Novel #H7N2 and #H5N6 #Avian #Influenza A Viruses in Sentinel #Chickens: A Sentinel Chicken Surveillance Study (Front Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Front Microbiol. 2016 Nov 16;7:1766. eCollection 2016.

Novel H7N2 and H5N6 Avian Influenza A Viruses in Sentinel Chickens: A Sentinel Chicken Surveillance Study.

Zhao T1, Qian YH2, Chen SH2, Wang GL1, Wu MN1, Huang Y1, Ma GY2, Fang LQ1, Gray GC3, Lu B2, Tong YG1, Ma MJ1, Cao WC1.

Author information: 1State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology Beijing, China. 2Wuxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention Wuxi, China. 3Division of Infectious Diseases, Global Health Institute, Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Duke University Medical Center Durham, NC, USA.

 

Abstract

In 2014, a sentinel chicken surveillance for avian influenza viruses was conducted in aquatic bird habitat near Wuxi City, Jiangsu Province, China. Two H7N2, one H5N6, and two H9N2 viruses were isolated. Sequence analysis revealed that the H7N2 virus is a novel reassortant of H7N9 and H9N2 viruses and H5N6 virus is a reassortant of H5N1 clade 2.3.4 and H6N6 viruses. Substitutions V186 and L226 (H3 numbering) in the hemagglutinin (HA) gene protein was found in two H7N2 viruses but not in the H5N6 virus. Two A138 and A160 mutations were identified in the HA gene protein of all three viruses but a P128 mutation was only observed in the H5N6 virus. A deletion of 3 and 11 amino acids in the neuraminidase stalk region was found in two H7N2 and H5N6 viruses, respectively. Moreover, a mutation of N31 in M2 protein was observed in both two H7N2 viruses. High similarity of these isolated viruses to viruses previously identified among poultry and humans, suggests that peridomestic aquatic birds may play a role in sustaining novel virus transmission. Therefore, continued surveillance is needed to monitor these avian influenza viruses in wild bird and domestic poultry that may pose a threat to poultry and human health.

KEYWORDS: H5N6 virus; H7N2 virus; H9N2 virus; avian influenza A virus; sentinel chicken; transmission

PMID: 27899915 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.01766

[PubMed – in process]

Keywords: Reassortant Strains; Avian Influenza; China; Poultry; H7N2; H9N2; H5N6; H6N6; H5N1.

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#Genesis, #Evolution and #Prevalence of #H5N6 #Avian #Influenza Viruses in #China (Cell Host Microbe, abstract)

[Source: Cell Host & Microbe, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Article

Genesis, Evolution and Prevalence of H5N6 Avian Influenza Viruses in China

Yuhai Bi21, Quanjiao Chen21, Qianli Wang21, Jianjun Chen21, Tao Jin, Gary Wong, Chuansong Quan, Jun Liu, Jun Wu, Renfu Yin, Lihua Zhao, Mingxin Li, Zhuang Ding, Rongrong Zou, Wen Xu, Hong Li, Huijun Wang, Kegong Tian, Guanghua Fu, Yu Huang, Alexander Shestopalov, Shoujun Li, Bing Xu, Hongjie Yu, Tingrong Luo, Lin Lu, Xun Xu, Yang Luo, Yingxia Liu, Weifeng Shi, Di Liu, George Fu Gao22,

21 Co-first author

22 Lead Contact

Publication stage: In Press Corrected Proof / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2016.10.022

Publication History: Published: December 1, 2016 – Accepted: October 28, 2016 – Received in revised form: September 27, 2016 – Received: August 8, 2016

 

Highlights

  • Live poultry markets in China surveyed for avian influenza viruses during 2014–2016
  • H5N6 has replaced H5N1 as a dominant AIV subtype in southern China, especially in ducks
  • The HA and NA genes of H5N6 show apparent lineage-specific matching patterns
  • At least 34 distinct H5N6 genotypes noted, one responsible for five human infections

 

Summary

Constant surveillance of live poultry markets (LPMs) is currently the best way to predict and identify emerging avian influenza viruses (AIVs) that pose a potential threat to public health. Through surveillance of LPMs from 16 provinces and municipalities in China during 2014–2016, we identified 3,174 AIV-positive samples and isolated and sequenced 1,135 AIVs covering 31 subtypes. Our analysis shows that H5N6 has replaced H5N1 as one of the dominant AIV subtypes in southern China, especially in ducks. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that H5N6 arose from reassortments of H5 and H6N6 viruses, with the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase combinations being strongly lineage specific. H5N6 viruses constitute at least 34 distinct genotypes derived from various evolutionary pathways. Notably, genotype G1.2 virus, with internal genes from the chicken H9N2/H7N9 gene pool, was responsible for at least five human H5N6 infections. Our findings highlight H5N6 AIVs as potential threats to public health and agriculture.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; China; Human; Poultry; H5N6; H9N2; H7N9; Reassortant Strains.

