Protective efficacy of an inactivated chimeric #H5 #avian #influenza #vaccine against H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus clades 2.3.4.4 and 2.3.2.1 (J Gen Virol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Gen Virol. 2018 Dec;99(12):1600-1607. doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.001140. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Protective efficacy of an inactivated chimeric H5 avian influenza vaccine against H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus clades 2.3.4.4 and 2.3.2.1.

Li J1, Hou G1, Wang Y2, Wang S1, Cheng S1, Peng C1, Jiang W1.

Author information: 1 ​China Animal Health and Epidemiology Center, Qingdao, PR China. 2 ​Shanghai Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Shanghai, PR China.

 

Abstract

The H5 subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses pose a serious challenge to public health and the poultry industry in China. In this study, we generated a chimeric QH/KJ recombinant virus expressing the entire haemagglutinin (HA)-1 region of the HPAI virus A/chicken/China/QH/2017(H5N6) (clade 2.3.4.4) and the HA2 region of the HPAI virus A/chicken/China/KJ/2017(H5N1) (clade 2.3.2.1). The resulting chimeric PR8-QH/KJ virus exhibited similar in vitro growth kinetics as the parental PR8-QH and PR8-KJ viruses. The chimeric PR8-QH/KJ virus induced specific, cross-reactive haemagglutination-inhibition and serum-neutralizing antibodies against both QH and KJ viruses, although PR8-QH and PR8-KJ exhibited no cross-reactivity with each other. Furthermore, the chimeric PR8-QH/KJ vaccine significantly reduced virus shedding and completely protected chickens from challenge with HPAI H5N6 and H5N1 viruses. However, the Re-8 vaccine against clade 2.3.4.4 viruses provided specific-pathogen-free chickens only partial protection when challenged with QH virus. Our results suggest that the antigenic variation of these epidemic viruses occurred and they can escape the current vaccine immunization. The Re-8 vaccine needs an update. The chimeric PR8-QH/KJ vaccine is effective against H5 HPAI virus clades 2.3.4.4 and 2.3.2.1 in chickens.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza virus; H5N1; H5N6; chimeric vaccine

PMID: 30358528 DOI: 10.1099/jgv.0.001140 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; H5N1; Poultry; Vaccines.

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#Antigenic Variation of #Avian #Influenza A(#H5N6) Viruses, #Guangdong Province, #China, 2014–2018 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 10—October 2019 / Dispatch

Antigenic Variation of Avian Influenza A(H5N6) Viruses, Guangdong Province, China, 2014–2018

Ru Bai1, Reina S. Sikkema1, Cong rong Li, Bas B. Oude Munnink, Jie Wu, Lirong Zou, Yi Jing, Jing Lu, Runyu Yuan, Ming Liao, Marion P.G. Koopmans1  , and Chang-wen Ke1

Author affiliations: Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou, China (R. Bai, C. Li, J. Wu, L. Zou, Y. Jing, J. Lu, R. Yuan, C. Ke); Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (R.S. Sikkema, B.B. Oude Munnink, M.P.G. Koopmans); Southern Medical University (C. Li, Y. Jing, C. Ke); South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou (M. Liao)

 

Abstract

Market surveillance showed continuing circulation of avian influenza A(H5N6) virus in live poultry markets in Guangdong Province in 2017, despite compulsory vaccination for avian influenza A(H5Nx) and A(H7N9). We analyzed H5N6 viruses from 2014–2018 from Guangdong Province, revealing antigenic drift and decreased antibody response against the vaccine strain in vaccinated chickens.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; Poultry; Guangdong; China.

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#Genetic Characterization and #Zoonotic Potential of Highly Pathogenic #Avian #Influenza Virus A( #H5N6 / #H5N5), #Germany, 2017–2018 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 10—October 2019 / Dispatch

Genetic Characterization and Zoonotic Potential of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus A(H5N6/H5N5), Germany, 2017–2018

Anne Pohlmann1, Donata Hoffmann1, Christian Grund, Susanne Koethe, Daniela Hüssy, Simone M. Meier, Jacqueline King, Jan Schinköthe, Reiner Ulrich, Timm Harder, and Martin Beer

Author affiliations: Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany (A. Pohlmann, D. Hoffmann, C. Grund, S. Koethe, J. King, J. Schinköthe, R. Ulrich, T. Harder, M. Beer); Institute of Virology and Immunology, Mittelhäusern, Switzerland (D. Hüssy); Vetsuisse Faculty Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland (S.M. Meier)

 

Abstract

We genetically characterized highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A(H5N6) clade 2.3.4.4b isolates found in Germany in 2017–2018 and assessed pathogenicity of representative H5N5 and H5N6 viruses in ferrets. These viruses had low pathogenicity; however, continued characterization of related isolates is warranted because of their high potential for reassortment.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N5; H5N6; Animal models; Germany.

