A study of the relationship between #human #infection with #avian #influenza A #H5N6 and environmental avian influenza viruses in #Fujian, #China (BMC Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Infect Dis. 2019 Sep 2;19(1):762. doi: 10.1186/s12879-019-4145-6.

A study of the relationship between human infection with avian influenza a (H5N6) and environmental avian influenza viruses in Fujian, China.

Chen P1, Xie JF1,2, Lin Q2, Zhao L2, Zhang YH2, Chen HB2, Weng YW1,2, Huang Z2, Zheng KC3,4.

Author information: 1 College of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, No. 88, Jiaotong Road, Taijiang District, Fuzhou, 350000, China. 2 Fujian Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Fuzhou, 350001, China. 3 College of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, No. 88, Jiaotong Road, Taijiang District, Fuzhou, 350000, China. kingdadi9909@126.com. 4 Fujian Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Fuzhou, 350001, China. kingdadi9909@126.com.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Avian influenza A (H5N6) virus poses a great threat to the human health since it is capable to cross the species barrier and infect humans. Although human infections are believed to largely originate from poultry contaminations, the transmissibility is unclear and only limited information was available on poultry environment contaminations, especially in Fujian Province.

METHODS:

A total of 4901 environmental samples were collected and tested for Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) from six cities in Fujian Province through the Fujian Influenza Surveillance System from 2013 to 2017. Two patient-related samples were taken from Fujian’s first confirmed H5N6 human case and his backyard chicken feces in 2017. Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact probability test was used to compare the AIV and the viral subtype positive rates among samples from different Surveillance cities, surveillance sites, sample types, and seasons. Phylogenetic tree analysis and molecular analysis were conducted to track the viral transmission route of the human infection and to map out the evolutions of H5N6 in Fujian.

RESULTS:

The overall positive rate of the H5 subtype AIVs was 4.24% (208/4903). There were distinctive differences (p < 0.05) in the positive rates in samples from different cities, sample sites, sample types and seasons. The viruses from the patient and his backyard chicken feces shared high homologies (99.9-100%) in all the eight gene segments. Phylogenetic trees also showed that these two H5N6 viruses were closely related to each other, and were classified into the same genetic clade 2.3.4.4 with another six H5N6 isolates from the environmental samples. The patient’s H5N6 virus carried genes from H6N6, H5N8 and H5N6 viruses originated from different areas. The R294K or N294S substitution was not detected in the neuraminidase (NA). The S31 N substitution in the matrix2 (M2) gene was detected but only in one strain from the environmental samples.

CONCLUSIONS:

The H5 subtype of AIVs has started circulating in the poultry environments in Fujian Province. The patient’s viral strain originated from the chicken feces in his backyard. Genetic reassortment in H5N6 viruses in Fujian Province was indicated. The H5N6 viruses currently circulating in Fujian Province were still commonly sensitive to Oseltamivir and Zanamivir, but the resistance against Amantadine has emerged.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza a (H5N6) virus; Environmental contamination; Phylogenetic analysis

PMID: 31477028 PMCID: PMC6719373 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-019-4145-6 [Indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; H5N8; H6N6; Reassortant strain; Human; Poultry; Fujian; China.

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A novel #reassortant clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N6 virus identified in South #Korea in 2018 (Infect Genet Evol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Infect Genet Evol. 2019 Nov 1:104056. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2019.104056. [Epub ahead of print]

A novel reassortant clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N6 virus identified in South Korea in 2018.

Baek YG1, Lee YN1, Lee DH2, Cheon SH1, Kye SJ1, Park YR1, Si YJ1, Lee MH1, Lee YJ3.

Author information: 1 Avian Influenza Research & Diagnostic Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, 177 Hyeoksin 8-ro, Gimcheon-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 39660, Republic of Korea. 2 Department of Pathobiology and Veterinary Science, The University of Connecticut, 61 North Eagleville Road, Unit-3089, Storrs, CT 06269, United States. 3 Avian Influenza Research & Diagnostic Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, 177 Hyeoksin 8-ro, Gimcheon-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 39660, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: leeyj700@korea.kr.

