[Source: Journal of Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]
Genesis and dissemination of highly pathogenic H5N6 avian influenza viruses
Lei Yang, Wenfei Zhu, Xiaodan Li, Hong Bo, Ye Zhang, Shumei Zou, Rongbao Gao, Jie Dong, Xiang Zhao, Wenbing Chen, Libo Dong, Xiaohui Zou, Yongcai Xing, Dayan Wang* and Yuelong Shu*
Author Affiliations: National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Collaboration Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; Key Laboratory for Medical Virology, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Beijing 102206, P.R. China
Clade 18.104.22.168 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (H5Nx) have spread from Asia to other parts of the world. Since 2014, human infections with clade 22.214.171.124 highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N6 viruses have been continuously reported in China. To investigate the genesis of the virus, we analyzed 123 H5 or N6 environmental viruses sampled from live poultry markets or farms during 2012–2015 in Mainland China. Our results indicated that clade 126.96.36.199 H5N2/N6/N8 viruses shared the same hemaglutinin gene that originated in early 2009. During 2012–2015, the genesis of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N6 viruses occurred via two independent pathways. Three major reassortants H5N6 viruses (Reassortant A, B, and C) were generated. Internal genes of Reassortant A/B and C viruses derived from clade 188.8.131.52c H5N1 and H9N2 viruses, respectively. Many mammalian adaption mutations and antigenic variations were detected among the three reassortant viruses. Considering their wide circulation and dynamic reassortment in poultry, we highly recommend close monitoring of the viruses in poultry and humans.
Since 2014, clade 184.108.40.206 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5Nx) virus have caused many outbreaks both in wild and domestic birds globally. Severe human cases with novel H5N6 viruses in this group were also reported in China in 2014–2015. To investigate the genesis of the genetic diversity of these H5N6 viruses, we sequenced 123 H5 or N6 environmental viruses sampled from 2012–2015 in China. Sequence analysis indicated that three major reassortants of these H5N6 viruses had been generated by two independent evolutionary pathways. The H5N6 reassortants viruses had been detected in most provinces of southern China and neighboring countries. Considering the mammalian adaption mutations and antigenic variation detected, the spread of these viruses should be monitored carefully due to their pandemic potential.
*Corresponding author:Dr. Yuelong Shu, Phone: +86-010-58900850. Fax: +86-010-58900850. E-mail: email@example.com.
*Dr. Dayan Wang, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
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Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; H5N6; H5N8; H5N9; Poultry; Human; China; Reassortant Strain; H9N2.