Molecular #epidemiological #survey and complete #genomic #phylogenetic analysis of #H6 subtype #avian #influenza viruses in #poultry in #China from 2011 to 2016 (Infect Genet Evol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Infect Genet Evol. 2018 Nov;65:91-95. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2018.07.023. Epub 2018 Jul 20.

Molecular epidemiological survey and complete genomic phylogenetic analysis of H6 subtype avian influenza viruses in poultry in China from 2011 to 2016.

Peng C1, Sun H1, Li J1, Hou G1, Wang S1, Liu S1, Zhuang Q1, Cheng S1, Chen J1, Jiang W2.

Author information: 1 China Animal Health and Epidemiology Center, Qingdao, China. 2 China Animal Health and Epidemiology Center, Qingdao, China. Electronic address: jiangwenming@cahec.cn.

 

Abstract

To investigate the prevalence and evolution of the H6 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) circulating in poultry in China from 2011 to 2016, 11 molecular epidemiological surveys was performed in this study. In total, 893 H6 subtype viral strains were isolated from 67,639 swab samples and 360 environmental samples. From these strains, 35 representative strains were selected and their whole genomic sequences determined. According to a phylogenetic analysis and molecular characterization, all 35 viral strains belonged to the Eurasian avian lineage. All of them were categorized as ‘low pathogenic’ and a few strains had some bioinformatical mutations. This epidemiological survey shows that the prevalence of H6 subtype AIVs increased from 2012 to 2016 in China, and suggests that infections by H6 subtype AIVs in China has increased in recent years.

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza; H6 subtype; Molecular characterization; Phylogenetic analysis

PMID: 30031927 DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2018.07.023 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H6; Poultry; China.

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#Receptor-binding properties of #influenza viruses isolated from #gulls (Virology, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Virology. 2018 Jul 12;522:37-45. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2018.07.004. [Epub ahead of print]

Receptor-binding properties of influenza viruses isolated from gulls.

Gambaryan AS1, Matrosovich TY2, Boravleva EY3, Lomakina NF4, Yamnikova SS5, Tuzikov AB6, Pazynina GV6, Bovin NV6, Fouchier RAM7, Klenk HD2, Matrosovich MN8.

Author information: 1 Chumakov Federal Scientific Center for Research and Development of Immune-and-Biological Products of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia. Electronic address: al.gambaryan@gmail.com. 2 Institute of Virology, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany. 3 Chumakov Federal Scientific Center for Research and Development of Immune-and-Biological Products of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia. 4 Chumakov Federal Scientific Center for Research and Development of Immune-and-Biological Products of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia; Gamaleya Scientific Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia. 5 Gamaleya Scientific Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia. 6 The M.M. Shemyakin-Yu.A. Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia. 7 Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. 8 Institute of Virology, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany. Electronic address: m.matrosovich@gmail.com.

 

Abstract

Ducks, gulls and shorebirds represent the major hosts of influenza A viruses (IAVs) in nature, but distinctions of IAVs in different birds are not well defined. Here we characterized the receptor specificity of gull IAVs with HA subtypes H4, H6, H14, H13 and H16 using synthetic sialylglycopolymers. In contrast to duck IAVs, gull IAVs efficiently bound to fucosylated receptors and often preferred sulfated and non-sulfated receptors with Galβ1-4GlcNAc cores over the counterparts with Galβ1-3GlcNAc cores. Unlike all other IAVs of aquatic birds, H16 IAVs showed efficient binding to Neu5Acα2-6Gal-containing receptors and bound poorly to Neu5Acα2-3Galβ1-3-terminated (duck-type) receptors. Analysis of HA crystal structures and amino acid sequences suggested that the amino acid at position 222 is an important determinant of the receptor specificity of IAVs and that transmission of duck viruses to gulls and shorebirds is commonly accompanied by substitutions at this position.

KEYWORDS: Adaptation; Aquatic birds; Fucose; Hemagglutinin; Influenza; Receptor specificity; Receptor-binding site; Sialic; Transmission

PMID: 30014856 DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2018.07.004

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H16; H4; H6; H14; H13; Wild Birds.

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#Genetic #analysis and biological characteristics of different internal gene origin #H5N6 #reassortment #avian #influenza virus in #China in 2016 (Vet Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vet Microbiol. 2018 Jun;219:200-211. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.04.023. Epub 2018 Apr 18.

Genetic analysis and biological characteristics of different internal gene origin H5N6 reassortment avian influenza virus in China in 2016.

Sun W1, Li J1, Hu J1, Jiang D1, Xing C1, Zhan T1, Liu X2.

Author information: 1 Animal Infectious Disease Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China; Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonosis, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China; Key Laboratory of Prevention and Control of Biological Hazard Factors (Animal Origin) for Agri-food Safety and Quality, Ministry of Agriculture of China (26116120), Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China. 2 Animal Infectious Disease Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China; Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonosis, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China; Key Laboratory of Prevention and Control of Biological Hazard Factors (Animal Origin) for Agri-food Safety and Quality, Ministry of Agriculture of China (26116120), Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China. Electronic address: xfliu@yzu.edu.cn.