 

Abstract

Since 2017, clade 2.3.4.4b H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have been detected over a broad geographic region, including Eurasia. These viruses have evolved through reassortment with Eurasian low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs), resulting in multiple genotypes. Here, we sequenced the full-length genome of 15 H5N6 HPAIVs collected from wild birds and poultry farms in South Korea from January to March 2018. A comparative phylogenetic analysis was then conducted. Three distinct genotypes were identified in South Korea during 2017/2018, including a novel reassortant genotype, H214. The novel reassortant H5N6 viruses isolated in this study possessed PB2, PA, and NP gene segments of Eurasian LPAIV on a genetic backbone of the H35-like genotype, which was identified in Korea and the Netherlands during 2017. Bayesian molecular clock analysis suggested that the novel reassortant viruses were generated most likely during the fall migration/wintering season of migratory waterfowl in 2017. Considering the continued emergence and spread of clade 2.3.4.4 HPAIV, enhanced surveillance of wild waterfowl is needed for early detection of HPAIV incursions.

Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier B.V.

KEYWORDS: 2.3.4.4b H5N6; HPAIV; Novel genotype; Novel reassortant; Phylogenetic analysis; tMRCA

PMID: 31683010 DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2019.104056

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; Reassortant strain; Poultry; Wild Birds; South Korea.

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#Genetic Characterization of #Avian #Influenza A(#H5N6) Virus Clade 2.3.4.4, #Russia, 2018 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 12—December 2019 / Research Letter

Genetic Characterization of Avian Influenza A(H5N6) Virus Clade 2.3.4.4, Russia, 2018

Ivan Susloparov  , Natalia Goncharova, Natalia Kolosova, Alexey Danilenko, Vasiliy Marchenko, Galina Onkhonova, Vasiliy Evseenko, Elena Gavrilova, Rinat A. Maksutov, and Alexander Ryzhikov

Author affiliations: State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology Vector, Koltsovo, Russia

 

Abstract

Timely identification of pandemic influenza threats depends on monitoring for highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. We isolated highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N6) virus clade 2.3.4.4, genotype G1.1, in samples from a bird in southwest Russia. The virus has high homology to human H5N6 influenza strains isolated from southeast China.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; Wild Birds; Russia; China.

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#Avian #Influenza A Viruses among Occupationally Exposed #Populations, #China, 2014–2016 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 12—December 2019 / Research

Avian Influenza A Viruses among Occupationally Exposed Populations, China, 2014–2016

Chuansong Quan1, Qianli Wang1, Jie Zhang, Min Zhao, Qigang Dai, Ting Huang, Zewu Zhang, Shenghua Mao, Yifei Nie, Jun Liu, Yun Xie, Baorong Zhang, Yuhai Bi, Weifeng Shi, Peipei Liu, Dayan Wang, Luzhao Feng, Hongjie Yu, William J. Liu  , and George F. Gao

Author affiliations: Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China (C. Quan, J. Zhang, P. Liu, D. Wang, L. Feng, W.J. Liu, G.F. Gao); Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, China (C. Quan, W. Shi); Fudan University, Shanghai, China (Q. Wang, H. Yu); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (M. Zhao, Y. Bi, G.F. Gao); Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing, China (Q. Dai); Sichuan Provincial Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Chengdu, China (T. Huang); Dongguan Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Dongguan, China (Z. Zhang); Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai (S. Mao); Henan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Zhengzhou, China (Y. Nie); Zaozhuang Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Zaozhuang, China (J. Liu); Jiangxi Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanchang, China (Y. Xie); Aviation General Hospital, Beijing (B. Zhang)

 

