Use of #amantadine in a patient with #SARS-Cov‐2 (J Med Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Medical Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Use of amantadine in a patient with SARS‐Cov‐2

Gonzalo Emiliano Aranda‐Abreu,  José Dolores Aranda‐Martínez,  Ramiro Araújo

First published: 15 June 2020 | DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26179

This article has been accepted for publication and undergone full peer review but has not been through the copyediting, typesetting, pagination and proofreading process, which may lead to differences between this version and the Version of Record. Please cite this article as doi: 10.1002/jmv.26179

 

Abstract

A 57‐year old man with cold symptoms and muscle pain, with elevated blood glucose of 200mg/dL, was prescribed paracetamol (500mg every 6 hours) and naproxen (550mg daily for 5 days) and continued to take 850mg of metformin twice a day for the treatment of 10‐year‐old type 2 diabetes. Due to a persistent cough, 500 mg of azithromycin was added for three days, but the symptoms continued, and he had to go to his community hospital, where he got a pharyngeal exudate, to do a real‐time PCR test for SARS‐Cov‐2 which was positive.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Diabetes; Antivirals; Amantadine.

——

#Genotyping and #Reassortment #Analysis of Highly Pathogenic #Avian #Influenza Viruses #H5N8 and #H5N2 From #Egypt Reveals Successive Annual #Replacement of Genotypes (Infect Genet Evol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Infect Genet Evol. 2020 May 23;104375. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104375. Online ahead of print.

Genotyping and Reassortment Analysis of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses H5N8 and H5N2 From Egypt Reveals Successive Annual Replacement of Genotypes

Kareem E Hassan 1, Noha Saad 2, Hassanein H Abozeid 3, Salama Shany 4, Magdy F El-Kady 4, Abdelsatar Arafa 2, Azza A A El-Sawah 4, Florian Pfaff 5, Hafez M Hafez 6, Martin Beer 5, Timm Harder 7

Affiliations: 1 Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute, Greifswald, Riems, Germany; Department of Poultry Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62511, Egypt. 2 National Laboratory for Veterinary Quality Control on Poultry Production, Animal Health Research Institute, 12618, Dokki, Giza, Egypt. 3 Department of Poultry Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt. 4 Department of Poultry Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62511, Egypt. 5 Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute, Greifswald, Riems, Germany. 6 Institute of Poultry Diseases, Free University Berlin, Berlin, Germany. 7 Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute, Greifswald, Riems, Germany. Electronic address: Timm.Harder@fli.de.

PMID: 32454245 DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104375

 

Abstract

Highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1, clade 2.2.1, and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 viruses, G1-B lineage, are endemic in poultry in Egypt and have co-circulated for almost a decade. Surprisingly, no inter-subtypic reassortment events have been reported from the field during that time. After the introduction of HPAIV H5N8, clade 2.3.4.4b, in Egyptian poultry in 2016, suddenly HP H5N2 reassortants with H9N2 viruses emerged. The current analyses focussed on studying 32 duck flocks, 4 broiler chicken flocks, and 1 turkey flock, suffering from respiratory manifestations with moderate to high mortality reared in two Egyptian governorates during 2019. Real-time RT-PCR substantiated the presence of HP H5N8 in 21 of the 37 investigated flocks with mixed infection of H9N2 in two of them. HP H5N1 was not detected. Full hemagglutinin (HA) sequencing of 10 samples with full-genome sequencing of three of them revealed presence of a single genotype. Very few substituting mutations in the HA protein were detected versus previous Egyptian HA sequences of that clade. Interestingly, amino acid substitutions in the Matrix (M2) and the Neuraminidase (NA) proteins associated with conferring both Amantadine and Oseltamivir resistance were present. Systematic reassortment analysis of all publicly available Egyptian whole genome sequences of HP H5N8 (n = 23), reassortant HP H5N2 (n = 2) and LP H9N2 (n = 53) viruses revealed presence of at least seven different genotypes of HPAI H5Nx viruses of clade 2.3.4.4b in Egypt since 2016. For H9N2 viruses, at least three genotypes were distinguishable. Heat mapping and tanglegram analyses suggested that several internal gene segments in both HP H5Nx and H9N2 viruses originated from avian influenza viruses circulating in wild bird species in Egypt. Based on the limited set of whole genome sequences available, annual replacement patterns of HP H5Nx genotypes emerged and suggested selective advantages of certain genotypes since 2016.

