#Effects of the #COVID19 pandemic on #supply and use of #blood for #transfusion (Lancet Hematol., abstract)

[Source: Lancet Hematology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on supply and use of blood for transfusion

Prof Simon J Stanworth, FRCP, Helen V New, FRCPath, Torunn O Apelseth, PhD, Susan Brunskill, Msc, Rebecca Cardigan, PhD, Carolyn Doree, PhD, Marc Germain, MD, Mindy Goldman, MD, Edwin Massey, FRCPath, Daniele Prati, MD, Nadine Shehata, MD, Cynthia So-Osman, MD, Jecko Thachil, MD

Published: July 03, 2020 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(20)30186-1



The COVID-19 pandemic has major implications for blood transfusion. There are uncertain patterns of demand, and transfusion institutions need to plan for reductions in donations and loss of crucial staff because of sickness and public health restrictions. We systematically searched for relevant studies addressing the transfusion chain—from donor, through collection and processing, to patients—to provide a synthesis of the published literature and guidance during times of potential or actual shortage. A reduction in donor numbers has largely been matched by reductions in demand for transfusion. Contingency planning includes prioritisation policies for patients in the event of predicted shortage. A range of strategies maintain ongoing equitable access to blood for transfusion during the pandemic, in addition to providing new therapies such as convalescent plasma. Sharing experience and developing expert consensus on the basis of evolving publications will help transfusion services and hospitals in countries at different stages in the pandemic.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Blood donors; Blood safety.


#Pathogen #reduction of #SARS-CoV-2 virus in #plasma and whole #blood using #riboflavin and #UV light (PLOS One, abstract9

[Source: PLOS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]


Pathogen reduction of SARS-CoV-2 virus in plasma and whole blood using riboflavin and UV light

Izabela Ragan , Lindsay Hartson , Heather Pidcoke , Richard Bowen , Raymond Goodrich

Published: May 29, 2020 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0233947




Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has recently been identified as the causative agent for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The ability of this agent to be transmitted by blood transfusion has not been documented, although viral RNA has been detected in serum. Exposure to treatment with riboflavin and ultraviolet light (R + UV) reduces blood-borne pathogens while maintaining blood product quality. Here, we report on the efficacy of R + UV in reducing SARS-CoV-2 infectivity when tested in human plasma and whole blood products.

Study design and methods

SARS-CoV-2 (isolate USA-WA1/2020) was used to inoculate plasma and whole blood units that then underwent treatment with riboflavin and UV light (Mirasol Pathogen Reduction Technology System, Terumo BCT, Lakewood, CO). The infectious titers of SARS-CoV-2 in the samples before and after R + UV treatment were determined by plaque assay on Vero E6 cells. Each plasma pool (n = 9) underwent R + UV treatment performed in triplicate using individual units of plasma and then repeated using individual whole blood donations (n = 3).


Riboflavin and UV light reduced the infectious titer of SARS-CoV-2 below the limit of detection for plasma products at 60–100% of the recommended energy dose. At the UV light dose recommended by the manufacturer, the mean log reductions in the viral titers were ≥ 4.79 ± 0.15 Logs in plasma and 3.30 ± 0.26 in whole blood units.


Riboflavin and UV light effectively reduced the titer of SARS-CoV-2 to the limit of detection in human plasma and by 3.30 ± 0.26 on average in whole blood. Two clades of SARS-CoV-2 have been described and questions remain about whether exposure to one strain confers strong immunity to the other. Pathogen-reduced blood products may be a safer option for critically ill patients with COVID-19, particularly those in high-risk categories.


Citation: Ragan I, Hartson L, Pidcoke H, Bowen R, Goodrich R (2020) Pathogen reduction of SARS-CoV-2 virus in plasma and whole blood using riboflavin and UV light. PLoS ONE 15(5): e0233947. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0233947

Editor: Luisa Gregori, FDA, UNITED STATES

Received: April 27, 2020; Accepted: May 16, 2020; Published: May 29, 2020

Copyright: © 2020 Ragan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript.