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The #complexity of #human infected AIV #H5N6 isolated from #China (BMC Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Infect Dis. 2016 Oct 25;16(1):600.

The complexity of human infected AIV H5N6 isolated from China.

Zhang Z1,2, Li R1,2, Jiang L2,3, Xiong C4,5,6, Chen Y7, Zhao G1,2, Jiang Q2.

Author information: 1Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China. 2Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Ministry of Education, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China. 3Department of Public Health Microbiology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China. 4Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Ministry of Education, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China. xiongchenglong@fudan.edu.cn. 5Department of Public Health Microbiology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China. xiongchenglong@fudan.edu.cn. 6, Bldg. 8#, Rd. Dong’an 130, Shanghai, 200032, People’s Republic of China. xiongchenglong@fudan.edu.cn. 7School of Epidemiology, Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Novel avian influenza viruses (AIVs) of H7N9, H10N8, and H5N6 are currently circulating in China’s poultry flocks, occasionally infecting human and other mammals. Human infected AIV H5N6 in China during 2014-2015 is believed to be a triple reassortant originated from H6N6 and two clades of H5 viruses. The current report suggests that its reassortment history is more complicated.

METHODS:

Genomes of human infected isolates of AIV H5N6 were searched from the NCBI Influenza Virus Sequence Database and the Global Initiative on Sharing Avian Influenza Data. Sequences shared high identities with each segment of their genomes were obtained through the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. Alignments were done by mafft-7.037-win32 program; 8 large-scale and then 8 gradually converged phylogenetic trees were constructed by using MEGA5.1/5.2/6.0 Software.

RESULTS:

The events that each segment of the genomes of human infected AIV H5N6 isolates circulated in China had evolved into its current status might have happened before 2013, and so were they then reassorted into the epidemic AIV H5N6. A/Guangzhou/39715/2014(H5N6) and A/Sichuan/26221/2014(H5N6) had their six internal segments (PB2, PB1, PA, NP, NEP, and M) in common, and were reassorted from AIVs H5N1 in the same period and same region as that of HA, while A/Yunnan/0127/2015(H5N6) derived its six internal segments from AIV H9N2 that has been prevalent in Eastern China since 2008.

CONCLUSIONS:

AIV H5N6 isolates established from both human and poultry in China during 2014-2015 were heterogeneous; both AIVs H5N1 and H9N2 were involved in the reassortment of AIV H5N6 in China.

KEYWORDS: H5N1; H5N6; H9N2; Reassortment

PMID: 27782815 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-016-1932-1

[PubMed – in process]

Keywords: H5N1; H5N6; H9N2; Avian Influenza; China; Poultry; Human.

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Novel #Reassortant #H5N6 #Influenza A Virus from the #Lao People’s Democratic Republic Is Highly Pathogenic in #Chickens (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

PLoS One. 2016 Sep 15;11(9):e0162375. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0162375.

Novel Reassortant H5N6 Influenza A Virus from the Lao People’s Democratic Republic Is Highly Pathogenic in Chickens.

Butler J1, Stewart CR1, Layton DS1, Phommachanh P2, Harper J1, Payne J1, Evans RM1, Valdeter S1, Walker S1, Harvey G1, Shan S1, Bruce MP1, Rootes CL1, Gough TJ1, Rohringer A1, Peck GR1, Fardy SJ1, Karpala AJ1, Johnson D1, Wang J1, Douangngeun B2, Morrissy C1, Wong FY1, Bean AG1, Bingham J1, Williams DT1.

Author information: 1CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Geelong, Victoria, Australia. 2National Animal Health Laboratory, Vientiane, Lao People’s Democratic Republic.

 

Abstract

Avian influenza viruses of H5 subtype can cause highly pathogenic disease in poultry. In March 2014, a new reassortant H5N6 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza virus emerged in Lao People’s Democratic Republic. We have assessed the pathogenicity, pathobiology and immunological responses associated with this virus in chickens. Infection caused moderate to advanced disease in 6 of 6 chickens within 48 h of mucosal inoculation. High virus titers were observed in blood and tissues (kidney, spleen, liver, duodenum, heart, brain and lung) taken at euthanasia. Viral antigen was detected in endothelium, neurons, myocardium, lymphoid tissues and other cell types. Pro-inflammatory cytokines were elevated compared to non-infected birds. Our study confirmed that this new H5N6 reassortant is highly pathogenic, causing disease in chickens similar to that of Asian H5N1 viruses, and demonstrated the ability of such clade 2.3.4-origin H5 viruses to reassort with non-N1 subtype viruses while maintaining a fit and infectious phenotype. Recent detection of influenza H5N6 poultry infections in Lao PDR, China and Viet Nam, as well as six fatal human infections in China, demonstrate that these emergent highly pathogenic H5N6 viruses may be widely established in several countries and represent an emerging threat to poultry and human populations.

