A preliminary #survey of #ZIKA virus #infection by nucleic acid #test in the volunteer #blood donor samples in #Shenzhen #China (J Med Virol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Med Virol. 2019 Dec 12. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25654. [Epub ahead of print]

A preliminary survey of ZIKA virus infection by nucleic acid test in the volunteer blood donor samples in Shenzhen China.

Zheng X1, Zeng J1, Xu X1, Liu Y2, Heng L1, Wen X1, Li S3, Xu M3, Wu S3, Chen Y3, Chen L3,4.

Author information: 1 Shenzhen Blood Center, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China, 518035. 2 Shenzhen Baoan District Central Blood Station, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China. 3 Provincial Key Laboratory for Transfusion-transmitted Infectious Diseases, Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), Chengdu, Sichuan, China, 610052. 4 Toronto General Research Institute, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5G1L6, Canada.




Although ZIKA virus infection is mainly transmitted through mosquito bite, it can also be transmitted through blood transfusion. More than 500,000 cases of ZIKA virus infection were reported in the Americas from 2015 to 2016. Up till now, over ten cases of imported zika virus infection have been reported due to frequent international exchanges in Shenzhen city of Guangdong Province, China. Unfortunately, there were no data on ZIKA virus infection in Chinese blood donors because it has not been included in routine screening for volunteer blood donors. As such, we performed a preliminary survey of the prevalence of ZIKA virus infection among volunteer blood donors in Shenzhen, China to assess the potential risk of ZIKA virus infection through transfusion.


A total of 9,626 blood donor samples were collected and ZIKA RNA was detected by TMA nucleic acid amplification method with the Panther nucleic acid automatic analysis system of Spain GRIFOLS including Procleix ZIKA Virus Assay reagent. All experiments in this study were conducted in accordance with the standard operating procedure (SOP) of the blood center.


Of the 9626 donor blood samples tested, None of these samples was ZIKV RNA reactive. There was no positive case from ZIKA Virus RNA screening in this preliminary survey.


There was no ZIKA virus presence in blood donors in Shenzhen, China from this preliminary survey. The potential risk of ZIKA virus infection by transfusion is low in Shenzhen at this moment. Therefore there is no need to add ZIKA virus nucleic acid test as a routine screening for blood donors.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Blood < Epidemiology; Endemic infection < Epidemiology; Yellow fever virus < Virus classification

PMID: 31829444 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.25654

Keywords: Zika Virus; Diagnostic tests; Blood safety; China.



[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Infect. 2019 Nov 15. pii: S0163-4453(19)30296-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2019.10.002. [Epub ahead of print]


Slavov SN1, Guaragna Machado RR2, Ferreira AR3, Soares CP2, Araujo DB2, Leal Oliveira DB2, Covas DT3, Durigon EL2, Kashima S3.

Author information: 1 Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Blood Center of Ribeirao Preto, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, 14051-140, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, 14049-900, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address: svetoslav.slavov@hemocentro.fmrp.usp.br. 2 Laboratory of Clinical and Molecular Virology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, 05508-000, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil. 3 Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Blood Center of Ribeirao Preto, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, 14051-140, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil.




Although primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitos, Zika virus (ZIKV) can also be transmitted by blood transfusion, due to the fact that some of the infected donors can establish asymptomatic viremia. ZIKV seroprevalence in Brazilian blood donors is unknown. The main reason for this gap in the knowledge originates from the difficulty in evaluating ZIKV humoral immunity due to antigenic cross-reactivity between the different Brazilian flaviviruses and, in particular, dengue virus (DENV). The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-ZIKV IgG prevalence in blood donors from the Northeast region of the São Paulo State, Brazil, which experienced a ZIKV outbreak in 2016.


We evaluated the ZIKV seroprevalence using the NS1 anti-ZIKV IgG test (Euroimmun), followed by confirmation of the positive and borderline results using the Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT). ZIKV seroprevalence was estimated by testing plasma samples collected in 2015 (before the ZIKV outbreak), 2016 (during the outbreak) and 2017 (after the outbreak). In order to investigate possible antigenic cross – reactivity between ZIKV and DENV we also included samples that were taken well before the ZIKV outbreak, in years 2010 and 2013.