Funding: This work was supported by the Congressionally Designated Medical Research Program under grant number PR180446 – Indications Against Highly Pathogenic Agents for a Transportable Pathogen Reduction and Blood Safety System for Whole Blood to RG. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Blood safety.


#SARS‐CoV‐2 and the Hidden #Carriers – #Sewage, #Feline, and #Blood #Transfusion (J Med Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Medical Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

SARS‐CoV‐2 and the Hidden Carriers – Sewage, Feline, and Blood Transfusion

Muhammad Ali,  Muhammad Zaid,  Muhammad Arif Nadeem Saqib,  Haroon Ahmed, Muhammad Sohail Afzal

First published: 28 April 2020 | DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25956

This article has been accepted for publication and undergone full peer review but has not been through the copyediting, typesetting, pagination and proofreading process, which may lead to differences between this version and the Version of Record. Please cite this article as doi: 10.1002/jmv.25956



We have read with great interests a recent article showing SARS‐CoV‐2 viral RNA in feces of children during their recovery period from the disease.1 The study showed that even though no viral nucleic acid was detected in the throat swab specimens, the virus was identified in their feces samples. More recently, Li et al2 and Liu et al.3 detected the virus nucleic acid in the feces and sputum of discharged patients of the disease following quarantine protocol in their homes.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Cats; Blood safety.


#SARS-CoV-2 #RNA Detected in #Blood #Donations (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 26, Number 7—July 2020 | Research Letter

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 RNA Detected in Blood Donations

Le Chang1, Lei Zhao1, Huafei Gong, Lunan Wang  , and Lan Wang

Author affiliations: National Center for Clinical Laboratories, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology; Institute of Geriatric Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China (L. Chang, Lunan Wang); Blood Center, Wuhan, China (L. Zhao, Lan Wang); Shanghai Haoyuan Biotech Co., Ltd, Shanghai, China (H. Gong); Peking Union Medical College Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (Lunan Wang)



Because of high rates of 2019 novel coronavirus disease in Wuhan, China, Wuhan Blood Center began screening for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 RNA on January 25, 2020. We screened donations in real-time and retrospectively and found plasma samples positive for viral RNA from 4 asymptomatic donors.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; China; Blood safety.


Prepare to Adapt: #Blood Supply and #Transfusion Support During the First 2 Weeks of the 2019 Novel #Coronavirus (#COVID19) #Pandemic Affecting #Washington State (Transfusion, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Transfusion 2020 Mar 21 [Online ahead of print]

Prepare to Adapt: Blood Supply and Transfusion Support During the First 2 Weeks of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic Affecting Washington State

Monica B Pagano 1 2, John R Hess 1 2, Hamilton C Tsang 1, Elizabeth Staley 1, Terry Gernsheimer 1 2, Nina Sen 1, Christine Clark 1, Theresa Nester 3, Curt Bailey 3, Kirsten Alcorn 3

Affiliations: 1 Transfusion Medicine Division, Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. 2 Hematology Division, Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. 3 BloodworksNW, Seattle, WA.

PMID: 32198754 DOI: 10.1111/trf.15789




The first coronavirus (COVID-19) case was reported in United States (US), in the state of Washington, approximately three months after the outbreak in Wuhan, China. Three weeks later, the US federal government declared the pandemic a national emergency. The number of confirmed COVID-19 positive cases increased rather rapidly and changed routine daily activities of the community.

Study design and methods:

This brief report describes the response from the hospital, the regional blood center, and the hospital-based transfusion services to the events that took place in the community during the initial phases of the pandemic.


In Washington State, the first week of March started with 4 confirmed cases and ended with 150; by the end of the second week of March there were more than 700 cases of confirmed COVID-19. During the first week, blood donations dropped significantly. Blood units provided from blood centers of non-affected areas of the country helped keep inventory stable and allow for routine hospital operations. The hospital-based transfusion service began prospective triaging of blood orders to monitor and prioritize blood utilization. In the second week, blood donations recovered, and the hospital postponed elective procedures to ensure staff and personal protective equipment were appropriate for the care of critical patients.


