#Sporadic occurrence of #H9N2 #avian #influenza #infections in #human in #Anhui province, eastern #China: A notable #problem (Microb Pathog., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Microb Pathog. 2019 Dec 18:103940. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2019.103940. [Epub ahead of print]

Sporadic occurrence of H9N2 avian influenza infections in human in Anhui province, eastern China: A notable problem.

He J1, Wu Q2, Yu JL1, He L3, Sun Y1, Shi YL1, Chen QQ1, Ge YL1, Zhang ZH1, Li WW1, Hou S3, Zhu M3, Wu JB3, Su B1, Hu WB4, Pan HF5.

Author information: 1 Anhui Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 12560, Fanhua Avenue, Hefei, China; Key Laboratory for Medical and Health of the 13th Five-Year Plan, 12560, Fanhua Avenue, Hefei, Anhui, China. 2 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishan Road, Hefei, Anhui, China; Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Major Autoimmune Diseases, 81 Meishan Road, Hefei, Anhui, China. 3 Anhui Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 12560, Fanhua Avenue, Hefei, China. 4 School of Public Health and Social Work & Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Electronic address: w2.hu@qut.edu.au. 5 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishan Road, Hefei, Anhui, China; Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Major Autoimmune Diseases, 81 Meishan Road, Hefei, Anhui, China; School of Public Health and Social Work & Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Electronic address: panhaifeng1982@sina.com.

 

Abstract

H9N2 viruses can cause great economic losses to the domestic poultry industry when co-infected with other influenza viruses or pathogens. . To better understand the molecular characteristics of H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) and analyze the genetic evolutionary relationship, we isolated three H9N2 subtypes AIVs from nasopharyngeal swab specimens from the three cases reported in Anhui province since 2015, and systematically reviewed the genome-wide data of 21 poultry–isolated H9N2 viruses during 1998-2017. The six internal genes of three human-isolated viruses and recent poultry-isolated viruses (since 2014) in Anhui province presented high gene homologies with HPAI H7N9, even including H10N8 and H5N6. The three human-isolated H9N2 AIVs and poultry-isolated viruses (since 2008) in Anhui province were highly similar, and classified into genotype S. Seven N-linked potential glycosylation sites in the HA protein were detected in the three human-isolated viruses, which also appeared in poultry-isolated H9N2 AIVs. None of the human-isolated H9N2 AIVs had the I368V mutation in PB1 protein, but all the poultry-isolated H9N2 viruses in 2017 carried this mutation. Multidisciplinary, cross-regional and cross-sectoral approaches are warranted to address complex public health challenges and achieve the goal of ‘one health’.

Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

KEYWORDS: A (H9N2); Avian influenza; Avian influenza virus; Human infection; Poultry

PMID: 31863839 DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2019.103940

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H9N2; H5N6; H7N9; H10N8; Reassortant strain; Human; Poultry; China; Anhui.

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Highly pathogenic #H5N6 #avian #influenza virus #outbreak in Pavo cristatus in #Jiangxi Province, #China (Emerg Microbes Infect., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Emerg Microbes Infect. 2019;8(1):377-380. doi: 10.1080/22221751.2019.1586411.

Highly pathogenic H5N6 avian influenza virus outbreak in Pavo cristatus in Jiangxi Province, China.

Li M1, Feng S1,2, Lv S3, Luo J1, Guo J3, Sun J3, He H1.

Author information: 1 National Research Center for Wildlife Borne Diseases, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China. 2 College of Life Sciences, University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China. 3 Center of Animal Disease Prevention and Control of Tong Zhou District, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.

 

Abstract

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a persistent threat to poultry, wild birds, humans, and other mammals. The continually evolving HPAI H5N6 virus has induced great losses in breeding industries in growing regions around the world. In this study, we confirmed an outbreak of the HPAI H5N6 virus in captive Pavo cristatus in Jiangxi Province, China. The causative agents H5N6 viruses were isolated and designated JS01, JS02, and K10. Animal experiments showed that all three isolates exhibited high pathogenicity to chickens, but they need adaption to effectively infect mice. A phylogenetic analysis showed that all three isolates were clustered in H5 clade 2.3.4.4c. No novel genetic reassortant was found in JS01, JS02, and K10 viruses. It was estimated that JS01, JS02, and K10 H5N6 viruses were direct descendants of the H5N6 virus circulating in South of China. The estimated divergence time from tMRCAs was anywhere between May 2014 to June 2016. Although the number of outbreaks of avian influenza decreased significantly in 2018, the threat from avian influenza to public health remains serious. Enhanced active surveillance is required to monitor the transmission and evolution of H5 influenza viruses.

KEYWORDS: H5N6; Influenza virus; Pavo Cristatus

PMID: 31851878 DOI: 10.1080/22221751.2019.1586411

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; Poultry; Jiangxi; China.

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Detection of highly pathogenic #avian #influenza A(#H5N6) viruses in #waterfowl in #Bangladesh (Virology, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Virology. 2019 Aug;534:36-44. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2019.05.011. Epub 2019 May 28.

Detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N6) viruses in waterfowl in Bangladesh.