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A study of the #relationship between #human #infection with #avian #influenza a (#H5N6) and environmental avian influenza viruses in #Fujian, #China (BMC Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Infect Dis. 2019 Sep 2;19(1):762. doi: 10.1186/s12879-019-4145-6.

A study of the relationship between human infection with avian influenza a (H5N6) and environmental avian influenza viruses in Fujian, China.

Chen P1, Xie JF1,2, Lin Q2, Zhao L2, Zhang YH2, Chen HB2, Weng YW1,2, Huang Z2, Zheng KC3,4.

Author information: 1 College of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, No. 88, Jiaotong Road, Taijiang District, Fuzhou, 350000, China. 2 Fujian Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Fuzhou, 350001, China. 3 College of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, No. 88, Jiaotong Road, Taijiang District, Fuzhou, 350000, China. kingdadi9909@126.com. 4 Fujian Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Fuzhou, 350001, China. kingdadi9909@126.com.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Avian influenza A (H5N6) virus poses a great threat to the human health since it is capable to cross the species barrier and infect humans. Although human infections are believed to largely originate from poultry contaminations, the transmissibility is unclear and only limited information was available on poultry environment contaminations, especially in Fujian Province.

METHODS:

A total of 4901 environmental samples were collected and tested for Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) from six cities in Fujian Province through the Fujian Influenza Surveillance System from 2013 to 2017. Two patient-related samples were taken from Fujian’s first confirmed H5N6 human case and his backyard chicken feces in 2017. Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact probability test was used to compare the AIV and the viral subtype positive rates among samples from different Surveillance cities, surveillance sites, sample types, and seasons. Phylogenetic tree analysis and molecular analysis were conducted to track the viral transmission route of the human infection and to map out the evolutions of H5N6 in Fujian.

RESULTS:

The overall positive rate of the H5 subtype AIVs was 4.24% (208/4903). There were distinctive differences (p < 0.05) in the positive rates in samples from different cities, sample sites, sample types and seasons. The viruses from the patient and his backyard chicken feces shared high homologies (99.9-100%) in all the eight gene segments. Phylogenetic trees also showed that these two H5N6 viruses were closely related to each other, and were classified into the same genetic clade 2.3.4.4 with another six H5N6 isolates from the environmental samples. The patient’s H5N6 virus carried genes from H6N6, H5N8 and H5N6 viruses originated from different areas. The R294K or N294S substitution was not detected in the neuraminidase (NA). The S31 N substitution in the matrix2 (M2) gene was detected but only in one strain from the environmental samples.

CONCLUSIONS:

The H5 subtype of AIVs has started circulating in the poultry environments in Fujian Province. The patient’s viral strain originated from the chicken feces in his backyard. Genetic reassortment in H5N6 viruses in Fujian Province was indicated. The H5N6 viruses currently circulating in Fujian Province were still commonly sensitive to Oseltamivir and Zanamivir, but the resistance against Amantadine has emerged.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza a (H5N6) virus; Environmental contamination; Phylogenetic analysis

PMID: 31477028 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-019-4145-6

Keywords: Antivirals; Drugs Resistance; Oseltamivir; Zanamivir; Amantadine; H5N6; H6N6; H5N8; Reassortant strain; Avian Influenza; Human; Fujian; China.

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Different #pathogenicity of two strains of clade 2.3.4.4c #H5N6 highly pathogenic #avian #influenza viruses bearing different PA and NS gene in domestic #ducks (Virology, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Virology. 2019 Apr;530:11-18. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2019.01.016. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Different pathogenicity of two strains of clade 2.3.4.4c H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses bearing different PA and NS gene in domestic ducks.

Kwon JH1, Noh JY1, Jeong JH1, Jeong S1, Lee SH1, Kim YJ1, Yuk SS1, Lee DH2, Bae YC3, Park SC3, Lee KH3, Lee EK3, Lee YN3, Lee YJ3, Song CS4.

Author information: 1 Avian Disease Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, 120 Neungdongro, Gwangjingu, Seoul 05029, Republic of Korea. 2 Department of Pathobiology & Veterinary Science, The University of Connecticut, 61 N. Eagleville Rd, Storrs, CT 06269, USA. 3 Avian Influenza Research and Diagnostic Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, 177, Hyeoksin 8-ro, Gimcheon-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 39660, Republic of Korea. 4 Avian Disease Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, 120 Neungdongro, Gwangjingu, Seoul 05029, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: songcs@konkuk.ac.kr.

 

Abstract

H5Nx clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have been disseminated to wide geographic regions since 2014. In 2016, five distinct genotypes (C-1 to C-5) of clade 2.3.4.4c H5N6 HPAIVs were detected in South Korea. In this study, we evaluated the pathogenicity, susceptibility to infection, and transmissibility of the two strains representing the C-1 and C-4 genotypes of the H5N6 viruses, which have different PA and NS gene, in domestic ducks. Although the susceptibility to infection of domestic ducks to the two strains was similar, the C-4 genotype virus induced higher mortality in ducks than C-1 genotype virus. A higher titer of viral shedding were detected in ducks challenged with the C-4 genotype virus compared with the C-1 genotype virus. These results indicated that the reassortment of HPAIVs with prevailing low pathogenic avian influenza viruses could effect on the pathogenicity in ducks.

Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Inc.

KEYWORDS: Domestic duck; H5N6; Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus; Pathogenicity; Reassortment

PMID: 30753976 DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2019.01.016 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; Reassortant strain; Poultry.

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Comparative #pathogenicity of #H5N6 subtype highly pathogenic #avian #influenza viruses in #chicken, Pekin #duck and Muscovy duck (Transbound Emerg Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2019 May;66(3):1227-1251. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13141. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Comparative pathogenicity of H5N6 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in chicken, Pekin duck and Muscovy duck.

Uchida Y1, Mine J1, Takemae N1, Tanikawa T1, Tsunekuni R1, Saito T1.

Author information: 1 Influenza Unit, Division of Transboundary Animal Diseases, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

 

Abstract

In Japan during the 2016-2017 winter season, clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of the H5N6 subtype caused 12 outbreaks in chicken and Muscovy duck farms. These viruses have been circulating in Vietnam and China since 2014. In this study, we evaluated the susceptibility of chicken, Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) and Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) to H5N6 HPAIVs that originated in Japan, Vietnam and China. The H5N6 HPAIVs examined in this study were highly lethal to chickens compared with their pathogenicity in Pekin duck and Muscovy duck. One of five chickens infected with A/Muscovy duck/Aomori/1-3T/2016 (MusDk/Aomori) survived despite viral shedding, although all of the chickens infected with the other viruses died. The 50% chicken lethal dose differed among the Japanese strains that shared the same gene constellation indicating that gene constellation was not a major determinant of pathogenicity in chicken. MusDk/Aomori, A/chicken/Niigata/1-1T/2016 (Ck/Niigata) and A/duck/Hyogo/1/2016 (Dk/Hyogo) infected all Muscovy ducks inoculated; Ck/Niigata killed 50% of the ducks it infected whereas the other two did not kill any ducks. A/chicken/Japan/AnimalQuarantine-HE144/2016 (HE144) isolated from chicken meat that originated in China was highly pathogenic to Pekin duck: all of the ducks died within 3.75 days of inoculation. This study shows that the pathogenicity of the clade 2.3.4.4 H5N6 HPAIVs differs not only between hosts but also within the same host species.

© 2019 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

KEYWORDS: Muscovy duck; chicken; duck; influenza virus H5N6 subtype; pathogenicity

PMID: 30720248 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.13141 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; Poultry.

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#Genetic Characteristics, #Pathogenicity and #Transmission of #H5N6 Highly Pathogenic #Avian #Influenza Viruses in Southern #China (Transbound Emerg Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2019 Jul 22. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13299. [Epub ahead of print]

Genetic Characteristics, Pathogenicity and Transmission of H5N6 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Southern China.

Qu N1, Zhao B1, Chen Z1, He Z1, Li W1, Liu Z1, Wang X1, Huang J1, Zhang Y1, He W1, Sun J2, Qin Z2, Liao M1, Jiao P1.

Author information: 1 College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China. 2 Shenzhen Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Shenzhen, 518000, China.

 

Abstract

Since 2014, H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) from clade 2.3.4.4 have been persistently circulating in Southern China. This has caused huge losses in the poultry industry. In this study, we analyzed the genetic characteristics of seven H5N6 HPAIVs of clade 2.3.4.4 that infected birds in Southern China in 2016. Phylogenetic analysis grouped the HA, PB2, PA, M, and NS genes as MIX-like, and the NA genes grouped into the Eurasian lineage. The PB1 genes of the GS24, GS25, CK46, and GS74 strains belonged to the VN 2014-like group and the others were grouped as MIX-like. The NP genes of GS24 and GS25 strains belonged to the ZJ-like group, but the others were MIX-like. Thus, these viruses came from different genotypes, and the GS24, GS25, CK46, and GS74 strains displayed genotype recombination. Additionally, our results showed that the mean death time of all chickens inoculated with 105 EID50 of CK46 or GS74 viruses was 3 days and 3.38 days, respectively. The viruses replicated at high titers in all tested tissues of the inoculated chickens. They also replicated in all tested tissues of naive contact chickens, but their replication titers in some tissues were significantly different (P<0.05). Thus, the viruses displayed high pathogenicity and variable transmission in chickens. Therefore, it is necessary to focus on the pathogenic variation and molecular evolution of H5N6 HPAIVs in order to prevent and control avian influenza in China.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus; chicken; genetic characteristics; pathogenicity; transmission

PMID: 31328387 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.13299

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; Poultry; China.

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