#Genetics and #pathogenicity of #H5N6 highly pathogenic #avian #influenza viruses isolated from #wildbirds and a #chicken in #Japan during winter 2017-2018 (Virology, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Virology. 2019 May 2;533:1-11. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2019.04.011. [Epub ahead of print]

Genetics and pathogenicity of H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds and a chicken in Japan during winter 2017-2018.

Mine J1, Uchida Y1, Nakayama M1, Tanikawa T1, Tsunekuni R1, Sharshov K2, Takemae N1, Sobolev I2, Shestpalov A2, Saito T3.

Author information: 1 Division of Transboundary Animal Disease, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), 3-1-5 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0856, Japan; Thailand-Japan Zoonotic Diseases Collaboration Center, Kasetklang, Chatuchak, Bangkok, 10900, Thailand. 2 Federal Research Center of Fundamental and Translational Medicine, Novosibirsk, Russia. 3 Division of Transboundary Animal Disease, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), 3-1-5 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0856, Japan; Thailand-Japan Zoonotic Diseases Collaboration Center, Kasetklang, Chatuchak, Bangkok, 10900, Thailand; United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1, Yanagito, Gifu, Gifu, 501-1112, Japan. Electronic address: taksaito@affrc.go.jp.

 

Abstract

An H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) outbreak occurred in poultry in Japan during January 2018, and H5N6 HPAIVs killed several wild birds in 3 prefectures during Winter 2017-2018. Time-measured phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the Hemagglutinin (HA) and internal genes of these isolates were genetically similar to clade 2.3.4.4.B H5N8 HPAIVs in Europe during Winter 2016-2017, and Neuraminidase (NA) genes of the poultry and wild bird isolates were gained through distinct reassortments with AIVs that were estimated to have circulated possibly in Siberia during Summer 2017 and Summer 2016, respectively. Lethal infectious dose to chickens was similar between the poultry and wild-bird isolates. H5N6 HPAIVs during Winter 2017-2018 in Japan had higher 50% chicken lethal doses and lower transmission efficiency than the H5Nx HPAIVs that caused previous outbreaks in Japan, thus explaining in part why cases during the 2017-2018 outbreak were sporadic.

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Animal RNA virus; H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza; Pathogenicity; Phylogeny

PMID: 31071540 DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2019.04.011

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; H5N8; Wild Birds; Poultry; Japan.

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Co-circulation of genetically distinct highly pathogenic #avian #influenza A clade 2.3.4.4 (#H5N6) viruses in wild #waterfowl and #poultry in #Europe and East #Asia, 2017-18 (Virus Evol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Virus Evol. 2019 Apr 22;5(1):vez004. doi: 10.1093/ve/vez004. eCollection 2019 Jan.

Co-circulation of genetically distinct highly pathogenic avian influenza A clade 2.3.4.4 (H5N6) viruses in wild waterfowl and poultry in Europe and East Asia, 2017-18.

Poen MJ1, Venkatesh D2, Bestebroer TM1, Vuong O1, Scheuer RD1, Oude Munnink BB1, de Meulder D1, Richard M1, Kuiken T1, Koopmans MPG1, Kelder L3, Kim YJ4, Lee YJ4, Steensels M5, Lambrecht B5, Dan A6, Pohlmann A7, Beer M7, Savic V8, Brown IH9, Fouchier RAM1, Lewis NS9,10.

Author information: 1 Department of Viroscience, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. 2 Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK. 3 Staatsbosbeheer, Amersfoort, the Netherlands. 4 Avian Influenza Research and Diagnostic Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Republic of Korea. 5 Avian Virology and Immunology, Sciensano, Brussels, Belgium. 6 Veterinary Diagnostics Directorate, Budapest, Hungary. 7 Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Insel Riems, Germany. 8 Croatian Veterinary Institute, Zagreb, Croatia. 9 OIE/FAO/EURL International Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza, Swine Influenza and Newcastle Disease, Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA)-Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey, UK. 10 Department of Pathobiology and Population Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, AL9 7TA, UK.

 

Abstract

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 clade 2.3.4.4 viruses were first introduced into Europe in late 2014 and re-introduced in late 2016, following detections in Asia and Russia. In contrast to the 2014-15 H5N8 wave, there was substantial local virus amplification in wild birds in Europe in 2016-17 and associated wild bird mortality, with evidence for occasional gene exchange with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. Since December 2017, several European countries have again reported events or outbreaks with HPAI H5N6 reassortant viruses in both wild birds and poultry, respectively. Previous phylogenetic studies have shown that the two earliest incursions of HPAI H5N8 viruses originated in Southeast Asia and subsequently spread to Europe. In contrast, this study indicates that recent HPAI H5N6 viruses evolved from the H5N8 2016-17 viruses during 2017 by reassortment of a European HPAI H5N8 virus and wild host reservoir LPAI viruses. The genetic and phenotypic differences between these outbreaks and the continuing detections of HPAI viruses in Europe are a cause of concern for both animal and human health. The current co-circulation of potentially zoonotic HPAI and LPAI virus strains in Asia warrants the determination of drivers responsible for the global spread of Asian lineage viruses and the potential threat they pose to public health.

KEYWORDS: H5N6; avian influenza; emerging diseases; highly pathogenic avian influenza; phylogeny; virology

PMID: 31024736 PMCID: PMC6476160 DOI: 10.1093/ve/vez004

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; H5N8; Reassortant Strain; Poultry; Wild Birds; European Region; Asia Region.