Keywords: Beast analysis; Egypt; Genotyping; H5N2; H9N2; Highly pathogenic avian influenza; Phylogenetic analysis; Reassortment; Subtype H5N8; Tanglegram.

Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Conflict of interest statement. Declaration of Competing Interest: The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N2; H5N8; H9N2; Reassortant strain; Poultry; Wild Birds; Egypt; Antivirals; Drugs Resistance; Amantadine; Oseltamivir.

——

The Potential of #Memantine and related #adamantanes such as #amantadine, to reduce the #neurotoxic effects of #COVID19, including #ARDS and to reduce viral replication through lysosomal effects (J Med Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Medical Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

The Potential of Memantine and related adamantanes such as amantadine, to reduce the neurotoxic effects of COVID‐19, including ARDS and to reduce viral replication through lysosomal effects

Steven R. Brenner

First published: 21 May 2020 | DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26030

No conflict of interest.

This article has been accepted for publication and undergone full peer review but has not been through the copyediting, typesetting, pagination and proofreading process, which may lead to differences between this version and the Version of Record. Please cite this article as doi: 10.1002/jmv.26030

 

Abstract

SARS‐CoV‐2 appears to have neurotropic aspects with neurotoxicity through interaction with ACE2 in the medullary brainstem, causing glutamate toxicity in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), increased sympathetic tone, hypertension and pulmonary capillary leakage of fluid into the alveoli, resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

Memantine, a moderate affinity, uncompetitive N‐Methyl‐D‐aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist which prevents excess calcium entry into cells is commonly utilized in treating patients with Alzheimer’s disease, and may inhibit the neurotoxicity induced by SARS‐CoV‐2 in the medullary brain stem to avoid development of ARDS.

Memantine and related adamantine such as amantadine, which is utilized in Parkinson’s disease and influenza, may have some anti‐viral potential as well.

Memantine and similar adamantines may have potential as repurposed medicines for treating Covid19 with inhibition of neurotoxicity, ARDS and viral replication, since Memantine appears to be lysosomotropic.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Antivirals; Adamantanes; Amantadine; Memantine.

——

Historical #Origins and #Zoonotic #Potential of #Avian #Influenza Virus #H9N2 in #Tunisia Revealed by Bayesian Analysis and Molecular Characterization (Arch Virol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Arch Virol. 2020 Apr 25. doi: 10.1007/s00705-020-04624-4. Online ahead of print.

Historical Origins and Zoonotic Potential of Avian Influenza Virus H9N2 in Tunisia Revealed by Bayesian Analysis and Molecular Characterization

Marwa Arbi 1, Oussema Souiai 2, Natalia Rego 3, Imen Larbi 1, Hugo Naya 3 4, Abdeljelil Ghram 1, Mehdi Houimel 5

Affiliations: 1 Laboratory of Epidemiology and Veterinary Microbiology, LR19IPT03, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, University Tunis El Manar, 13, Place Pasteur, BP74, 1002, Tunis, Belvedere, Tunisia. 2 Laboratory of Bioinformatics, Biomathematics and Biostatistics, LR16IPT09, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar, Tunis, Tunisia. 3 Bioinformatics Unit, Institut Pasteur de Montevideo, Mataojo 2020, 11400, Montevideo, Uruguay. 4 Departmento de Producción Animal y Pasturas, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad de la República, Av. Gral. Eugenio Garzón 780, 12900, Montevideo, Uruguay. 5 Laboratory of Epidemiology and Veterinary Microbiology, LR19IPT03, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, University Tunis El Manar, 13, Place Pasteur, BP74, 1002, Tunis, Belvedere, Tunisia. mehdi.houimel@pasteur.rns.tn.

