#Isolation of highly pathogenic #H5N6 #avian #influenza virus in Southern #Vietnam with #genetic similarity to those infecting #humans in #China (Transbound Emerg Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2019 Jul 15. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13294. [Epub ahead of print]

Isolation of highly pathogenic H5N6 avian influenza virus in Southern Vietnam with genetic similarity to those infecting humans in China.

Tsunekuni R1,2, Sudo K3, Nguyen PT4, Luu BD4, Phuong TD4, Tan TM4, Tung N5, Mine J1,2, Nakayama M1,2, Tanikawa T1,2, Sharshov K6, Takemae N1,2, Saito T1,2,7.

Author information: 1 Division of Transboundary Animal Disease, National Institute of Animal Health, NARO, Tsukuba, Japan. 2 Thailand-Japan Zoonotic Diseases Collaboration Center, Bangkok, Thailand. 3 National Veterinary Assay Laboratory, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Japan. 4 Regional Animal Health Office No. 6, Department of Animal Health, Vietnam. 5 Division of International Cooperation and Communications, Department of Animal Health, Hanoi, Vietnam. 6 Federal Research Center of Fundamental and Translational Medicine, Novosibirsk, Russia. 7 United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, Japan.

 

Abstract

Since 2013, H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have been responsible for outbreaks in poultry and wild birds around Asia. H5N6 HPAIV is also a public concern due to sporadic human infections being reported in China. In the current study, we isolated an H5N6 HPAIV strain (A/Muscovy duck/Long An/AI470/2018; AI470) from an outbreak at a Muscovy duck farm in Long An Province in Southern Vietnam in July 2018 and genetically characterized it. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis revealed that the eight genomic segments of AI470 were most closely related (99.6-99.9%) to A/common gull/Saratov/1676/2018 (H5N6), which was isolated in October 2018 in Russia. Furthermore, AI470 also shared 99.4-99.9% homology with A/Guangxi/32797/2018, an H5N6 HPAIV strain that infected humans in China in 2018. Phylogenetic analyses of the entire genome showed that AI470 was directly derived from H5N6 HPAIVs that were in South China from 2015 to 2018 and clustered with four H5N6 HPAIV strains of human origin in South China from 2017 to 2018. This indicated that AI470 was introduced into Vietnam from China. In addition, molecular characteristics related to mammalian adaptation among the recent human H5N6 HPAIV viruses, except PB2 E627K, were shared by AI470. These findings are cause for concern since H5N6 HPAIV strains that possess a risk of human infection have crossed the Chinese border.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: G1.1; Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus; South China; Vietnam; human infection

PMID: 31309743 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.13294

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; Poultry; Vietnam.

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#Avian #Influenza #H5N6 Viruses Exhibit Differing #Pathogenicities and #Transmissibilities in #Mammals (Sci Rep., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Sci Rep. 2017 Nov 24;7(1):16280. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-16139-1.

Avian Influenza H5N6 Viruses Exhibit Differing Pathogenicities and Transmissibilities in Mammals.

Zhao Z1, Guo Z1, Zhang C1, Liu L1, Chen L2, Zhang C2, Wang Z1, Fu Y1, Li J1, Shao H3, Luo Q4, Qian J5, Liu L6.

Author information: 1 Institute of Military Veterinary, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, 666 West Liuying Road, Changchun, 130122, Jilin, China. 2 College of Veterinary Medicine, Hebei Agricultural University, 2596 lucky south street, Baoding, 071000, Hebei, China. 3 Key Laboratory of Prevention and Control Agents for Animal Bacteriosis, Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, China. 4 Key Laboratory of Prevention and Control Agents for Animal Bacteriosis, Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, China. qingping0523@163.com. 5 Institute of Military Veterinary, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, 666 West Liuying Road, Changchun, 130122, Jilin, China. qianj1970@126.com. 6 Institute of Military Veterinary, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, 666 West Liuying Road, Changchun, 130122, Jilin, China. liulinna7@126.com.