Yang G1, Chowdury S2, Hodges E1, Rahman MZ2, Jang Y1, Hossain ME2, Jones J1, Stark TJ1, Di H1, Cook PW1, Ghosh S2, Azziz-Baumgartner E1, Barnes JR1, Wentworth DE1, Kennedy E3, Davis CT4.

Author information: 1 Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA. 2 International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. 3 Division of Global Health Protection, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address: ftw3@cdc.gov. 4 Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address: ctdavis@cdc.gov.

 

Abstract

Bangladesh has reported repeated outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5) viruses in poultry since 2007. Because of the large number of live poultry markets (LPM) relative to the population density of poultry throughout the country, these markets can serve as sentinel sites for HPAI A(H5) detection. Through active LPM surveillance during June 2016-June 2017, HPAI A(H5N6) viruses along with 14 other subtypes of influenza A viruses were detected. The HPAI A(H5N6) viruses belonged to clade 2.3.4.4 and were likely introduced into Bangladesh around March 2016. Human infections with influenza clade 2.3.4.4 viruses in Bangladesh have not been identified, but the viruses had several molecular markers associated with potential human infection. Vigilant surveillance at the animal-human interface is essential to identify emerging avian influenza viruses with the potential to threaten public and animal health.

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: A(H5N6); Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus; Live poultry market; Orthomyxovirus; Waterfowl

PMID: 31176062 DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2019.05.011 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; Poultry; Live poultry markets; Bangladesh.

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A study of the relationship between #human #infection with #avian #influenza A #H5N6 and environmental avian influenza viruses in #Fujian, #China (BMC Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Infect Dis. 2019 Sep 2;19(1):762. doi: 10.1186/s12879-019-4145-6.

A study of the relationship between human infection with avian influenza a (H5N6) and environmental avian influenza viruses in Fujian, China.

Chen P1, Xie JF1,2, Lin Q2, Zhao L2, Zhang YH2, Chen HB2, Weng YW1,2, Huang Z2, Zheng KC3,4.

Author information: 1 College of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, No. 88, Jiaotong Road, Taijiang District, Fuzhou, 350000, China. 2 Fujian Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Fuzhou, 350001, China. 3 College of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, No. 88, Jiaotong Road, Taijiang District, Fuzhou, 350000, China. kingdadi9909@126.com. 4 Fujian Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Fuzhou, 350001, China. kingdadi9909@126.com.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Avian influenza A (H5N6) virus poses a great threat to the human health since it is capable to cross the species barrier and infect humans. Although human infections are believed to largely originate from poultry contaminations, the transmissibility is unclear and only limited information was available on poultry environment contaminations, especially in Fujian Province.

METHODS:

A total of 4901 environmental samples were collected and tested for Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) from six cities in Fujian Province through the Fujian Influenza Surveillance System from 2013 to 2017. Two patient-related samples were taken from Fujian’s first confirmed H5N6 human case and his backyard chicken feces in 2017. Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact probability test was used to compare the AIV and the viral subtype positive rates among samples from different Surveillance cities, surveillance sites, sample types, and seasons. Phylogenetic tree analysis and molecular analysis were conducted to track the viral transmission route of the human infection and to map out the evolutions of H5N6 in Fujian.

RESULTS:

The overall positive rate of the H5 subtype AIVs was 4.24% (208/4903). There were distinctive differences (p < 0.05) in the positive rates in samples from different cities, sample sites, sample types and seasons. The viruses from the patient and his backyard chicken feces shared high homologies (99.9-100%) in all the eight gene segments. Phylogenetic trees also showed that these two H5N6 viruses were closely related to each other, and were classified into the same genetic clade 2.3.4.4 with another six H5N6 isolates from the environmental samples. The patient’s H5N6 virus carried genes from H6N6, H5N8 and H5N6 viruses originated from different areas. The R294K or N294S substitution was not detected in the neuraminidase (NA). The S31 N substitution in the matrix2 (M2) gene was detected but only in one strain from the environmental samples.

CONCLUSIONS:

The H5 subtype of AIVs has started circulating in the poultry environments in Fujian Province. The patient’s viral strain originated from the chicken feces in his backyard. Genetic reassortment in H5N6 viruses in Fujian Province was indicated. The H5N6 viruses currently circulating in Fujian Province were still commonly sensitive to Oseltamivir and Zanamivir, but the resistance against Amantadine has emerged.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza a (H5N6) virus; Environmental contamination; Phylogenetic analysis

PMID: 31477028 PMCID: PMC6719373 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-019-4145-6 [Indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; H5N8; H6N6; Reassortant strain; Human; Poultry; Fujian; China.

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A novel #reassortant clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N6 virus identified in South #Korea in 2018 (Infect Genet Evol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Infect Genet Evol. 2019 Nov 1:104056. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2019.104056. [Epub ahead of print]

A novel reassortant clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N6 virus identified in South Korea in 2018.

Baek YG1, Lee YN1, Lee DH2, Cheon SH1, Kye SJ1, Park YR1, Si YJ1, Lee MH1, Lee YJ3.