PMID: 32335769 DOI: 10.1007/s00705-020-04624-4

 

Abstract

During 2009-2012, several outbreaks of avian influenza virus H9N2 were reported in Tunisian poultry. The circulating strains carried in their hemagglutinins the human-like marker 226L, which is known to be important for avian-to-human viral transmission. To investigate the origins and zoonotic potential of the Tunisian H9N2 viruses, five new isolates were identified during 2012-2016 and their whole genomes were sequenced. Bayesian-based phylogeny showed that the HA, NA, M and NP segments belong to the G1-like lineage. The PB1, PB2, PA and NS segments appeared to have undergone multiple intersubtype reassortments and to be only distantly related to all of the Eurasian lineages (G1-like, Y280-like and Korean-like). The spatiotemporal dynamic of virus spread revealed that the H9N2 virus was transferred to Tunisia from the UAE through Asian and European pathways. As indicated by Bayesian analysis of host traits, ducks and terrestrial birds played an important role in virus transmission to Tunisia. The subtype phylodynamics showed that the history of the PB1 and PB2 segments was marked by intersubtype reassortments with H4N6, H10N4 and H2N2 subtypes. Most of these transitions between locations, hosts and subtypes were statistically supported (BF > 3) and not influenced by sampling bias. Evidence of genetic evolution was observed in the predicted amino acid sequences of the viral proteins of recent Tunisian H9N2 viruses, which were characterized by the acquisition of new mutations involved in virus adaptation to avian and mammalian hosts and amantadine resistance. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of the evolutionary history of Tunisian H9N2 viruses and highlights the zoonotic risk associated with their circulation in poultry, indicating the need for continuous surveillance of their molecular evolution.

Grant support LR19IPT06/Tunisian Ministry for Research and Technology

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H9N2; Poultry; Reassortant strain; Tunisia; Antivirals; Drugs resistance; Amantadine.

—–

#Genetic #variability of #avian #influenza virus subtype #H5N8 in #Egypt in 2017 and 2018 (Arch Virol., abstract)

[Source: Archives of Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Genetic variability of avian influenza virus subtype H5N8 in Egypt in 2017 and 2018

Nahed Yehia, Wafaa M. M. Hassan, Ahmed Sedeek & Mohamed H. Elhusseiny

Archives of Virology (2020)

 

Abstract

Since the incursion of avian influenza virus subtype H5N8 in Egypt in late 2016, it has spread rapidly, causing severe losses in poultry production. Multiple introductions of different reassorted strains were observed in 2017. In this study, a genetic characterization of the HA gene was carried out with 31 isolates selected from different governorates and sectors. Fifteen isolates were selected for NA gene sequence analysis. The HA and NA genes were divided into two subgroups (I and II) with positive selection pressure identified at positions 174 and 29, respectively. The HA gene contained two novel mutations in the antigenic sites, A and E. The HA nucleotide sequence identity ranged from 77 to 90% with different vaccine seeds. Full-genome sequence analysis was carried out for eight viruses, representing different governorates and sectors, to identify the predominant reassorted strain in Egypt. All viruses were similar to a reassorted strain of clade 2.3.4.4b that has been identified in Germany, among other countries. Analysis of these viruses revealed mutations specific to Egyptian strains and not the original virus characterized in 2017 (A/duck/Egypt/F446/2017), with a novel antiviral resistance marker, V27A, indicating resistance to amantadine in the M2 protein of two strains. The results indicate increased variability of circulating H5N8 viruses compared to earlier viruses sequenced in 2016 and 2017. The predominant reassorted virus circulating in 2017 and 2018 originated from an early 2017 strain. It is important to continue this surveillance of avian influenza viruses to monitor the evolution of circulating viruses.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N8; Reassortant strain; Poultry; Egypt; Antivirals; Drugs resistance; Amantadine.