Erratum in Author Correction: Avian Influenza H5N6 Viruses Exhibit Differing Pathogenicities and Transmissibilities in Mammals. [Sci Rep. 2018]

 

Abstract

Since 2013, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N6 viruses have emerged in poultry and caused sporadic infections in humans, increasing global concerns regarding their potential as human pandemic threats. Here, we characterized the receptor-binding specificities, pathogenicities and transmissibilities of three H5N6 viruses isolated from poultry in China. The surface genes hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) were closely related to the human-originating strain A/Changsha/1/2014 (H5N6). Phylogenetic analyses showed that the HA genes were clustered in the 2.3.4.4 clade, and the NA genes were derived from H6N6 viruses. These H5N6 viruses bound both α-2,3-linked and α-2,6-linked sialic acid receptors, but they exhibited different pathogenicities in mice. In addition, one virus was fully infective and transmissible by direct contact in guinea pigs. These results highlight the importance of monitoring the continual adaptation of H5N6 viruses in poultry due to their potential threat to human health.

PMID: 29176564 PMCID: PMC5701206 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-16139-1 [Indexed for MEDLINE]  Free PMC Article

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; H6N6; Reassortant strain; Poultry; Human; Animal models.

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#Phylogeographic #evidence for the inter- and intra- #continental #dissemination of #avian #influenza viruses via #migration #flyways (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: PLoS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Phylogeographic evidence for the inter- and intracontinental dissemination of avian influenza viruses via migration flyways

Junki Mine, Yuko Uchida, Kirill Sharshov, Ivan Sobolev, Alexander Shestopalov, Takehiko Saito

Published: June 26, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0218506

 

Abstract

Genetically related highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of H5N6 subtype caused outbreaks simultaneously in East Asia and Europe—geographically distinct regions—during winter 2017–2018. This situation prompted us to consider whether the application of phylogeographic analysis to a particular gene segment of AIVs could provide clues for understanding how AIV had been disseminated across the continent. Here, the N6 NA genes of influenza viruses isolated across the world were subjected to phylogeographic analysis to illustrate the inter- and intracontinental dissemination of AIVs. Those isolated in East Asia during winter and in Mongolia/Siberia during summer were comingled within particular clades of the phylogeographic tree. For AIVs in one clade, their dissemination in eastern Eurasia extended from Yakutia, Russia, in the north to East Asia in the south. AIVs in western Asia, Europe, and Mongolia were also comingled within other clades, indicating that Mongolia/Siberia plays an important role in the dissemination of AIVs across the Eurasian continent. Mongolia/Siberia may therefore have played a role in the simultaneous outbreaks of H5N6 HPAIVs in Europe and East Asia during the winter of 2017–2018. In addition to the long-distance intracontinental disseminations described above, intercontinental disseminations of AIVs between Eurasia and Africa and between Eurasia and North America were also observed. Integrating these results and known migration flyways suggested that the migration of wild birds and the overlap of flyways, such as that observed in Mongolia/Siberia and along the Alaskan Peninsula, contributed to the long-distance intra- and intercontinental dissemination of AIVs. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the movement of migratory birds and the dynamics of AIVs in breeding areas—especially where several migration flyways overlap—in forecasting outbreaks caused by HPAIVs.

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Citation: Mine J, Uchida Y, Sharshov K, Sobolev I, Shestopalov A, Saito T (2019) Phylogeographic evidence for the inter- and intracontinental dissemination of avian influenza viruses via migration flyways. PLoS ONE 14(6): e0218506. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0218506

Editor: Charles J. Russell, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, UNITED STATES

Received: April 12, 2019; Accepted: June 4, 2019; Published: June 26, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Mine et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All sequence data are available from the GISAID database (accession numbers are listed in S1 Table).

Funding: This study was supported in part by a research project grant from the “Pilot program of international collaborative research (Collaborative research based on a joint call with Russia)” under “Commissioned projects for promotion of strategic international collaborative research,” a grant from the Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Research Council (JP) and a grant from the Russian Scientific Foundation (project # 17-44-07001). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; Wild Birds.

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Emergence of #waterfowl-originated #gene cassettes in HPAI #H7N9 viruses caused severe #human #infection in #Fujian, #China (Influenza Other Respir Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2019 Jun 11. doi: 10.1111/irv.12657. [Epub ahead of print]

Emergence of waterfowl-originated gene cassettes in HPAI H7N9 viruses caused severe human infection in Fujian, China.