Abstract

To determine the seroprevalence and seroconversion of avian influenza virus (AIV) antibodies in poultry workers, we conducted a seroepidemiologic study in 7 areas of China during December 2014–April 2016. We used viral isolation and reverse transcription PCR to detect AIVs in specimens from live poultry markets. We analyzed 2,124 serum samples obtained from 1,407 poultry workers by using hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization assays. We noted seroprevalence of AIV antibodies for subtypes H9N2, H7N9, H6N1, H5N1-SC29, H5N6, H5N1-SH199, and H6N6. In serum from participants with longitudinal samples, we noted seroconversion, with >4-fold rise in titers, for H9N2, H7N9, H6N1, H5N1-SC29, H6N6, H5N6, and H5N1-SH199 subtypes. We found no evidence of H10N8 subtype. The distribution of AIV antibodies provided evidence of asymptomatic infection. We correlated AIV antibody prevalence in live poultry markets with increased risk for H7N9 and H9N2 infection among poultry workers.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Human; China; Serology; Seroprevalence; H5N1; H5N6; H6N1; H6N6; H7N9; H9N2; Live poultry Markets.

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#Outbreaks of highly pathogenic #avian #influenza in #zoo #birds caused by HA clade 2.3.4.4 #H5N6 subtype viruses in #Japan in winter 2016 (Transbound Emerg Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2019 Oct 11. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13386. [Epub ahead of print]

Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in zoo birds caused by HA clade 2.3.4.4 H5N6 subtype viruses in Japan in winter 2016.

Usui T1, Soda K1, Sumi K1, Ozaki H1, Tomioka Y2, Ito H1, Murase T1, Kawamoto T3, Miura M3, Komatsu M3, Imanishi T4, Kurobe M4, Ito T1, Yamaguchi T1.

Author information: 1 Avian Zoonosis Research Center, Tottori University, 4-101, Koyama Minami, Tottori, 680-8553, JAPAN. 2 Laboratory of Experimental Animal, Tottori University, 4-101, Koyama Minami, Tottori, 680-8553, JAPAN. 3 Akita Omoriyama Zoo, Katabata 154, Hamada, Akita, 010-1654, Japan. 4 Nagoya Higashiyama Zoo and Botanical Gardens, 3-70 Higashiyama Motomachi, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi, 464-0804, JAPAN.

 

Abstract

In late 2016, two zoos, one in northern Japan and the other in central Japan, experienced highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks, in which multiple zoo birds were infected with H5N6 subtype HPAI virus (HPAIV). Here, we report an overview of these HPAI outbreaks. HPAIV infections were confirmed by virus isolation in three black swans (Cygnus atratus) and three snowy owls (Bubo scandiacus) kept in the Omoriyama Zoo hospital. At Higashiyama Zoo and Botanical Gardens, following the death of a black swan at a zoo pond, nine waterfowl, including two black swans, four cackling geese (Branta hutchinsii leucopareia), two mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and a wigeon (Anas penelope), died after HPAIV infection in isolation facilities. Based on the presence of H5-specific antibodies in their sera, two surviving black swans and a surviving mallard at Higashiyama Zoo appeared to have HPAIV infection, although the virus was not isolated. Detectable levels of antibodies (≥10 HI) were maintained for at least five to nine months, as determined by hemagglutinin inhibition test. Isolation of two H5N6 subtype HPAIVs from an open-air pond where affected zoo birds were previously housed at Higashiyama Zoo strongly indicates that wild waterfowl associated with aquatic environments brought the virus to the zoo. The phylogenetic relationships of the 18 isolates indicated direct viral transmission among birds within each zoo. In both zoos, containment of suspected birds in isolation facilities might have allowed the virus spread among birds inside the facility. However, maintaining containment measures and strict sanitation procedures could facilitate successful physical containment and clearance of HPAIV in both zoos.

© 2019 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

KEYWORDS: H5N6 clade 2.3.4.4; HPAI in zoo birds; Japan; cackling geese; snowy owl; viral antibodies

PMID: 31605424 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.13386

Keyword: Avian Influenza; H5N6; Captive Birds; Japan.