The results obtained by the Euroimmun anti-ZIKV IgG test demonstrated ZIKV seroreactivity in 2015, 2016, and 2017 with prevalences of 5.3%, 12.8% and 13.2%, respectively. The inclusion of blood donor samples from 2010 and 2013, demonstrated anti-ZIKV IgG reactivity only for 2013 (1.7%). The PRNT testing of the ZIKV positive and borderline ELISA reacting samples generated positive results only for the years of 2016 and 2017 (prevalences of 5.6% and 9.1%) which coincided with the introduction of ZIKV in our region.


Our results estimate for the first time the ZIKV seroprevalence among Brazilian blood donors from a region with apparently extensive ZIKV circulation and which, at the same time, is highly endemic for DENV. We detected relatively low ZIKV seroprevalence in blood donors from the studied region probably due to the lower intensity of the outbreak compared to other Brazilian locations. Our study adds to the global understanding of ZIKV circulation and the herd immunity of the exposed population.

Copyright © 2019 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Blood donors; Brazil; PRNT; Seroprevalence; Zika virus

PMID: 31738944 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinf.2019.10.002

Keywords: Zika Virus; Serology; Seroprevalence; Blood safety; Brazil.


#Seroprevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus #HTLV and its associated #factors in #donors of a #blood bank of Medellín – #Colombia, 2014-2018 (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: PLoS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]


Seroprevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus HTLV and its associated factors in donors of a blood bank of Medellín-Colombia, 2014-2018

Jaiberth Antonio Cardona-Arias, Carolina Vélez-Quintero , Olga Victoria Calle-González , Jennifer Florez-Duque, Juan Carlos Zapata

Published: August 12, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221060




Research on HTLV in Colombia is limited; despite being an endemic country there are few studies on the magnitude of this infection. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HTLV I/II and its associated factors in donors to a blood bank of Medellín Colombia, 2014–2018.


This is a cross-sectional study of 52,159 donors with a secondary information source. Seroprevalence of HTLV I/II was determined with its confidence interval and the population characteristics were described by frequency and summary measures. To explore the associated factors, Pearson’s Chi square test, Mann-Whitney U test, crude odds ratios were used and they were adjusted by logistic regression in SPSS 25.0.


88% of the population lived in the metropolitan area, 68.5% belonged to the University. 76.2% were altruistic donors (unpaid donors who did not donate to a specific patient). 24.5% were repetitive (paid) donors. 75% of the donors were under 41 years old. The seroprevalence of HTLV I/II was 0.176% (95% CI = 0.139% -0.213%), being statistically lower in repetitive donors and men.


The seroprevalence of HTLV I/II infection in the studied blood bank is lower than that reported in other blood banks at the departmental and national levels. In Medellín, it was associated with the frequency of donation and gender, which is useful information for the hemovigilance programs of the city.


Citation: Cardona-Arias JA, Vélez-Quintero C, Calle-González OV, Florez-Duque J, Zapata JC (2019) Seroprevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus HTLV and its associated factors in donors of a blood bank of Medellín-Colombia, 2014-2018. PLoS ONE 14(8): e0221060. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221060

Editor: Jason Blackard, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, UNITED STATES

Received: April 11, 2019; Accepted: July 29, 2019; Published: August 12, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Cardona-Arias et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: This research relies upon salary support for the authors. JAC-A was supported by University of Antioquia and Cooperative University of Colombia. CV-Q, OVC-G, and JF-D were supported, as students, by the University of Antioquia. JCZ salary was supported by the Institute of Human Virology (IHV), University of Maryland School of Medicine. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: HTLV-I/II; Seroprevalence; Blood safety; Colombia.


