, M. Salas, J. Watt)

 

Abstract

Zika and associated microcephaly among newborns were reported in Brazil during 2015. Zika has since spread across the Americas, and travel-associated cases were reported throughout the United States. We reviewed travel-associated Zika cases in California to assess the potential threat of local Zika virus transmission, given the regional spread of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. During November 2015–September 2017, a total of 588 travel-associated Zika cases were reported in California, including 139 infections in pregnant women, 10 congenital infections, and 8 sexually transmitted infections. Most case-patients reported travel to Mexico and Central America, and many returned during a period when they could have been viremic. By September 2017, Ae. aegypti mosquitoes had spread to 124 locations in California, and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes had spread to 53 locations. Continued human and mosquito surveillance and public health education are valuable tools in preventing and detecting Zika virus infections and local transmission in California.

Keywords: Zika Virus; Zika Congenital Infection; California; USA; Mosquitoes; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus.

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#Vector competence of #Aedes aegypti, #Culex tarsalis, and Culex quinquefasciatus from #California for #Zika virus (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Vector competence of Aedes aegypti, Culex tarsalis, and Culex quinquefasciatus from California for Zika virus

Bradley J. Main, Jay Nicholson, Olivia C. Winokur, Cody Steiner, Kasen K. Riemersma, Jackson Stuart, Ryan Takeshita, Michelle Krasnec, Christopher M. Barker, Lark L. Coffey

Published: June 21, 2018 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006524

 

Abstract

Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged since 2013 as a significant global human health threat following outbreaks in the Pacific Islands and rapid spread throughout South and Central America. Severe congenital and neurological sequelae have been linked to ZIKV infections. Assessing the ability of common mosquito species to transmit ZIKV and characterizing variation in mosquito transmission of different ZIKV strains is important for estimating regional outbreak potential and for prioritizing local mosquito control strategies for Aedes and Culex species. In this study, we evaluated the laboratory vector competence of Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Culex tarsalis that originated in areas of California where ZIKV cases in travelers since 2015 were frequent. We compared infection, dissemination, and transmission rates by measuring ZIKV RNA levels in cohorts of mosquitoes that ingested blood meals from type I interferon-deficient mice infected with either a Puerto Rican ZIKV strain from 2015 (PR15), a Brazilian ZIKV strain from 2015 (BR15), or an ancestral Asian-lineage Malaysian ZIKV strain from 1966 (MA66). With PR15, Cx. quinquefasciatus was refractory to infection (0%, N = 42) and Cx. tarsalis was infected at 4% (N = 46). No ZIKV RNA was detected in saliva from either Culex species 14 or 21 days post feeding (dpf). In contrast, Ae. aegypti developed infection rates of 85% (PR15; N = 46), 90% (BR15; N = 20), and 81% (MA66; N = 85) 14 or 15 dpf. Although MA66-infected Ae. aegypti showed higher levels of ZIKV RNA in mosquito bodies and legs, transmission rates were not significantly different across virus strains (P = 0.13, Fisher’s exact test). To confirm infectivity and measure the transmitted ZIKV dose, we enumerated infectious ZIKV in Ae. aegypti saliva using Vero cell plaque assays. The expectorated plaque forming units PFU varied by viral strain: MA66-infected expectorated 13±4 PFU (mean±SE, N = 13) compared to 29±6 PFU for PR15-infected (N = 13) and 35±8 PFU for BR15-infected (N = 6; ANOVA, df = 2, F = 3.8, P = 0.035). These laboratory vector competence results support an emerging consensus that Cx. tarsalis and Cx. quinquefasciatus are not vectors of ZIKV. These results also indicate that Ae. aegypti from California are efficient laboratory vectors of ancestral and contemporary Asian lineage ZIKV.

 

Author summary

Assessing the ability of common mosquito species to transmit Zika virus (ZIKV) and characterizing variation in mosquito transmission of different ZIKV strains is important for estimating regional outbreak potential and for prioritizing local mosquito control strategies for Aedes and Culex species. In this study, we evaluated the laboratory vector competence of Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Culex tarsalis that originated in areas of California where ZIKV cases in travelers since 2015 were frequent. We observed variation in infection loads between ZIKV strains in Ae. aegypti, but transmission rates were not different. In addition, there was a positive relationship between ZIKV RNA levels in infected mosquitoes ascertained from bodies and ZIKV RNA transmission rates. Our data add to the growing body of evidence supporting the role of Aedes aegypti as a ZIKV vector and refute Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. tarsalis as vectors.

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Citation: Main BJ, Nicholson J, Winokur OC, Steiner C, Riemersma KK, Stuart J, et al. (2018) Vector competence of Aedes aegypti, Culex tarsalis, and Culex quinquefasciatusfrom California for Zika virus. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 12(6): e0006524. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006524

Editor: Michael J. Turell, INDEPENDENT RESEARCHER, UNITED STATES

Received: March 19, 2018; Accepted: May 11, 2018; Published: June 21, 2018

Copyright: © 2018 Main et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper.