PMID: 27631618 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0162375

[PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Avian Influenza; H5N6; Poultry; Laos; Reassortant Strain.

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#Isolation of #H5N6, #H7N9 and #H9N2 #avian #influenza A viruses from #air sampled at live #poultry #markets in #China, 2014 and 2015 (@eurosurveillanc, abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Eurosurveillance, Volume 21, Issue 35, 01 September 2016  / Surveillance and outbreak report

Isolation of H5N6, H7N9 and H9N2 avian influenza A viruses from air sampled at live poultry markets in China, 2014 and 2015

J Zhou 1 2 , J Wu 2 3 , X Zeng 2 3 , G Huang 3 , L Zou 3 , Y Song 3 , D Gopinath 1 , X Zhang 3 , M Kang 3 , J Lin 3 , BJ Cowling 1 , WG Lindsley 4 , C Ke 3 , JSM Peiris 1 , H Yen 1

Author affiliations: 1. School of Public Health, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China; 2. These authors contributed equally to this work; 3. Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China; 4. Allergy and Clinical Immunology Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, West Virginia, United States

Correspondence: Hui-Ling Yen (hyen@hku.hk)

Citation style for this article: Zhou J, Wu J, Zeng X, Huang G, Zou L, Song Y, Gopinath D, Zhang X, Kang M, Lin J, Cowling BJ, Lindsley WG, Ke C, Peiris JSM, Yen H. Isolation of H5N6, H7N9 and H9N2 avian influenza A viruses from air sampled at live poultry markets in China, 2014 and 2015. Euro Surveill. 2016;21(35):pii=30331. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.35.30331

Received:17 February 2016; Accepted:00 June 2016

 

Abstract

Zoonotic infections by avian influenza viruses occur at the human–poultry interface, but the modes of transmission have not been fully investigated. We assessed the potential for airborne and fomite transmission at live poultry markets in Guangzhou city and in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), China, during 2014 and 2015. Viral genome and infectious avian influenza A viruses of H5N6, H7N9, and H9N2 subtypes were detected predominantly from particles larger or equal to 1 μm in diameter in the air sampled with cyclone-based bioaerosol samplers at the live poultry markets in Guangzhou. Influenza A(H9N2) viruses were ubiquitously isolated every month during the study period from air and environmental swabs, and different lineages of H9N2 virus were isolated from markets where chickens and minor land-based poultry were sold. The use of de-feathering devices increased the quantity of virus-laden airborne particles while market closure reduced the amount of such particles. The results highlight the possibility of airborne transmission of avian influenza viruses among poultry or from poultry to humans within such settings. This may explain epidemiological observations in which some patients with H7N9 infection reported being in markets but no direct contact with live poultry or poultry stalls.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Avian Influenza; H5N6; H7N9; H9N2; Avian Influenza; Poultry; China.

——

#Genetic and #antigenic characterization of #H5, #H6 and #H9 #avian #influenza viruses circulating in live #bird #markets with intervention in the center part of #Vietnam (Vet Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vet Microbiol. 2016 Aug 30;192:194-203. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.07.016. Epub 2016 Jul 25.

Genetic and antigenic characterization of H5, H6 and H9 avian influenza viruses circulating in live bird markets with intervention in the center part of Vietnam.

Chu DH1, Okamatsu M2, Matsuno K3, Hiono T2, Ogasawara K2, Nguyen LT2, Van Nguyen L4, Nguyen TN4, Nguyen TT4, Van Pham D4, Nguyen DH4, Nguyen TD4, To TL4, Van Nguyen H5, Kida H6, Sakoda Y7.

Author information: 1Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Disease Control, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0818, Japan; Department of Animal Health, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, 15/78 Giai Phong, Phuong Mai, Dong Da, Hanoi, Vietnam. 2Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Disease Control, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0818, Japan. 3Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Disease Control, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0818, Japan; Global Station for Zoonosis Control, Global Institution for Collaborative Research and Education (GI-CoRE), Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0020, Japan. 4Department of Animal Health, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, 15/78 Giai Phong, Phuong Mai, Dong Da, Hanoi, Vietnam. 5Sub-Department of Animal Health, 62 Nguyen Chi Dieu, Hue city, Vietnam. 6Global Station for Zoonosis Control, Global Institution for Collaborative Research and Education (GI-CoRE), Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0020, Japan; Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0020, Japan. 7Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Disease Control, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0818, Japan; Global Station for Zoonosis Control, Global Institution for Collaborative Research and Education (GI-CoRE), Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0020, Japan. Electronic address: sakoda@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp.