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Novel #H5N6 #Avian #Influenza Virus #Reassortants with #European #H5N8 Isolated in #Migratory #Birds, #China (Transbound Emerg Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2019 Oct 3. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13380. [Epub ahead of print]

Novel H5N6 Avian Influenza Virus Reassortants with European H5N8 Isolated in Migratory Birds, China.

Sun J1, Zhao L2, Li X1, Meng W3, Chu D4, Yang X1, Peng P4, Zhi M1, Qin S4, Fu T1, Li J4, Lu S1, Wang W5, He X5, Yu M5, Lv X1, Ma W1, Liao M1, Liu Z1,6, Zhang G3, Wang Y1, Li Y2, Chai H1,6, Lu J3, Hua Y1.

Author information: 1 College of Wildlife and Protected Area, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin150040, Heilongjiang Province, China. 2 State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Harbin150040, Heilongjiang Province, China. 3 Research Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, 100091, China. 4 General Station for Surveillance of Wildlife Disease & Wildlife Borne Diseases, National Forestry and Grassland Administration, Shenyang, 110000, Liaoning Province, China. 5 Monitoring Center for Terrestrial Wildlife Epidemic Diseases, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Ningxia, Yinchuan, 750001, China. 6 Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology, National Forestry and Grassland Administration, Harbin, 150040, Heilongjiang Province, China.

 

Abstract

Five novel H5N6 influenza viruses, including four highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses and one low pathogenic avian influenza virus, were isolated from migratory birds in Ningxia, China in November 2017. To understand the genetic origination of the novel H5N6 virus, and the infectivity and pathogenicity of the four highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in mammals, phylogeographic analyses and infection studies in mice were performed. The phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses showed that the H5N6 isolates, which are closely related to the viruses from Korea, Japan and the Netherlands, originated from ressortant virus between H5N8 and HxN6 viruses from Western Russia. The animal study revealed that the SBD-87 isolate presented moderate virulence in mice, suggesting a potential public risk to humans and a potential threat to public health.

© 2019 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza virus; H5N6; Migratory birds; Pathogenicity; Phylogenetic

PMID: 31580519 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.13380

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; H5N8; China; Reassortant Strains; Wild Birds.

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#Pathogenicity of clade 2.3.4.4 #H5N6 highly pathogenic #avian #influenza virus in three #chicken #breeds from South #Korea in 2016/2017 (J Vet Sci., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Vet Sci. 2019 May;20(3):e27. doi: 10.4142/jvs.2019.20.e27.

Pathogenicity of clade 2.3.4.4 H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in three chicken breeds from South Korea in 2016/2017.

Park SC1, Song BM2, Lee YN2, Lee EK2, Heo GB2, Kye SJ2, Lee KH2, Bae YC2, Lee YJ3, Kim B4.

Author information: 1 Laboratory of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 54596, Korea. 2 Avian Influenza Research & Diagnostic Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon 39660, Korea. 3 Avian Influenza Research & Diagnostic Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon 39660, Korea. leeyj700@korea.kr. 4 Laboratory of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 54596, Korea. bskims@jbnu.ac.kr.

 

Abstract

In 2016, novel H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus emerged in Korea. During the outbreak, the virus caused the largest culling, especially in brown chicken lines. We determined the pathogenicity and transmissibility of the virus in 2 white chicken lines of the specific pathogen-free chickens, broilers and brown chicken line of Korean native chicken (KNC). A KNC had a longer virus shedding period and longer mean death time than others. Our study showed that this characteristic in the KNC might have contributed to a farm-to-farm transmission of the brown chicken farms.

© 2019 The Korean Society of Veterinary Science.

KEYWORDS: Chicken; H5N6; highly pathogenic avian influenza; pathogenicity

PMID: 31161745 PMCID: PMC6538517 DOI: 10.4142/jvs.2019.20.e27 [Indexed for MEDLINE]  Free PMC Article

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6, Poultry; South Korea.

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