—–

Potentially #repurposing #adamantanes for #COVID19 (J Med Virol., summary)

[Source: Journal of Medical Virology, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Potentially repurposing adamantanes for COVID‐19

Nevio Cimolai MD, FRCP(C)

First published: 16 March 2020 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25752

___

To the Editor ,The impressive array of clinical trials outlined by Zhang et al1 in a short format speaks well towards the impetus of finding effective antiviral chemotherapy for COVID‐19. Early reports of the potential efficacy of chloroquine in such clinical studies illustrates also the rapid progress that can be made in the current era.2 The latter theme, in particular, emerges from previous knowledge that chloroquine has been active in vitro against SARS‐CoV, feline infectious peritonitis virus, bovine coronavirus, human coronavirus 229E, and human coronavirus OC43 using a variety of test methods.3-7

(…)

___

CONFLICT OF INTERESTS: The authors declare that there are no conflict of interests. Funding was not sought for this publication. There is no third party support including that from the pharmaceutical industry.

Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Antivirals; Amantadine; Rimantadine; Memantine.

——

#Evolution of highly pathogenic #H7N3 #avian #influenza viruses in #Mexico (Zoonoses Public Health, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Zoonoses Public Health. 2020 Jan 7. doi: 10.1111/zph.12673. [Epub ahead of print]

Evolution of highly pathogenic H7N3 avian influenza viruses in Mexico.

Trovão NS1, Talavera GA2, Nelson MI1, Perez de la Rosa JD3.

Author information: 1 Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. 2 Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Yucatán, Mexico. 3 Centro Nacional de Servicios de Constatación en Salud Animal (CENAPA), Morelos, Mexico.

 

Abstract

Highly pathogenic H7N3 influenza A viruses have persisted in poultry in Mexico since 2012, diversifying into multiple lineages that have spread to three Mexican states, as of 2016. The H7N3 viruses segregate into three distinct clades that are geographically structured. All 2016 viruses are resistant to adamantane antiviral drugs and have an extended 24-nucleotide insertion at the HA cleavage site that was acquired from host 28S ribosomal RNA.

Published 2020. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

KEYWORDS: BEAST; H7N3; H7N3 subtype; avian influenza virus; evolutionary dynamics; influenza in birds; phylogenetics

PMID: 31912652 DOI: 10.1111/zph.12673

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N3; Poultry; Mexico; Antivirals; Drugs Resistance; Amantadine.

——

The #evolution and #genetic #diversity of #avian #influenza A(#H9N2) viruses in #Cambodia, 2015 – 2016 (PLOS One, abstract)

[Source: PLOS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

The evolution and genetic diversity of avian influenza A(H9N2) viruses in Cambodia, 2015 – 2016

Annika Suttie, Songha Tok, Sokhoun Yann, Ponnarath Keo, Srey Viseth Horm, Merryn Roe, Matthew Kaye, San Sorn, Davun Holl, Sothyra Tum, Ian G. Barr, Aeron C. Hurt, Andrew R. Greenhill,  [ … ], Paul F. Horwood

___

Published: December 9, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225428

 

Abstract

Low pathogenic A(H9N2) subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) were originally detected in Cambodian poultry in 2013, and now circulate endemically. We sequenced and characterised 64 A(H9N2) AIVs detected in Cambodian poultry (chickens and ducks) from January 2015 to May 2016. All A(H9) viruses collected in 2015 and 2016 belonged to a new BJ/94-like h9-4.2.5 sub-lineage that emerged in the region during or after 2013, and was distinct to previously detected Cambodian viruses. Overall, there was a reduction of genetic diversity of H9N2 since 2013, however two genotypes were detected in circulation, P and V, with extensive reassortment between the viruses. Phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship between A(H9N2) AIVs detected in Cambodian and Vietnamese poultry, highlighting cross-border trade/movement of live, domestic poultry between the countries. Wild birds may also play a role in A(H9N2) transmission in the region. Some genes of the Cambodian isolates frequently clustered with zoonotic A(H7N9), A(H9N2) and A(H10N8) viruses, suggesting a common ecology. Molecular analysis showed 100% of viruses contained the hemagglutinin (HA) Q226L substitution, which favours mammalian receptor type binding. All viruses were susceptible to the neuraminidase inhibitor antivirals; however, 41% contained the matrix (M2) S31N substitution associated with resistance to adamantanes. Overall, Cambodian A(H9N2) viruses possessed factors known to increase zoonotic potential, and therefore their evolution should be continually monitored.

