#Avian #Influenza A Viruses among Occupationally Exposed #Populations, #China, 2014–2016 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 12—December 2019 / Research

Avian Influenza A Viruses among Occupationally Exposed Populations, China, 2014–2016

Chuansong Quan1, Qianli Wang1, Jie Zhang, Min Zhao, Qigang Dai, Ting Huang, Zewu Zhang, Shenghua Mao, Yifei Nie, Jun Liu, Yun Xie, Baorong Zhang, Yuhai Bi, Weifeng Shi, Peipei Liu, Dayan Wang, Luzhao Feng, Hongjie Yu, William J. Liu  , and George F. Gao

Author affiliations: Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China (C. Quan, J. Zhang, P. Liu, D. Wang, L. Feng, W.J. Liu, G.F. Gao); Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, China (C. Quan, W. Shi); Fudan University, Shanghai, China (Q. Wang, H. Yu); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (M. Zhao, Y. Bi, G.F. Gao); Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing, China (Q. Dai); Sichuan Provincial Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Chengdu, China (T. Huang); Dongguan Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Dongguan, China (Z. Zhang); Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai (S. Mao); Henan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Zhengzhou, China (Y. Nie); Zaozhuang Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Zaozhuang, China (J. Liu); Jiangxi Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanchang, China (Y. Xie); Aviation General Hospital, Beijing (B. Zhang)

 

Abstract

To determine the seroprevalence and seroconversion of avian influenza virus (AIV) antibodies in poultry workers, we conducted a seroepidemiologic study in 7 areas of China during December 2014–April 2016. We used viral isolation and reverse transcription PCR to detect AIVs in specimens from live poultry markets. We analyzed 2,124 serum samples obtained from 1,407 poultry workers by using hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization assays. We noted seroprevalence of AIV antibodies for subtypes H9N2, H7N9, H6N1, H5N1-SC29, H5N6, H5N1-SH199, and H6N6. In serum from participants with longitudinal samples, we noted seroconversion, with >4-fold rise in titers, for H9N2, H7N9, H6N1, H5N1-SC29, H6N6, H5N6, and H5N1-SH199 subtypes. We found no evidence of H10N8 subtype. The distribution of AIV antibodies provided evidence of asymptomatic infection. We correlated AIV antibody prevalence in live poultry markets with increased risk for H7N9 and H9N2 infection among poultry workers.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Human; China; Serology; Seroprevalence; H5N1; H5N6; H6N1; H6N6; H7N9; H9N2; Live poultry Markets.

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SUSCEPTIBILITY OF LAUGHING #GULLS (LEUCOPHAEUS ATRICILLA) AND #MALLARDS (ANAS PLATYRHYNCHOS) TO RUDDY TURNSTONE (ARENARIA INTERPRES MORINELLA) ORIGIN TYPE A #INFLUENZA VIRUSES (J Wildl Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Wildl Dis. 2019 Sep 18. [Epub ahead of print]

SUSCEPTIBILITY OF LAUGHING GULLS (LEUCOPHAEUS ATRICILLA) AND MALLARDS (ANAS PLATYRHYNCHOS) TO RUDDY TURNSTONE (ARENARIA INTERPRES MORINELLA) ORIGIN TYPE A INFLUENZA VIRUSES.

Bahnson CS1, Poulson RL1, Hollander LP1, Bradley JAC1, Stallknecht DE1.

Author information: 1 Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, 589 D. W. Brooks Drive, College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Population Health, The University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA.

 

Abstract

Delaware Bay, USA is the only documented location where influenza A virus (IAV) is consistently detected in a shorebird species, the Ruddy Turnstone (RUTU; Arenaria interpres morinella). Although IAV in shorebirds has been well studied at this site for decades, the importance of other species in the avian community as potential sources for the IAVs that infect RUTUs each spring remains unclear. We determined the susceptibility of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and Laughing gulls (Leucophaeus atricilla), to IAVs isolated from RUTUs in order to gain insight into the potential host range of these viruses. Captive-reared gulls were challenged with RUTU-origin H6N1, H10N7, H11N9, H12N4, and H13N6 IAV, as well as Mallard-origin H6N1 and H11N9. We challenged captive-reared Mallards with the same viruses, except for H13N6. At a biologically plausible challenge dose (104 50% embryo infective doses/0.1 mL), one of five gulls challenged with both H6N1 IAVs shed virus. The remaining gulls were resistant to infection with all viruses. In contrast, all Mallards were infected and shed virus. The H12N4 Mallard challenge group was an exception with no birds infected. These results indicated that Mallards are permissive to infection with viruses originating from a shorebird host and that interspecies transmission could occur. In contrast, host adaptation of IAVs to RUTUs may compromise their ability to be transmitted back to gulls.