 

Abstract

Clade 2.3.4.4 of H5N6 subtype Avian Influenza Viruses (AIVs) has become dominant clade in South-East Asia. So far, a total of 16 cases of human infection, including 6 deaths, have been confirmed since 2014. In this study, we systematically investigated the genetic evolution and biological characteristics of these viruses. We first carried out phylogenetic and statistical analysis of all H5N6 viruses that were downloaded from Influenza Research Database, GISAID and isolates from our lab. We found that H5N6 AIVs continued to reassort with other AIVs subtypes since 2014. Among these H5N6 reassortments, four main gene types were identified: A (internal genes of H5N1-origin), B (PB2 of H6-origin, and others of H5N1-origin), C (internal genes of H9-origin) and D (PB2 of H6-origin and PB1of H3-origin, and others of H5N1). In addition, after several years of evolution, gene type D is currently the dominant gene type. To systematically compare the genetic and evolutionary characteristics and pathogenicity of these viruses, four H5N6 AIVs of different gene types were selected for further analysis. S4, XZ6, GD1602 and YZ587 virus represented gene type A, B, C and D, respectively. Their NA genes were all originated from H6 and their whole genome showed a high similarity with human isolates. All these isolates could both bind with SA-α2,3 Gal and SA-α2,6 Gal receptors. Pathogenicity test showed that these viruses were highly pathogenic in chickens, while YZ587 showed the lowest virulence. Moreover, XZ6 and S4 viruses were highly pathogenic in ducks and moderately pathogenic in mice, while GD1602 and YZ587 viruses were no-pathogenic in these animals. Interestingly, GD1602 and YZ587-like viruses were responsible for 4 and 2 human infection cases in 2016, respectively. Therefore, our study showed that the YZ587 virus which has mixed internal genes, showed lower virulence in avian species and mammals compared to other genotype viruses. Overall, our findings suggest that the H5N6 avian influenza virus is undergoing constantly evolving and reassortment. Thus, our study highlights the necessary of continued surveillance of the H5N6 AIVs in birds and paying close attention to the spread of these novel reassortment viruses.

KEYWORDS: Clade 2.3.4.4; H5N6; HPAIVs; Pathogenicity; Reassortment

PMID: 29778197 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.04.023

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; H5N1; H6; H9; H3; Reassortant Strain; Human; Poultry; China.

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#Surveillance of Live #Poultry #Markets for Low Pathogenic #Avian #Influenza Viruses in #Guangxi Province, Southern #China, from 2012–2015 (Sci Rep., abstract)

[Source: Scientific Reports, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Surveillance of Live Poultry Markets for Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Guangxi Province, Southern China, from 2012–2015

Sisi Luo, Zhixun Xie, Zhiqin Xie, Liji Xie, Li Huang, Jiaoling Huang, Xianwen Deng, Tingting Zeng, Sheng Wang, Yanfang Zhang & Jiabo Liu

Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 17577 (2017) / doi:10.1038/s41598-017-17740-0

Received: 26 April 2017 – Accepted: 30 November 2017 – Published online: 14 December 2017

 

Abstract

Infections with low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) can be mild or asymptomatic in poultry; however, in humans, LPAIVs can cause severe infections and death, as demonstrated by the H7N9 and H10N8 human infection outbreaks in 2013 in China. In this study, we conducted an epidemiological survey of LPAIVs at live poultry markets (LPMs) in Guangxi Province, Southern China, which is near several Southeast Asian countries. From January 2012 to December 2015, we collected 3,813 swab samples from poultry at LPMs in Guangxi. Viral isolation, hemagglutination inhibition assay and viral sequencing were utilized to identify LPAIVs in the collected samples. Among the samples, 622 (16.3%) were positive for LPAIVs. Six subtypes (H1, H3, H4, H6, H9 and H11) were individually isolated and identified. Of these subtypes, H3, H6 and H9 were predominant in ducks, geese and chickens, respectively. Among the 622 positive samples, 160 (25.7%) contained more than one subtype, and H8, H10, H12, H13, and H16 were identified among them, which highlights the continuous need for enhanced surveillance of AIVs. These results provide detailed information regarding the epidemic situation of LPAIVs in the area, which can aid efforts to prevent and control AIV transmission in humans and animals.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Poultry; Guangxi; China; H1; H3; H4; H6; H9; H11; H8; H10; H12; H13; H16.

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#Antibodies to #Influenza A Viruses in #Gulls at Delaware Bay, #USA (Avian Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Avian Dis. 2016 May;60(1 Suppl):341-5. doi: 10.1637/11103-042115-Reg.

Antibodies to Influenza A Viruses in Gulls at Delaware Bay, USA.