#Pseudomonas poae–Associated #Fatal #Septic #Transfusion #Reaction, Peoria, #Illinois, #USA, 2017 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 8—August 2019 / Synopsis

Pseudomonas poae–Associated Fatal Septic Transfusion Reaction, Peoria, Illinois, USA, 2017

Therese S. Woodring and John J. Farrell

Author affiliations: University of Illinois College of Medicine, Peoria, Illinois, USA (T.S. Woodring, J.J. Farrell); OSF System Laboratory, Peoria (J.J. Farrell)



In the United States, fatal transfusion-transmitted infections from red blood cell units are rare. Although this pattern mostly reflects how inhospitable refrigerated red blood cell units are to contaminant growth, fatalities caused by microorganisms that can grow at storage temperature (4°C), but not in standard clinical blood cultures at 37°C, are probably underestimated. We analyzed a fatal red blood cell transfusion in Peoria, Illinois, USA, that occurred in 2017. Samples from the patient’s whole blood and the red blood cell unit remained culture-negative during the investigation, despite direct visualization of gram-negative bacilli within the unit immediately after transfusion. We identified the bacteria as Pseudomonas poae, a nonpathogenic pseudomonad carrying multiple cold-shock domain protein genes, and confirmed its cold tolerance and inability to grow at 37°C. Our work indicates transfusion reaction workups need to include testing for psychrophilic organisms, which could explain the cause of other apparently culture-negative transfusion reactions.

Keywords: Blood safety; Pseudomonas poae; USA; Illinois.


#Seroreactivity to #Chikungunya and #WNV Viruses in #Rwandan #Blood Donors (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Seroreactivity to Chikungunya and West Nile Viruses in Rwandan Blood Donors

Eric Seruyange, Karl Ljungberg, Claude Mambo Muvunyi, Jean Bosco Gahutu, Swaibu Katare, José Nyamusore, Yong-Dae Gwon, Magnus Evander, Heléne Norder, Peter Liljeström, and Tomas Bergström

Published Online: 27 Jun 2019




Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and West Nile virus (WNV) have previously been reported from several African countries, including those bordering Rwanda where they may have originated. However, there have been no serosurveillance reports from Rwanda regarding these two viral pathogens.

In this article, we present the first study of immunoglobulin G (IgG) seroreactivity of CHIKV and WNV in Rwandan blood donor samples.


Blood donors from Rwanda (n = 874) and Sweden (n = 199) were tested for IgG reactivity against CHIKV, using an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with the E1 envelope protein fused with p62 as antigen, and against WNV using a commercial kit. Data on mosquito distribution were obtained from the 2012 assessment of yellow fever virus circulation in Rwanda.


Seroreactivity to CHIKV was high in Rwanda (63.0%), when compared with Swedish donors, where only 8.5% were IgG positive. However, a cross-reactivity to O’nyong’nyong virus in neutralization test was noted in Rwandan donors. No significant difference in WNV seroreactivity was found (10.4% for Rwandan and 14.1% for Swedish donors). The relatively high seroreactivity to WNV among Swedish donors could partly be explained by cross-reactivity with tick-borne encephalitis virus prevalent in Sweden. Donors from the Eastern Province of Rwanda had the highest IgG reactivity to the two investigated viruses (86.7% for CHIKV and 33.3% for WNV). Five genera of mosquitoes were found in Rwanda where Culex was the most common (82.5%). The vector of CHIKV, Aedes, accounted for 9.6% of mosquitoes and this species was most commonly found in the Eastern Province.


Our results showed high seroreactivity to CHIKV in Rwandan donors. The highest IgG reactivity to CHIKV, and to WNV, was found in the Eastern Province, the area reporting the highest number of mosquito vectors for these two viruses. Infection control by eliminating mosquito-breeding sites in population-dense areas is recommended, especially in eastern Rwanda.

Keywords: Arbovirus; Chikungunya virus; WNV; Serology; Seroprevalence; Rwanda.


#WNV #Seroprevalence Among #Blood #Donors in #Hungary (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

West Nile Virus Seroprevalence Among Blood Donors in Hungary

Anna Nagy, Tímea Szöllősi, Mária Takács, Nóra Magyar, and Éva Barabás

Published Online: 11 Jun 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2018.2401



Background and Objectives:

West Nile virus (WNV) is one of the most important viral zoonotic infections in Hungary; however, no transfusion-transmitted WNV infections have been confirmed so far. In 2016, the number of clinical cases of WNV reported was 44, but the seasonal WNV screening of whole-blood donors has not yet been implemented. Our aims were to assess the WNV RNA reactivity and the prevalence of WNV-specific antibodies in the samples of blood donors collected in 2016.