KEYWORDS: Delaware Bay; Laughing gull; Mallard; Ruddy Turnstone; influenza A virus

PMID: 31532732

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Wild Birds; H6N1; H10N7; H11N9; H12N4; H13N6; USA.

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Positive charge of Arg-201 on #hemagglutinin is required for the #binding of #H6N1 #avian #influenza virus to its target through a two-step process (Virus Res., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Virus Res. 2019 May;265:132-137. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2019.03.018. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Positive charge of Arg-201 on hemagglutinin is required for the binding of H6N1 avian influenza virus to its target through a two-step process.

Hsieh MS1, Chang YC2, He JL3, Juang RH4.

Author information: 1 Institute of Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan. 2 Institute of Cellular and Organismic Biology, Academia Sinica, No. 128, Section 2 Academia Road, Nankang, Taipei, 115, Taiwan. 3 Department of Post-Baccalaureate Veterinary Medicine, Asia University, Taichung, 413, Taiwan. 4 Institute of Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan; Department of Biochemical Science and Technology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan. Electronic address: juang@ntu.edu.tw.

 

Abstract

In our previous study, we produced a monoclonal antibody EB2 that recognized an epitope in the HA1 domain on the hemagglutinin (HA) of H6N1 influenza virus (A/chicken/Taiwan/2838 V/00). The residue Arg-201 (R201) on this epitope was protected by the glycan at Asn-167 (N167) from tryptic digestion; therefore, the infectivity of the virus was retained. R201 was extremely conserved in various subtypes of the influenza virus. To explore the role of R201 and the protecting glycan, we developed a bi-cistronic baculovirus expression system for the production of H6HA1 and H6HA0 (nearly full-length HA), which were glycosylated in insect cells. The expressed H6HA1 was mostly found in the trimeric form, and the H6HA0 protein was only found in the monomeric form. The trimeric H6HA1 was resistant to tryptic digestion; however, it could not bind to fetuin, a glycoprotein containing sialylated N-linked and O-linked glycans. By contrast, the monomeric H6HA0 could bind to fetuin but was sensitive to tryptic digestion. We found that the positive charge on R201 was critical for binding HA to the negatively charged surface of host cells because the mutant R201A of H6HA0 lost its binding capacity substantially. Moreover, this binding capacity was dependent on the pH value and inhibited by free electrically charged amino acids. We propose a two-step model for binding the influenza virus with a host cell. The first step involved the specific recognition of the receptor binding site on HA to the sialylated glycan on the host cell. After the virus is engulfed by the acidic endosome, R201 could bind to the cell surface with stronger interactions and trigger the fusion process.

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza virus; Charged amino acid; H6N1 subtype; Hemagglutinin; Receptor binding site; Two-step binding process

PMID: 30926385 DOI: 10.1016/j.virusres.2019.03.018 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H6N1.

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Development of #American-Lineage #Influenza #H5N2 #Reassortant #Vaccine Viruses for #Pandemic #Preparedness (Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Viruses. 2019 Jun 11;11(6). pii: E543. doi: 10.3390/v11060543.

Development of American-Lineage Influenza H5N2 Reassortant Vaccine Viruses for Pandemic Preparedness.

Chen PL1,2, Hu AY3, Lin CY4, Weng TC5, Lai CC6,7, Tseng YF8, Cheng MC9,10, Chia MY11,12, Lin WC13, Yeh CT14, Su IJ15, Lee MS16.