___

Citation: Suttie A, Tok S, Yann S, Keo P, Horm SV, Roe M, et al. (2019) The evolution and genetic diversity of avian influenza A(H9N2) viruses in Cambodia, 2015 – 2016. PLoS ONE 14(12): e0225428. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225428

Editor: Charles J. Russell, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, UNITED STATES

Received: August 28, 2019; Accepted: November 4, 2019; Published: December 9, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Suttie et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: This publication is the result of work conducted under a cooperative agreement with the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), grant number IDSEP140020-01-00 (PH). The study was also funded, in part, by the US Agency for International Development (grant No. AID-442-G-14-00005) (PH). The Melbourne WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza is supported by the Australian Government Department of Health (IB). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H9N2; H7N9; H9N2; H10N8; Reassortant strain; Cambodia; Antivirals; Drugs Resistance; Amantadine; Oseltamivir; Zanamivir.

—–

#Diversity of A(#H5N1) clade 2.3.2.1c #avian #influenza viruses with evidence of #reassortment in #Cambodia, 2014-2016 (PLOS One, abstract)

[Source: PLOS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Diversity of A(H5N1) clade 2.3.2.1c avian influenza viruses with evidence of reassortment in Cambodia, 2014-2016

Annika Suttie,  Songha Tok, Sokhoun Yann, Ponnarath Keo, Srey Viseth Horm, Merryn Roe, Matthew Kaye, San Sorn, Davun Holl, Sothyra Tum, Philippe Buchy, Ian Barr, Aeron Hurt,  [ … ], Paul F. Horwood

___

Published: December 9, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0226108

 

Abstract

In Cambodia, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) subtype viruses circulate endemically causing poultry outbreaks and zoonotic human cases. To investigate the genomic diversity and development of endemicity of the predominantly circulating clade 2.3.2.1c A(H5N1) viruses, we characterised 68 AIVs detected in poultry, the environment and from a single human A(H5N1) case from January 2014 to December 2016. Full genomes were generated for 42 A(H5N1) viruses. Phylogenetic analysis shows that five clade 2.3.2.1c genotypes, designated KH1 to KH5, were circulating in Cambodia during this period. The genotypes arose through multiple reassortment events with the neuraminidase (NA) and internal genes belonging to H5N1 clade 2.3.2.1a, clade 2.3.2.1b or A(H9N2) lineages. Phylogenies suggest that the Cambodian AIVs were derived from viruses circulating between Cambodian and Vietnamese poultry. Molecular analyses show that these viruses contained the hemagglutinin (HA) gene substitutions D94N, S133A, S155N, T156A, T188I and K189R known to increase binding to the human-type α2,6-linked sialic acid receptors. Two A(H5N1) viruses displayed the M2 gene S31N or A30T substitutions indicative of adamantane resistance, however, susceptibility testing towards neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir, zanamivir, lananmivir and peramivir) of a subset of thirty clade 2.3.2.1c viruses showed susceptibility to all four drugs. This study shows that A(H5N1) viruses continue to reassort with other A(H5N1) and A(H9N2) viruses that are endemic in the region, highlighting the risk of introduction and emergence of novel A(H5N1) genotypes in Cambodia.