Materials and Methods:

WNV RNA with Cobas TaqScreen and anti-WNV antibody determination from plasma samples of 2112 donors was performed. Cross-reactivity to tick-borne encephalitis virus was excluded. WNV neutralization test was used for the confirmation of anti-WNV IgG reactive results, and the presence of anti-WNV IgM antibodies was also determined.


None of the samples showed WNV RNA reactivity. The total weighted anti-WNV IgG prevalence was 2.34% (95% confidence interval 1.65–3.03), and in addition, three donors were found to be IgM positive. There was a comparable tendency between the data of WNV seroprevalence and cumulative incidence in six out of seven statistical regions in Hungary.


Our results show a comparable data with publications that estimated the WNV seroprevalence in some other European endemic areas. As protective measures, both the 30-day deferral of blood donors who spent at least 24 h in WNV-exposed areas and the exclusion of affected Hungarian territories from blood donation are enforced by the Hungarian National Blood Transfusion Service. Our study is the first comprehensive serological survey to obtain actual data about WNV seroprevalence in the Hungarian human population.

Keywords: WNV; Serology; Seroprevalence; Blood safety; Hungary.


#WNV and #Usutu Virus #Infections and Challenges to #Blood #Safety in the #EU (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 6—June 2019 / Perspective

West Nile and Usutu Virus Infections and Challenges to Blood Safety in the European Union

Dragoslav Domanović  , Celine M. Gossner, Ryanne Lieshout-Krikke, Wolfgang Mayr, Klara Baroti-Toth, Alina Mirella Dobrota, Maria Antonia Escoval, Olaf Henseler, Christof Jungbauer, Giancarlo Liumbruno, Salvador Oyonarte, Constantina Politis, Imad Sandid, Miljana Stojić Vidović, Johanna J. Young, Inês Ushiro-Lumb, and Norbert Nowotny

Author affiliations: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Solna, Sweden (D. Domanović, C.M. Gossner, J.J. Young); European Blood Alliance, Amsterdam, the Netherlands (R. Lieshout-Krikke); Austrian Red Cross, Vienna, Austria (W. Mayr, C. Jungbauer); National Competent Authority for Blood, Budapest, Hungary (K. Baroti-Toth); National Competent Authority for Blood, Bucharest, Romania (A.M. Dobrota); National Competent Authority for Blood, Lisbon, Portugal (M.A. Escoval); Paul Ehrlich Institute, Langen, Germany (O. Henseler); Italian National Blood Centre, National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy (G. Liumbruno); National Competent Authority for Blood, Madrid, Spain (S. Oyonarte); Hellenic Center for Disease Control and Prevention (KEELPNO), Athens, Greece (C. Politis); National Competent Authority for Blood, Paris, France (I. Sandid); Croatian Institute for Transfusion Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia (M.S. Vidović); National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT), London, UK (I. Ushiro-Lumb); University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria (N. Nowotny); Mohammed Bin Rashid University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Dubai, United Arab Emirates (N. Nowotny)



West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) circulate in several European Union (EU) countries. The risk of transfusion-transmitted West Nile virus (TT-WNV) has been recognized, and preventive blood safety measures have been implemented. We summarized the applied interventions in the EU countries and assessed the safety of the blood supply by compiling data on WNV positivity among blood donors and on reported TT-WNV cases. The paucity of reported TT-WNV infections and the screening results suggest that blood safety interventions are effective. However, limited circulation of WNV in the EU and presumed underrecognition or underreporting of TT-WNV cases contribute to the present situation. Because of cross-reactivity between genetically related flaviviruses in the automated nucleic acid test systems, USUV-positive blood donations are found during routine WNV screening. The clinical relevance of USUV infection in humans and the risk of USUV to blood safety are unknown.

Keywords: Usutu virus; WNV; Blood safety; EU.