Author information: 1 National Institution of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, National Health Research Institutes (NHRI), Zhunan, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan. letitia@nhri.org.tw. 2 Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan. letitia@nhri.org.tw. 3 National Institution of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, National Health Research Institutes (NHRI), Zhunan, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan. alanhu@nhri.org.tw. 4 National Institution of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, National Health Research Institutes (NHRI), Zhunan, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan. grayingaries@outlook.com. 5 National Institution of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, National Health Research Institutes (NHRI), Zhunan, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan. wtc@nhri.org.tw. 6 National Institution of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, National Health Research Institutes (NHRI), Zhunan, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan. laicc2@nhri.org.tw. 7 College of Life Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan. laicc2@nhri.org.tw. 8 National Institution of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, National Health Research Institutes (NHRI), Zhunan, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan. yufents@gmail.com. 9 Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan. mccheng@mail.npust.edu.tw. 10 Animal Health Research Institutes, Danshui, New Taipei City 25158, Taiwan. mccheng@mail.npust.edu.tw. 11 National Institution of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, National Health Research Institutes (NHRI), Zhunan, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan. chiaminyuan@dragon.nchu.edu.tw. 12 Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan. chiaminyuan@dragon.nchu.edu.tw. 13 Institute of Preventive Medicine, National Defence Medical Centre, Taipei 23742, Taiwan. spps057@gmail.com. 14 Institute of Preventive Medicine, National Defence Medical Centre, Taipei 23742, Taiwan. yyhome@mail.ndmctsgh.edu.tw. 15 National Institution of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, National Health Research Institutes (NHRI), Zhunan, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan. suihjen0704@stust.edu.tw. 16 National Institution of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, National Health Research Institutes (NHRI), Zhunan, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan. minshi@nhri.org.tw.

 

Abstract

Novel low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H5N2 viruses hit poultry farms in Taiwan in 2003, and evolved into highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses in 2010. These viruses are reassortant viruses containing HA and NA genes from American-lineage H5N2 and six internal genes from local H6N1 viruses. According to a serological survey, the Taiwan H5N2 viruses can cause asymptomatic infections in poultry workers. Therefore, a development of influenza H5N2 vaccines is desirable for pandemic preparation. In this study, we employed reverse genetics to generate a vaccine virus having HA and NA genes from A/Chicken/CY/A2628/2012 (E7, LPAI) and six internal genes from a Vero cell-adapted high-growth H5N1 vaccine virus (Vero-15). The reassortant H5N2 vaccine virus, E7-V15, presented high-growth efficiency in Vero cells (512 HAU, 107.6 TCID50/mL), and passed all tests for qualification of candidate vaccine viruses. In ferret immunization, two doses of inactivated whole virus antigens (3 μg of HA protein) adjuvanted with alum could induce robust antibody response (HI titre 113.14). In conclusion, we have established reverse genetics to generate a qualified reassortant H5N2 vaccine virus for further development.

KEYWORDS: American-lineage H5N2 vaccine; American-lineage reassortant influenza viruses; Pandemic preparedness

PMID: 31212631 DOI: 10.3390/v11060543

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; H5N2; H6N1; Reassortant Strain; Vaccines.

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An #avian #influenza virus #H6N1 #outbreak in commercial #layers: case report and reproduction of the disease (Avian Pathol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Avian Pathol. 2019 Apr;48(2):98-110. doi: 10.1080/03079457.2018.1551612. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

An avian influenza virus H6N1 outbreak in commercial layers: case report and reproduction of the disease.

Landman WJM1, Germeraad EA2, Kense MJ1.

Author information: 1a GD – Animal Health , Deventer , Netherlands. 2b Department of Virology , Wageningen Bioveterinary Research Lelystad , Netherlands.

 

Abstract

An outbreak of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) subtype H6N1 (intravenous pathogenicity index = 0.11) infection occurred in four productive brown layer flocks on three farms in the Netherlands within a period of two months. The farms were located at a maximum distance of 4.6 km from each other. The infections were associated with egg production drops up to 74%, pale eggshells and persisting high mortality up to 3.2% per week. Three flocks were slaughtered prematurely as they were not profitable anymore. Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, egg drop syndrome and Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections could very likely be excluded as cause of or contributor to the condition in the field. Also, the anticoccidial drug nicarbazin, which can cause egg production drops and eggshell decolouration, was not detected in eggs from affected flocks. Furthermore, post mortem examinations revealed no lesions indicative of bacterial infection. Moreover, bacteriological analysis of hens was negative. The condition was reproduced in commercial brown layers after intratracheal inoculation with virus isolates from affected flocks. It is concluded that the LPAI H6N1 virus is very likely the only cause of the disease. An overview of main manuscripts published since 1976 describing non-H5 and non-H7 avian influenza (AI) virus infections in chickens and their biological significance is included in the present study, in which once more is shown that not only high pathogenic AI virus subtypes H5 and H7 can be detrimental to flocks of productive layers, but also non-H5 and non-H7 LPAI viruses (H6N1 virus).