As community activities are disrupted and hospital activities switch from routine operations to pandemic-focused and urgent care-oriented, the blood supply and utilization requires a number of transformations.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; USA.


A preliminary #survey of #ZIKA virus #infection by nucleic acid #test in the volunteer #blood donor samples in #Shenzhen #China (J Med Virol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Med Virol. 2019 Dec 12. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25654. [Epub ahead of print]

A preliminary survey of ZIKA virus infection by nucleic acid test in the volunteer blood donor samples in Shenzhen China.

Zheng X1, Zeng J1, Xu X1, Liu Y2, Heng L1, Wen X1, Li S3, Xu M3, Wu S3, Chen Y3, Chen L3,4.

Author information: 1 Shenzhen Blood Center, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China, 518035. 2 Shenzhen Baoan District Central Blood Station, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China. 3 Provincial Key Laboratory for Transfusion-transmitted Infectious Diseases, Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), Chengdu, Sichuan, China, 610052. 4 Toronto General Research Institute, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5G1L6, Canada.




Although ZIKA virus infection is mainly transmitted through mosquito bite, it can also be transmitted through blood transfusion. More than 500,000 cases of ZIKA virus infection were reported in the Americas from 2015 to 2016. Up till now, over ten cases of imported zika virus infection have been reported due to frequent international exchanges in Shenzhen city of Guangdong Province, China. Unfortunately, there were no data on ZIKA virus infection in Chinese blood donors because it has not been included in routine screening for volunteer blood donors. As such, we performed a preliminary survey of the prevalence of ZIKA virus infection among volunteer blood donors in Shenzhen, China to assess the potential risk of ZIKA virus infection through transfusion.


A total of 9,626 blood donor samples were collected and ZIKA RNA was detected by TMA nucleic acid amplification method with the Panther nucleic acid automatic analysis system of Spain GRIFOLS including Procleix ZIKA Virus Assay reagent. All experiments in this study were conducted in accordance with the standard operating procedure (SOP) of the blood center.


Of the 9626 donor blood samples tested, None of these samples was ZIKV RNA reactive. There was no positive case from ZIKA Virus RNA screening in this preliminary survey.


There was no ZIKA virus presence in blood donors in Shenzhen, China from this preliminary survey. The potential risk of ZIKA virus infection by transfusion is low in Shenzhen at this moment. Therefore there is no need to add ZIKA virus nucleic acid test as a routine screening for blood donors.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Blood < Epidemiology; Endemic infection < Epidemiology; Yellow fever virus < Virus classification

PMID: 31829444 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.25654

Keywords: Zika Virus; Diagnostic tests; Blood safety; China.



[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Infect. 2019 Nov 15. pii: S0163-4453(19)30296-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2019.10.002. [Epub ahead of print]


Slavov SN1, Guaragna Machado RR2, Ferreira AR3, Soares CP2, Araujo DB2, Leal Oliveira DB2, Covas DT3, Durigon EL2, Kashima S3.

Author information: 1 Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Blood Center of Ribeirao Preto, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, 14051-140, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, 14049-900, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address: svetoslav.slavov@hemocentro.fmrp.usp.br. 2 Laboratory of Clinical and Molecular Virology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, 05508-000, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil. 3 Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Blood Center of Ribeirao Preto, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, 14051-140, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil.




Although primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitos, Zika virus (ZIKV) can also be transmitted by blood transfusion, due to the fact that some of the infected donors can establish asymptomatic viremia. ZIKV seroprevalence in Brazilian blood donors is unknown. The main reason for this gap in the knowledge originates from the difficulty in evaluating ZIKV humoral immunity due to antigenic cross-reactivity between the different Brazilian flaviviruses and, in particular, dengue virus (DENV). The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-ZIKV IgG prevalence in blood donors from the Northeast region of the São Paulo State, Brazil, which experienced a ZIKV outbreak in 2016.