Yang L1, Xie J2,3, Zhang Y1, Zhu W1, Li X1, Wei H1, Li Z1, Zhao L2, Bo H1, Liu J1, Dong J1, Chen T1, Shu Y1,4, Weng Y2,3, Wang D1.

Author information: 1 National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China. 2 Fujian center for disease control and prevention, Fuzhou, China. 3 Fujian provincial key laboratory of zoonosis research, Fuzhou, China. 4 School of Public Health Shenzhen, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangdong, China.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H7N9) virus emerged and caused human infections during the 2016-2017 epidemic wave of influenza A(H7N9) viruses in China. We report a human infection with HPAI H7N9 virus and six environmental isolates in Fujian Province, China.

METHODS:

Environmental surveillance was conducted in live poultry markets and poultry farms in Fujian, China. Clinical and epidemiologic data and samples were collected. Real-time RT-PCRs were conducted for each sample, and H7-positive samples were isolated using embryonated chicken eggs. Full genomes of the isolates were obtained by next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis and antigenic analysis were conducted.

RESULTS:

A 59-year-old man who raised about 1000 ducks was identified as HPAI H7N9 infection. Six HPAI H7 viruses were isolated from environmental samples, including five H7N9 viruses and one H7N6 virus. Phylogenetic results showed the human and environmental viruses are highly genetically diverse and containing significantly different gene constellation from that of other HPAI H7N9 previously reported. The internal genes derived from H7N9/H9N2, H5N6, and the Eurasian wild-bird gene pool, indicating waterfowl-originated genotypes, have emerged in HPAI H7N9/N6 viruses and caused human infection.

CONCLUSION:

The new genotypes raise the concern that these HPAI H7 viruses might transmit back into migratory birds and spread to other countries as the HPAI H5Nx viruses. Considering their capability of causing severe infections in both human and poultry, the HPAI H7 viruses in this study pose a risk to public health and the poultry industry and highlight the importance of sustained surveillance of these viruses.

© 2019 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

KEYWORDS: H7N9 virus; avian influenza; genetic diversity; infection

PMID: 31187583 DOI: 10.1111/irv.12657

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; H7N6; H7N9; H9N2; Reassortant Strain; Wild birds; Human; Fujian; China.

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The #Emergence and Decennary #Distribution of Clade 2.3.4.4 #HPAI #H5Nx (Microorganisms., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Microorganisms. 2019 May 29;7(6). pii: E156. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms7060156.

The Emergence and Decennary Distribution of Clade 2.3.4.4 HPAI H5Nx.

Antigua KJC1, Choi WS2, Baek YH3, Song MS4.

Author information: 1 College of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 28644, Korea. tineantigua@gmail.com. 2 College of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 28644, Korea. tuckgirlee@naver.com. 3 College of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 28644, Korea. microuni@chungbuk.ac.kr. 4 College of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 28644, Korea. songminsuk@chungbuk.ac.kr.

 

Abstract

Reassortment events among influenza viruses occur naturally and may lead to the development of new and different subtypes which often ignite the possibility of an influenza outbreak. Between 2008 and 2010, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 of the N1 subtype from the A/goose/Guangdong/1/96-like (Gs/GD) lineage generated novel reassortants by introducing other neuraminidase (NA) subtypes reported to cause most outbreaks in poultry. With the extensive divergence of the H5 hemagglutinin (HA) sequences of documented viruses, the WHO/FAO/OIE H5 Evolutionary Working Group clustered these viruses into a systematic and unified nomenclature of clade 2.3.4.4 currently known as “H5Nx” viruses. The rapid emergence and circulation of these viruses, namely, H5N2, H5N3, H5N5, H5N6, H5N8, and the regenerated H5N1, are of great concern based on their pandemic potential. Knowing the evolution and emergence of these novel reassortants helps to better understand their complex nature. The eruption of reports of each H5Nx reassortant through time demonstrates that it could persist beyond its usual seasonal activity, intensifying the possibility of these emerging viruses’ pandemic potential. This review paper provides an overview of the emergence of each novel HPAI H5Nx virus as well as its current epidemiological distribution.

