[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]
PLoS One. 2019 Apr 25;14(4):e0215817. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0215817. eCollection 2019.
Canine infectious respiratory disease: New insights into the etiology and epidemiology of associated pathogens.
Maboni G1, Seguel M2, Lorton A1, Berghaus R3, Sanchez S1,4.
Author information: 1 Athens Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America. 2 Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America. 3 Department of Population Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America. 4 Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America.
Canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) is a syndrome where multiple viral and bacterial pathogens are involved sequentially or synergistically to cause illness. There is limited information regarding the prevalence of pathogens related to CIRD in the United States as well as the role of co-infections in the pathogenesis of the syndrome. We aimed to conduct a comprehensive etiologic and epidemiologic study of multiple CIRD agents in a diverse dog population using molecular methods and statistical modeling analyses. In addition, a novel probe-based multiplex real-time PCR was developed to simultaneously detect and differentiate two species of Mycoplasma (M. canis and M. cynos). Canine adenovirus, canine distemper virus, canine parainfluenza virus, coronavirus, influenza A virus (H3N2 and H3N8), Bordetella bronchiseptica, M. canis, M. cynos and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus were investigated in specimens from clinically ill and asymptomatic dogs received at the Athens Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. Results showed low occurrence of classical CIRD agents such as B. bronchiseptica, canine adenovirus and distemper virus, while highlighting the potential role of emerging bacteria such as M. canis and M. cynos. Statistical modeling analyses of CIRD pathogens emphasized the impact of co-infections on the severity of clinical presentation, and showed that host factors, such as animal age, are the most important predictors of disease severity. This study provides new insights into the current understanding of the prevalence and role of co-infections with selected viruses and bacteria in the etiology of CIRD, while underscoring the importance of molecular diagnosis and vaccination against this disease.
PMID: 31022218 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0215817
Keywords: Dogs; Canine Avian Influenza; H3N2; H3N8; Mycoplasma canis; Bordetella bronchiseptica; Canine adenovirus.