___

Citation: Suttie A, Tok S, Yann S, Keo P, Horm SV, Roe M, et al. (2019) Diversity of A(H5N1) clade 2.3.2.1c avian influenza viruses with evidence of reassortment in Cambodia, 2014-2016. PLoS ONE 14(12): e0226108. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0226108

Editor: Charles J. Russell, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, UNITED STATES

Received: August 7, 2019; Accepted: November 18, 2019; Published: December 9, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Suttie et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: This publication is the result of work conducted under a cooperative agreement with the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), grant number IDSEP140020-01-00. Its contents and conclusions are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not represent the official views of HHS. The study was also funded, in part, by the US Agency for International Development (grant No. AID-442-G-14-00005) and partially funded through the UK Research and Innovation Global Challenges Research Fund to The Consortium of Animal Market Networks to Assess Risk of Emerging Infectious Diseases Through Enhanced Surveillance (CANARIES; grant No. GCRFNGR3\1497). Annika Suttie is funded by an Australian Government Research Training Program Scholarship and a Faculty of Science and Technology Research Scholarship from Federation University. The Melbourne WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza is supported by the Australian Government Department of Health. GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA provided support in the form of salary for an author [PB], but did not have any additional role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. The specific role of this author is articulated in the ‘author contributions’ section. The authors are solely responsible for final content and interpretation.

Competing interests: GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA provided support in the form of salary for an author [PB]. This does not alter our adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; H9N2; Reassortant strains; Poultry; Human; Antivirals; Drugs Resistance; Amantadine; Oseltamivir; Zanamivir; Cambodia.

——

#Genotypic #evolution and #epidemiological characteristics of #H9N2 #influenza virus in #Shandong Province, #China (Poult Sci., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Poult Sci. 2019 Sep 1;98(9):3488-3495. doi: 10.3382/ps/pez151.

Genotypic evolution and epidemiological characteristics of H9N2 influenza virus in Shandong Province, China.

Li Y1, Liu M1, Sun Q1, Zhang H1, Zhang H1, Jiang S1, Liu S1, Huang Y2.

Author information: 1 College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, China. 2 Shandong Key Laboratory of Animal Disease Control and Breeding, Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan 250100, China.

 

Abstract

H9N2 avian influenza has been prevalent in chicken flocks of China for years. In the first half year of 2018, clinical cases of suspected H9N2 infection were collected from chicken flocks in Shandong province. Nine strains of H9N2 influenza virus were isolated. The pathological changes of the dead chickens were mainly respiratory inflammation, renal swelling, and secondary infection. The microscopic lesions were consistent with the pathogenic characteristics of H9N2 influenza virus. From November 2017 to June 2018, a total of 3,380 serum samples were randomly collected from commercial laying hens in Shandong Province. The H9 antibody levels were tested with the isolated strain (CK/SD/231/17) as the antigen. It showed that the average of antibody titers of H9 avian influenza was 9.24 1og2. Hemagglutination inhibition experiments were conducted on chicken serum with the vaccine virus and the isolated virus (CK/SD/231/17) as the antigens. It was found that the antibody titer measured with the vaccine virus was 1 or 2 titers higher than the isolated strain. It indicated that the antigenicity of H9N2 circulating strain was different from that of vaccine strain. The nucleotide sequences of HA gene of these recent H9N2 avian influenza virus isolates shared homologies from 93.8 to 99.9%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the eight gene segments of the viruses were in the same clades with G57 gene reference strain. The amino acid site analysis of influenza resistance showed that the virus was sensitive to neuraminidase inhibitors and resistant to amantadine.

Highlights:

The protection rate of the H9N2 AIV vaccine almost reached 100% before 2016, but the antibody level of serum samples showed high diversity in this study, which means the poultry were infected. The antigenicity of isolated H9N2 strains was different from that of vaccine strain. Current available vaccines may provide only limited protection.

© 2019 Poultry Science Association Inc.

KEYWORDS: CK/GD/SS/94; CK/SH/F/98; H9N2 subtype; Shandong; avian influenza

PMID: 30941436 DOI: 10.3382/ps/pez151 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H9N2; Poultry; Vaccines; Antivirals; Drugs Resistance; Oseltamivir; Amantadine; Shandong; China.

——