 

Abstract

A total of 3,045 environmental samples and oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs from apparently healthy poultry have been collected at three live bird markets (LBMs) at which practices were applied to reduce avian influenza (AI) virus transmission (intervention LBMs) and six conventional LBMs (non-intervention LBMs) in Thua Thien Hue province in 2014 to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention LBMs. The 178 AI viruses, including H3 (19 viruses), H4 (2), H5 (8), H6 (30), H9 (114), and H11 (5), were isolated from domestic ducks, muscovy ducks, chickens, and the environment. The prevalence of AI viruses in intervention LBMs (6.1%; 95% CI: 5.0-7.5) was similar to that in non-intervention LBMs (5.6%; 95% CI: 4.5-6.8; χ(2)=0.532; df=1; P=0.53) in the study area. Eight H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses were isolated from apparently healthy ducks, muscovy ducks, and an environmental sample in an intervention LBM. The hemagglutinin genes of the H5N6 HPAI viruses belonged to the genetic clade 2.3.4.4, and the antigenicity of the H5N6 HPAI viruses differed from the H5N1 HPAI viruses previously circulating in Vietnam. Phylogenetic and antigenic analyses of the H6 and H9 viruses isolated in both types of LBMs revealed that they were closely related to the viruses isolated from domestic birds in China, Group II of H6 viruses and Y280 lineage of H9 viruses. These results indicate that the interventions currently applied in LBMs are insufficient to control AI. A risk analysis should be conducted to identify the key factors contributing to AI virus prevalence in intervention LBMs.

Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Antigenic analysis; Avian influenza; Live bird market; Phylogenetic analysis; Surveillance

PMID: 27527783 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.07.016

[PubMed – in process]

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Avian Influenza; H5N6; H5N1; H5; H6; H9; Reassortant Strains; Poultry; Vietnam.

—–

#Human #infection with a novel, highly pathogenic #avian #influenza A (#H5N6) virus: Virological and #clinical #findings (J Infect., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Infect. 2016 Jan;72(1):52-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2015.06.009. Epub 2015 Jul 2.

Human infection with a novel, highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N6) virus: Virological and clinical findings.

Pan M1, Gao R2, Lv Q1, Huang S3, Zhou Z4, Yang L2, Li X2, Zhao X2, Zou X2, Tong W1, Mao S1, Zou S2, Bo H2, Zhu X1, Liu L1, Yuan H1, Zhang M3, Wang D4, Li Z4, Zhao W5, Ma M6, Li Y7, Li T1, Yang H1, Xu J1, Zhou L1, Zhou X1, Tang W3, Song Y8, Chen T2, Bai T2, Zhou J2, Wang D2, Wu G2, Li D2, Feng Z9, Gao GF9, Wang Y9, He S1, Shu Y10.

Author information: 1Sichuan Provincial Disease Control and Prevention, Chengdu 610041, China. 2National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China CDC, Key Laboratory for Medical Virology, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Beijing 102206, China. 3Nanchong City Disease Control and Prevention, Nanchong 637000, China. 4Affiliated Hospital of Chuanbei Medical School, Nanchong 637000, China. 5Nanbu County Disease Control and Prevention, Nanchong 637300, China. 6Nanbu County Hospital, Nanchong 637300, China. 7Dongba Center Hospital of Nanbu County, Nanchong 637300, China. 8Department of Pathology, Beijing Renhe Hospital, Beijing 102600, China. 9Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China. 10National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China CDC, Key Laboratory for Medical Virology, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Beijing 102206, China. Electronic address: yshu@cnic.org.cn.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:

Severe infection with avian influenza A (H5N6) virus in humans was identified first in 2014 in China. Before that, it was unknown or unclear if the disease or the pathogen affected people. This study illustrates the virological and clinical findings of a fatal H5N6 virus infection in a human patient.

METHODS:

We obtained and analyzed the clinical, epidemiological, and virological data from the patient. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), viral culture, and sequencing were conducted for determination of the causative pathogen.

RESULTS:

The patient, who presented with fever, severe pneumonia, leucopenia, and lymphopenia, developed septic shock and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and died on day 10 after illness onset. A novel reassortant avian-origin influenza A (H5N6) virus was isolated from the throat swab or trachea aspirate of the patient. The virus was reassorted with the HA gene of clade 2.3.4.4 H5, the internal genes of clade 2.3.2.1 H5, and the NA gene of the H6N6 avian virus. The cleavage site of the HA gene contained multiple basic amino acids, indicating that the novel H5N6 virus was highly pathogenic in chicken.

CONCLUSIONS:

A novel, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N6 virus with a backbone of H5N1 virus acquired from the NA gene from the H6N6 virus has been identified. It caused human infection resulting in severe respiratory disease.

Copyright © 2015 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Emerging infectious diseases; H5N6; Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus; Reassortment

PMID: 26143617 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinf.2015.06.009

[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; H5N6; H5N1; H6N6; Avian Influenza; Reassortant Strain; Human.

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