Guinn K1, Fojtik A1, Davis-Fields N1, Poulson RL1, Krauss S2, Webster RG2, Stallknecht DE1.

Author information: 1 A Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, Department of Population Health, 589 D.W. Brooks Drive, Wildlife Health Building, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602. 2 B St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, TN 38105-3678.

 

Abstract

Gulls are the known reservoir for H13 and H16 influenza A viruses (IAV) but also host a diversity of other IAV subtypes. Gulls also share habitats with both ducks and shorebirds, increasing the potential for cross-species IAV transmission. We serologically tested laughing gulls (Leucophaeus atricilla) collected at Delaware Bay during May when they were in direct contact with IAV-infected shorebirds; both species feed on horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs on beaches during this month. From 2010 to 2014, antibody prevalence as determined by competitive blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ranged from 25%-72%. Antibodies to H13 and H16 were detected by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests in 12% and 24% of tested gulls, respectively. Results from virus microneutralization (MN) tests for antibodies to H1-H12, H14, and H15 varied among years but the highest prevalence of neutralizing antibodies was detected against H1 (24%), H5 (25%), H6 (35%), H9 (33%), and H11 (42%) IAV. The subtype diversity identified by serology in gulls was dominated by Group 1 HA subtypes and only partially reflected the diversity of IAV subtypes isolated from shorebirds.

KEYWORDS: Leucophaeus atricilla microneutralization; antibodies; influenza A virus; laughing gull; serology

PMID: 27309077 DOI: 10.1637/11103-042115-Reg

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Wild Birds; USA; H5; H9; H1; H3; H6; H11.

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New #H6 #influenza virus #reassortment strains isolated from #Anser fabalis in #Anhui Province, #China (Virol J., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Virol J. 2017 Feb 21;14(1):36. doi: 10.1186/s12985-017-0680-1.

New H6 influenza virus reassortment strains isolated from Anser fabalis in Anhui Province, China.

Ge Y1,2, Chai H2, Fan Z3, Wang X4, Yao Q1, Ma J1, Chen S1, Hua Y2, Deng G5, Chen H6.

Author information: 1State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, China. 2College of Wildlife Resources, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China. 3School of Life Sciences, Anqing Normal University, Anqing, Anhui Province, China. 4Natural Protection & Management Station of Forestry Department Centre of Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui Province, China. 5State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, China. dgh1971@163.com. 6State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, China. chenhualan@caas.cn.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

H6 subtype avian influenza viruses are globally distributed and, in recent years, have been isolated with increasing frequency from both domestic and wild bird species as well as infected humans. Many reports have examined the viruses in the context of poultry or several wild bird species, but there is less information regarding their presence in migratory birds.

METHODS:

Hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests were used to measure HA activity for different HA subtypes. Whole viral genomes were sequenced and analysed using DNAstar and MEGA 6 to understand their genetic evolution. Pathogenicity was evaluated using a mouse infection model.

RESULTS:

We isolated 13 strains of H6 virus from faecal samples of migratory waterfowl in Anhui Province of China in 2014. Phylogenetic analysis showed gene reassortment between Eurasian and North American lineages. Five of the identified H6 strains had the ability to infect mice without adaptation.

CONCLUSION:

Our findings suggest that regular surveillance of wild birds, especially migratory birds, is important for providing early warning and control of avian influenza outbreaks.

KEYWORDS: Anser fabalis; Avian influenza virus; H6 subtype

PMID: 28222765 DOI: 10.1186/s12985-017-0680-1

[PubMed – in process]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H6; Wild Birds; China.

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Molecular #characterization of novel #reassortant #H6N2 subtype #avian #influenza viruses isolated from #poultry in Eastern #China, in 2014 (Infect Genet Evol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Infect Genet Evol. 2015 Dec;36:41-5. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2015.08.043. Epub 2015 Sep 2.

Molecular characterization of novel reassortant H6N2 subtype avian influenza viruses isolated from poultry in Eastern China, in 2014.

Wu H1, Peng X2, Peng X2, Cheng L2, Wu N3.

Author information: 1State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 310003 Hangzhou, China. Electronic address: wuhaibo2014@163.com. 2State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 310003 Hangzhou, China. 3State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 310003 Hangzhou, China. Electronic address: flwnp2013@163.com.

 

Abstract

During the surveillance for avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in live poultry markets in Eastern China, in 2014, seven H6N2 AIVs were isolated from poultry. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these strains received their genes from H6, H3, and H9 AIVs of poultry in China. These strains were found to demonstrate moderate pathogenicity in mice, and were able to replicate in mice without prior adaptation. Considering that novel reassorted H6N2 viruses were isolated from poultry in this study, it is possible that these chickens and ducks play an important role in the generation of novel reassorted H6N2 AIVs.

Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza viruses; Poultry; Reassortment; Subtype H6N2

PMID: 26341862 DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2015.08.043

[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Avian Influenza; H3; H6; H9; H6N2; Reassortant Strain; Poultry; China.

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