We evaluated the ZIKV seroprevalence using the NS1 anti-ZIKV IgG test (Euroimmun), followed by confirmation of the positive and borderline results using the Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT). ZIKV seroprevalence was estimated by testing plasma samples collected in 2015 (before the ZIKV outbreak), 2016 (during the outbreak) and 2017 (after the outbreak). In order to investigate possible antigenic cross – reactivity between ZIKV and DENV we also included samples that were taken well before the ZIKV outbreak, in years 2010 and 2013.


The results obtained by the Euroimmun anti-ZIKV IgG test demonstrated ZIKV seroreactivity in 2015, 2016, and 2017 with prevalences of 5.3%, 12.8% and 13.2%, respectively. The inclusion of blood donor samples from 2010 and 2013, demonstrated anti-ZIKV IgG reactivity only for 2013 (1.7%). The PRNT testing of the ZIKV positive and borderline ELISA reacting samples generated positive results only for the years of 2016 and 2017 (prevalences of 5.6% and 9.1%) which coincided with the introduction of ZIKV in our region.


Our results estimate for the first time the ZIKV seroprevalence among Brazilian blood donors from a region with apparently extensive ZIKV circulation and which, at the same time, is highly endemic for DENV. We detected relatively low ZIKV seroprevalence in blood donors from the studied region probably due to the lower intensity of the outbreak compared to other Brazilian locations. Our study adds to the global understanding of ZIKV circulation and the herd immunity of the exposed population.

Copyright © 2019 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Blood donors; Brazil; PRNT; Seroprevalence; Zika virus

PMID: 31738944 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinf.2019.10.002

Keywords: Zika Virus; Serology; Seroprevalence; Blood safety; Brazil.


#Seroprevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus #HTLV and its associated #factors in #donors of a #blood bank of Medellín – #Colombia, 2014-2018 (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: PLoS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]


Seroprevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus HTLV and its associated factors in donors of a blood bank of Medellín-Colombia, 2014-2018

Jaiberth Antonio Cardona-Arias, Carolina Vélez-Quintero , Olga Victoria Calle-González , Jennifer Florez-Duque, Juan Carlos Zapata

Published: August 12, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221060




Research on HTLV in Colombia is limited; despite being an endemic country there are few studies on the magnitude of this infection. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HTLV I/II and its associated factors in donors to a blood bank of Medellín Colombia, 2014–2018.


This is a cross-sectional study of 52,159 donors with a secondary information source. Seroprevalence of HTLV I/II was determined with its confidence interval and the population characteristics were described by frequency and summary measures. To explore the associated factors, Pearson’s Chi square test, Mann-Whitney U test, crude odds ratios were used and they were adjusted by logistic regression in SPSS 25.0.


88% of the population lived in the metropolitan area, 68.5% belonged to the University. 76.2% were altruistic donors (unpaid donors who did not donate to a specific patient). 24.5% were repetitive (paid) donors. 75% of the donors were under 41 years old. The seroprevalence of HTLV I/II was 0.176% (95% CI = 0.139% -0.213%), being statistically lower in repetitive donors and men.


The seroprevalence of HTLV I/II infection in the studied blood bank is lower than that reported in other blood banks at the departmental and national levels. In Medellín, it was associated with the frequency of donation and gender, which is useful information for the hemovigilance programs of the city.


Citation: Cardona-Arias JA, Vélez-Quintero C, Calle-González OV, Florez-Duque J, Zapata JC (2019) Seroprevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus HTLV and its associated factors in donors of a blood bank of Medellín-Colombia, 2014-2018. PLoS ONE 14(8): e0221060. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221060

Editor: Jason Blackard, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, UNITED STATES

Received: April 11, 2019; Accepted: July 29, 2019; Published: August 12, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Cardona-Arias et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: This research relies upon salary support for the authors. JAC-A was supported by University of Antioquia and Cooperative University of Colombia. CV-Q, OVC-G, and JF-D were supported, as students, by the University of Antioquia. JCZ salary was supported by the Institute of Human Virology (IHV), University of Maryland School of Medicine. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: HTLV-I/II; Seroprevalence; Blood safety; Colombia.