KEYWORDS: H5Nx; avian; avian influenza; dissemination; epidemiology; evolution

PMID: 31146461 DOI: 10.3390/microorganisms7060156

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Reassortant strain; H5N1; H5N2; H5N3; H5N5; H5N6; H5N8; Poultry; Wild birds.

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Detection of #reassortant #H5N6 clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic #avian #influenza virus in a black-faced #spoonbill (Platalea minor) found dead, #Taiwan, 2017 (Infect Genet Evol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Infect Genet Evol. 2018 Aug;62:275-278. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2018.04.026. Epub 2018 Apr 27.

Detection of reassortant H5N6 clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in a black-faced spoonbill (Platalea minor) found dead, Taiwan, 2017.

Liu YP1, Lee DH2, Chen LH1, Lin YJ1, Li WC1, Hu SC1, Chen YP1, Swayne DE2, Lee MS3.

Author information: 1 Animal Health Research Institute, Council of Agriculture, New Taipei City, Taiwan. 2 U.S. National Poultry Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA, USA. 3 Animal Health Research Institute, Council of Agriculture, New Taipei City, Taiwan. Electronic address: minshiuh@mail.nvri.gov.tw.

 

Abstract

A H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) was detected in a black-faced spoonbill (Platalea minor) found dead in Taiwan during December 2017. Genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses suggest the hemagglutinin gene belongs to H5 clade 2.3.4.4 Group B. All genes except neuraminidase gene shared high levels of nucleotide identity with H5N8 HPAIV identified from Europe during 2016-2017. Genetically similar H5N6 HPAIV was also identified from Japan during November 2017. Enhanced surveillance is required in this region.

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Clade 2.3.4.4; H5N6; Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus; Phylogenetic analysis; Taiwan

PMID: 29705362 DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2018.04.026 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; H5N8; Reassortant strain; Wild Birds; Taiwan.

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#Genetics and #pathogenicity of #H5N6 highly pathogenic #avian #influenza viruses isolated from #wildbirds and a #chicken in #Japan during winter 2017-2018 (Virology, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Virology. 2019 May 2;533:1-11. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2019.04.011. [Epub ahead of print]

Genetics and pathogenicity of H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds and a chicken in Japan during winter 2017-2018.

Mine J1, Uchida Y1, Nakayama M1, Tanikawa T1, Tsunekuni R1, Sharshov K2, Takemae N1, Sobolev I2, Shestpalov A2, Saito T3.

Author information: 1 Division of Transboundary Animal Disease, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), 3-1-5 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0856, Japan; Thailand-Japan Zoonotic Diseases Collaboration Center, Kasetklang, Chatuchak, Bangkok, 10900, Thailand. 2 Federal Research Center of Fundamental and Translational Medicine, Novosibirsk, Russia. 3 Division of Transboundary Animal Disease, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), 3-1-5 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0856, Japan; Thailand-Japan Zoonotic Diseases Collaboration Center, Kasetklang, Chatuchak, Bangkok, 10900, Thailand; United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1, Yanagito, Gifu, Gifu, 501-1112, Japan. Electronic address: taksaito@affrc.go.jp.

 

Abstract

An H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) outbreak occurred in poultry in Japan during January 2018, and H5N6 HPAIVs killed several wild birds in 3 prefectures during Winter 2017-2018. Time-measured phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the Hemagglutinin (HA) and internal genes of these isolates were genetically similar to clade 2.3.4.4.B H5N8 HPAIVs in Europe during Winter 2016-2017, and Neuraminidase (NA) genes of the poultry and wild bird isolates were gained through distinct reassortments with AIVs that were estimated to have circulated possibly in Siberia during Summer 2017 and Summer 2016, respectively. Lethal infectious dose to chickens was similar between the poultry and wild-bird isolates. H5N6 HPAIVs during Winter 2017-2018 in Japan had higher 50% chicken lethal doses and lower transmission efficiency than the H5Nx HPAIVs that caused previous outbreaks in Japan, thus explaining in part why cases during the 2017-2018 outbreak were sporadic.

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Animal RNA virus; H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza; Pathogenicity; Phylogeny

PMID: 31071540 DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2019.04.011

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; H5N8; Wild Birds; Poultry; Japan.

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