 

ESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS

  • LPAI H6N1 can be detrimental to productive layers
  • Detrimental effects are severe egg drop and persistent high mortality
  • LPAI H6N1 virus outbreak seems to be self-limiting.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza virus; H6N1; LPAI; egg production; layers; mortality

PMID: 30484684 DOI: 10.1080/03079457.2018.1551612 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H6N1; Poultry.

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#Aerosol #exposure enhanced #infection of low pathogenic #avian #influenza viruses in #chickens (Transbound Emerg Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2019 Jan;66(1):435-444. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13039. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Aerosol exposure enhanced infection of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in chickens.

Jegede A1, Fu Q1, Lin M1,2, Kumar A2, Guan J1.

Author information: 1 Ottawa Laboratory (Fallowfield), Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 2 Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

 

Abstract

To assess the impact of different routes of inoculation on experimental infection of avian influenza (AI) viruses in chickens, this study compared virus replication and cytokine gene expression in respiratory and gastrointestinal organ tissues of chickens, which were inoculated with four low pathogenic subtypes, H6N1, H10N7, H10N8, and H13N6 AI viruses via the aerosol, intranasal, and oral routes respectively. Aerosol inoculation with the H6N1, H10N7, and H10N8 viruses significantly increased viral titres and upregulated the interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β genes in the trachea and lung tissues compared to intranasal or oral inoculation. Furthermore, one or two out of six chickens died following exposure to aerosolized H6N1 or H10N8 virus respectively. The H13N6 virus reached the lung via aerosol inoculation although failed to establish infection. Collectively, chickens were more susceptible to aerosolized AI viruses compared to intranasal or oral inoculation, and virus aerosols might post a significant threat to poultry health.

© 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

KEYWORDS: aerosols; and chickens; avian influenza viruses; cytokine gene expression; virus replication

PMID: 30307712 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.13039 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Animal models; Poultry; H6N1; H10N7; H10N8; H13N6.

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Continued #reassortment of #avian #H6 #influenza viruses from Southern #China, 2014-2016 (Transbound Emerg Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2019 Jan;66(1):592-598. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13037. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Continued reassortment of avian H6 influenza viruses from Southern China, 2014-2016.

Li J1, Quan C2,3, Xie Y4, Ke C5, Nie Y6, Chen Q7, Hu T1, Chen J7, Wong G8,9, Wang Q3, Feng L10, Yu H10, Liu Y8, Liu W2, Gao GF2,3,8,10, Liu WJ3, Shi W1, Bi Y2,8.

Author information: 1 Key Laboratory of Etiology and Epidemiology of Emerging Infectious Diseases in Shandong Universities, Taishan Medical College, Taian, Shandong, China. 2 CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Center for Influenza Research and Early-warning (CASCIRE), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. 3 National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China. 4 Jiangxi Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanchang, China. 5 Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou, China. 6 Henan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Zhengzhou, China. 7 CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hubei, China. 8 Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Immunity, State Key Discipline of Infectious Disease, Shenzhen Third People’s Hospital, Second Hospital Affiliated to Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, China. 9 Département de microbiologie-infectiologie et d’immunologie, Université Laval, Québec, Québec, Canada. 10 Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

 

Abstract

H6 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) was prevalent in poultry and could sporadically infect humans. Here, a total of 196 novel H6 AIVs isolated from poultry in eight provinces of China from 2014 to 2016 were phylogenetically characterized. Our analysis revealed that they could be divided into two clades in the Asian H6 HA lineage, A/wild duck/Shantou/2853/2003(H6N2) (ST2853-like) (85.7%) and A/duck/Shantou/339/2000(H6N2) (ST339-like) (14.3%), in which ST2853-like strains predominate. These novel strains belonged to the H6N6 (n = 165, 84.2%), H6N2 (n = 30, 15.3%), and H6N3 (n = 1, 0.51%) subtypes, which could be classified into 36 genotypes including 12 novel genotypes described in this study. In particular, several strains possessed the V190 and S228 mutations in HA (H3 numbering), which is critical for human receptor binding and identical to the human-derived strain A/Taiwan/2/2013(H6N1). Furthermore, 10.3% of the H6N6 isolates possessed the N6-∆11b (59-69) deletion. In summary, we describe phylogenetic and molecular characterizations of H6 AIVs in southern China and highlight the constant prevalence of H6 AIVs in poultry as well as adaptation to mammalian hosts.

© 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

KEYWORDS: H6 subtype; evolution; low pathogenic avian influenza; molecular characterization; reassortment

PMID: 30300968 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.13037 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Poultry; China; Reassortant Strain; H6N1; H6N2; H6N3; H6N6.

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