#Pseudomonas poae–Associated #Fatal #Septic #Transfusion #Reaction, Peoria, #Illinois, #USA, 2017 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 8—August 2019 / Synopsis

Pseudomonas poae–Associated Fatal Septic Transfusion Reaction, Peoria, Illinois, USA, 2017

Therese S. Woodring and John J. Farrell

Author affiliations: University of Illinois College of Medicine, Peoria, Illinois, USA (T.S. Woodring, J.J. Farrell); OSF System Laboratory, Peoria (J.J. Farrell)



In the United States, fatal transfusion-transmitted infections from red blood cell units are rare. Although this pattern mostly reflects how inhospitable refrigerated red blood cell units are to contaminant growth, fatalities caused by microorganisms that can grow at storage temperature (4°C), but not in standard clinical blood cultures at 37°C, are probably underestimated. We analyzed a fatal red blood cell transfusion in Peoria, Illinois, USA, that occurred in 2017. Samples from the patient’s whole blood and the red blood cell unit remained culture-negative during the investigation, despite direct visualization of gram-negative bacilli within the unit immediately after transfusion. We identified the bacteria as Pseudomonas poae, a nonpathogenic pseudomonad carrying multiple cold-shock domain protein genes, and confirmed its cold tolerance and inability to grow at 37°C. Our work indicates transfusion reaction workups need to include testing for psychrophilic organisms, which could explain the cause of other apparently culture-negative transfusion reactions.

Keywords: Blood safety; Pseudomonas poae; USA; Illinois.


#Seroreactivity to #Chikungunya and #WNV Viruses in #Rwandan #Blood Donors (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Seroreactivity to Chikungunya and West Nile Viruses in Rwandan Blood Donors

Eric Seruyange, Karl Ljungberg, Claude Mambo Muvunyi, Jean Bosco Gahutu, Swaibu Katare, José Nyamusore, Yong-Dae Gwon, Magnus Evander, Heléne Norder, Peter Liljeström, and Tomas Bergström

Published Online: 27 Jun 2019




Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and West Nile virus (WNV) have previously been reported from several African countries, including those bordering Rwanda where they may have originated. However, there have been no serosurveillance reports from Rwanda regarding these two viral pathogens.

In this article, we present the first study of immunoglobulin G (IgG) seroreactivity of CHIKV and WNV in Rwandan blood donor samples.


Blood donors from Rwanda (n = 874) and Sweden (n = 199) were tested for IgG reactivity against CHIKV, using an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with the E1 envelope protein fused with p62 as antigen, and against WNV using a commercial kit. Data on mosquito distribution were obtained from the 2012 assessment of yellow fever virus circulation in Rwanda.


Seroreactivity to CHIKV was high in Rwanda (63.0%), when compared with Swedish donors, where only 8.5% were IgG positive. However, a cross-reactivity to O’nyong’nyong virus in neutralization test was noted in Rwandan donors. No significant difference in WNV seroreactivity was found (10.4% for Rwandan and 14.1% for Swedish donors). The relatively high seroreactivity to WNV among Swedish donors could partly be explained by cross-reactivity with tick-borne encephalitis virus prevalent in Sweden. Donors from the Eastern Province of Rwanda had the highest IgG reactivity to the two investigated viruses (86.7% for CHIKV and 33.3% for WNV). Five genera of mosquitoes were found in Rwanda where Culex was the most common (82.5%). The vector of CHIKV, Aedes, accounted for 9.6% of mosquitoes and this species was most commonly found in the Eastern Province.


Our results showed high seroreactivity to CHIKV in Rwandan donors. The highest IgG reactivity to CHIKV, and to WNV, was found in the Eastern Province, the area reporting the highest number of mosquito vectors for these two viruses. Infection control by eliminating mosquito-breeding sites in population-dense areas is recommended, especially in eastern Rwanda.

Keywords: Arbovirus; Chikungunya virus; WNV; Serology; Seroprevalence; Rwanda.