Author information: 1 Avian Influenza Research & Diagnostic Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, 177 Hyeoksin 8-ro, Gimcheon-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 39660, Republic of Korea. 2 Department of Pathobiology and Veterinary Science, The University of Connecticut, 61 North Eagleville Road, Unit-3089, Storrs, CT 06269, United States. 3 Avian Influenza Research & Diagnostic Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, 177 Hyeoksin 8-ro, Gimcheon-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 39660, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: leeyj700@korea.kr.

 

Abstract

Since 2017, clade 2.3.4.4b H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have been detected over a broad geographic region, including Eurasia. These viruses have evolved through reassortment with Eurasian low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs), resulting in multiple genotypes. Here, we sequenced the full-length genome of 15 H5N6 HPAIVs collected from wild birds and poultry farms in South Korea from January to March 2018. A comparative phylogenetic analysis was then conducted. Three distinct genotypes were identified in South Korea during 2017/2018, including a novel reassortant genotype, H214. The novel reassortant H5N6 viruses isolated in this study possessed PB2, PA, and NP gene segments of Eurasian LPAIV on a genetic backbone of the H35-like genotype, which was identified in Korea and the Netherlands during 2017. Bayesian molecular clock analysis suggested that the novel reassortant viruses were generated most likely during the fall migration/wintering season of migratory waterfowl in 2017. Considering the continued emergence and spread of clade 2.3.4.4 HPAIV, enhanced surveillance of wild waterfowl is needed for early detection of HPAIV incursions.

Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier B.V.

KEYWORDS: 2.3.4.4b H5N6; HPAIV; Novel genotype; Novel reassortant; Phylogenetic analysis; tMRCA

PMID: 31683010 DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2019.104056

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; Reassortant strain; Poultry; Wild Birds; South Korea.

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#Genetic Characterization of #Avian #Influenza A(#H5N6) Virus Clade 2.3.4.4, #Russia, 2018 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 12—December 2019 / Research Letter

Genetic Characterization of Avian Influenza A(H5N6) Virus Clade 2.3.4.4, Russia, 2018

Ivan Susloparov  , Natalia Goncharova, Natalia Kolosova, Alexey Danilenko, Vasiliy Marchenko, Galina Onkhonova, Vasiliy Evseenko, Elena Gavrilova, Rinat A. Maksutov, and Alexander Ryzhikov

Author affiliations: State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology Vector, Koltsovo, Russia

 

Abstract

Timely identification of pandemic influenza threats depends on monitoring for highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. We isolated highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N6) virus clade 2.3.4.4, genotype G1.1, in samples from a bird in southwest Russia. The virus has high homology to human H5N6 influenza strains isolated from southeast China.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; Wild Birds; Russia; China.

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#Avian #Influenza A Viruses among Occupationally Exposed #Populations, #China, 2014–2016 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 12—December 2019 / Research

Avian Influenza A Viruses among Occupationally Exposed Populations, China, 2014–2016

Chuansong Quan1, Qianli Wang1, Jie Zhang, Min Zhao, Qigang Dai, Ting Huang, Zewu Zhang, Shenghua Mao, Yifei Nie, Jun Liu, Yun Xie, Baorong Zhang, Yuhai Bi, Weifeng Shi, Peipei Liu, Dayan Wang, Luzhao Feng, Hongjie Yu, William J. Liu  , and George F. Gao

Author affiliations: Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China (C. Quan, J. Zhang, P. Liu, D. Wang, L. Feng, W.J. Liu, G.F. Gao); Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, China (C. Quan, W. Shi); Fudan University, Shanghai, China (Q. Wang, H. Yu); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (M. Zhao, Y. Bi, G.F. Gao); Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing, China (Q. Dai); Sichuan Provincial Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Chengdu, China (T. Huang); Dongguan Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Dongguan, China (Z. Zhang); Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai (S. Mao); Henan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Zhengzhou, China (Y. Nie); Zaozhuang Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Zaozhuang, China (J. Liu); Jiangxi Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanchang, China (Y. Xie); Aviation General Hospital, Beijing (B. Zhang)

 

Abstract

To determine the seroprevalence and seroconversion of avian influenza virus (AIV) antibodies in poultry workers, we conducted a seroepidemiologic study in 7 areas of China during December 2014–April 2016. We used viral isolation and reverse transcription PCR to detect AIVs in specimens from live poultry markets. We analyzed 2,124 serum samples obtained from 1,407 poultry workers by using hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization assays. We noted seroprevalence of AIV antibodies for subtypes H9N2, H7N9, H6N1, H5N1-SC29, H5N6, H5N1-SH199, and H6N6. In serum from participants with longitudinal samples, we noted seroconversion, with >4-fold rise in titers, for H9N2, H7N9, H6N1, H5N1-SC29, H6N6, H5N6, and H5N1-SH199 subtypes. We found no evidence of H10N8 subtype. The distribution of AIV antibodies provided evidence of asymptomatic infection. We correlated AIV antibody prevalence in live poultry markets with increased risk for H7N9 and H9N2 infection among poultry workers.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Human; China; Serology; Seroprevalence; H5N1; H5N6; H6N1; H6N6; H7N9; H9N2; Live poultry Markets.

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