Funding: Primary funding for this work was provided by Abt Associates and a consortium of vector control districts in California: Coachella Valley, Orange County, Greater Los Angeles County, San Gabriel Valley, West Valley, Kern, Butte County, Tulare, Sacramento-Yolo, Placer, and Turlock. OCW and CMB also acknowledge financial support from NASA Health and Air Quality grant NNX15AF36G, and CMB and LLC acknowledge funding support from the Pacific Southwest Regional Center of Excellence for Vector-Borne Diseases funded by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Cooperative Agreement 1U01CK000516). KKR was supported by a National Institutes of Health Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award T32 OD O11147. Part of this work was supported by start-up funds provided to LLC by the Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology Department in the School of Veterinary Medicine at UC Davis. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. One funder, Abt Associates, provided support in the form of salaries for authors [MK and RT], but did not have any additional role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. The specific roles of these authors are articulated in the ‘author contributions’ section.

Competing interests: Michelle Krasnec and Ryan Takeshita are/were employed by Abt Associates. Abt Associates provided support in the form of salaries for authors [MK and RT], but did not have any additional role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. The specific roles of these authors are articulated in the ‘author contributions’ section.

Keywords: Zika Virus; Mosquitoes; USA; California; Aedes aegypti; Culex quinquefasciatus; Culex tarsalis.

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Novel Focus of #SinNombre Virus in Peromyscus eremicus #Mice, Death Valley National Park, #California, #USA (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 24, Number 6—June 2018 / Dispatch

Novel Focus of Sin Nombre Virus in Peromyscus eremicus Mice, Death Valley National Park, California, USA

Joseph E. Burns1  , Marco E. Metzger1, Sharon Messenger1, Curtis L. Fritz, Inger-Marie E. Vilcins, Barryett Enge, Lawrence R. Bronson, Vicki L. Kramer, and Renjie Hu

Author affiliations: California Department of Public Health, Ontario, Richmond, Sacramento, and Redding, California, USA

 

Abstract

The deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) is the primary reservoir for Sin Nombre virus (SNV) in the western United States. Rodent surveillance for hantavirus in Death Valley National Park, California, USA, revealed cactus mice (P. eremicus) as a possible focal reservoir for SNV in this location. We identified SNV antibodies in 40% of cactus mice sampled.

Keywords: Hantavirus; Sin Nombre Virus; Wildlife.

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Study of an #Outbreak of Highly Pathogenic #Avian #Influenza #H5N8 in Commercial Pekin #Ducks ( Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) in #California (Avian Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Avian Dis. 2018 Mar;62(1):101-108. doi: 10.1637/11773-112017-Reg.1.

Study of an Outbreak of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N8 in Commercial Pekin Ducks ( Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) in California.

Stoute S1, Crossley B2, Shivaprasad HL3.

Author information: 1 A California Animal Health & Food Safety Laboratory System, Turlock Branch, 1550 N. Soderquist Road, Turlock, CA 95381. 2 B California Animal Health & Food Safety Laboratory System, Davis Branch, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616. 3 C California Animal Health & Food Safety Laboratory System, Tulare Branch, 18830 Road 112, Tulare, CA 93274.

 

Abstract

A February 2015 outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 in a flock of commercial Pekin ducks ( Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) in California was investigated in detail. Approximately 17,349 five-wk-old ducks experienced an increased mortality from a normal of eight birds per day to 24, 18, 24, 33, and 61 birds per day, respectively, in the last 5 days prior to flock depopulation. Clinically, there was decreased water and feed consumption, and approximately 1.0% of the affected flock exhibited neurologic signs. Necropsy of five clinically ill ducks revealed pale, patchy areas on the epicardium in two birds, pale foci of necrosis in the liver of one bird, and airsacculitis in three birds. Histopathology revealed multifocal nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis, myocarditis, myositis, pancreatitis, hepatitis, and glossitis. Immunohistochemistry revealed avian influenza virus (AIV) nucleoprotein in the nucleus and cytoplasm of various cells in the aforementioned organs, as well as in the skin and feathers. Eight of the 10 sera samples tested were positive for avian influenza antibodies by agar gel immunodiffusion serology. Oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs taken from 15 birds, as well as from the lungs, livers, pancreas, and spleen, were positive for AIV by real-time reverse transcriptase (rRT) PCR. AIV was isolated and typed as Eurasian lineage HPAI H5N8, clade 2.3.4.4, by the National Veterinary Services Laboratory, Ames, IA. Extensive surveillance of birds for AIV around the 10-km zone did not reveal any additional cases. Ducks on the affected premises were humanely euthanatized by foam and composted in-house, the houses were heated to 57 C for 4 days, and swabs were taken periodically from the compost to ensure negativity for AIV by rRT-PCR. The compost and litter were then removed, and the house was pressure cleaned, disinfected, and repopulated approximately 120 days after euthanatization of the ducks.

KEYWORDS: California; Pekin; avian influenza; commercial; ducks; highly pathogenic; immunohistochemistry; pathology; serology; virus isolation

PMID: 29620470 DOI: 10.1637/11773-112017-Reg.1

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N8; Poultry; USA; California.

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