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Low #risk of #avian #influenza A (#H5N6) #transmission to depopulation #workers in #Korea (Influenza Other Respir Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2018 May;12(3):412-415. doi: 10.1111/irv.12530. Epub 2018 Jan 5.

Low risk of avian influenza A (H5N6) transmission to depopulation workers in Korea.

Ryu S1,2, Lim JS3, Cowling BJ4, Chun BC2,5.

Author information: 1 Division of Infectious Disease Control, Gyeonggi Provincial Government, Suwon, Korea. 2 Department of Epidemiology and Medical Informatics, Graduate School of Public Health, Korea University, Seoul, Korea. 3 Disease Diagnostic Team, Gyeonggi Province Veterinary Service, Suwon, Korea. 4 WHO Collaborating Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Control, School of Public Health, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. 5 Department of Preventive Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

 

Abstract

An outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N6) virus occurred between November 20, 2016, and March 1, 2017 in poultry farms, in the Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea. To identify the risk of transmission of H5N6 to depopulation workers, active and passive surveillance was conducted. Virological testing of respiratory swabs with real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed for workers who reported respiratory symptoms. Among 4633 depopulation workers, 22 reported respiratory symptoms, but all tested negative for H5N6. Personal protective equipment in addition to antiviral prophylaxis was adequate to limit transmission of H5N6 from poultry to humans.

© 2017 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

KEYWORDS: avian influenza; personal protective equipment; prevention; transmission

PMID: 29236360 PMCID: PMC5907809 DOI: 10.1111/irv.12530 [Indexed for MEDLINE]  Free PMC Article

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; Poultry; Human; PPE; South Korea.

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Characterization of three clade 2.3.4.4 #H5 highly pathogenic #avian #influenza viruses isolated from #wildbirds (J Infect., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Infect. 2019 Mar 27. pii: S0163-4453(19)30096-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2019.03.011. [Epub ahead of print]

Characterization of three clade 2.3.4.4 H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds.

Qiu Y1, Li Y2, Li J2, Hou G2, Wang S2, Zhuang Q2, Peng C2, Zhao X1, Jiang W3, Zou F4.

Author information: 1 Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources, Guangzhou, China. 2 China Animal Health and Epidemiology Center, Qingdao, China. 3 China Animal Health and Epidemiology Center, Qingdao, China. Electronic address: civcul@163.com. 4 Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address: zoufs@giabr.gd.cn.

 

Abstract

We isolated and characterized three H5 HPAIVs with different NA subtypes (N1, N6 and N8) during avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance in wild birds during 2015-2016. The P126/H5N1, P560/H5N6 and ST/H5N8 viruses were highly pathogenic to chickens and ducks. Furthermore, P126/H5N1 and P560/H5N6 showed high pathogenicity in mice. Continued circulation of these influenza virus strains clearly poses a significant potential health threat to poultry and human populations.

Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

KEYWORDS: Chickens; Ducks; H5; Highly pathogenic; Mice; Pathogenicity

PMID: 30928558 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinf.2019.03.011

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; H5N6; H5N8; Poultry; Wild Birds; China.

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#Biological characteristics and immunological properties in Muscovy #ducks of #H5N6 virus-like particles composed of HA-TM/HA-TMH3 and M1 (Avian Pathol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Avian Pathol. 2019 Feb;48(1):35-44. doi: 10.1080/03079457.2018.1546375. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Biological characteristics and immunological properties in Muscovy ducks of H5N6 virus-like particles composed of HA-TM/HA-TMH3 and M1.

Qin J1, Zhang Y1, Shen X1, Gong L1, Xue C1, Cao Y1.

Author information: 1 a State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol , Life Sciences School, Sun Yat-sen University , Guangzhou , People’s Republic of China.

 

Abstract

Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs), including H5N6 strains, pose threats to the health of humans and poultry. Waterfowl play a crucial role as a reservoir of HPAIVs. Since current influenza vaccines induce poor antibody titres in waterfowl, there is an urgent need to develop an efficient vaccine against H5N6 infection. In this study, we constructed two H5N6 virus-like particles (VLPs) composed of matrix-1 (M1) and haemagglutinin of wildtype (HA-TM) or haemagglutinin with transmembrane domain replacement (HA-TMH3) (designated as H5N6 VLPs-TM and H5N6 VLPs-TMH3). Biological characteristics of the composed H5N6 VLPs were compared including localization, expression, contents of HA trimers, thermal stability, morphology and immunogenicity in Muscovy ducks. Our results indicate that the H5N6 VLPs-TMH3contained more HA trimers and presented better thermal stability. Moreover, Muscovy ducks immunized with H5N6 VLPs-TMH3 produced higher titres of HI antibody and IFN-γ compared with those immunized with the same dose of H5N6 VLP-TM, thus providing a promising approach for the development of influenza virus vaccines for waterfowl.

 

RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS

H5N6 VLPs-TMH3 had more HA trimers and resisted higher temperature than H5N6 VLPs-TM H5N6 VLPs-TMH3 induced higher titre of HI than H5N6 VLPs-TM in Muscovy ducks.

KEYWORDS: H5N6 influenza virus; Muscovy ducks; haemagglutinin; transmembrane domain; vaccine; virus-like particles

PMID: 30404538 DOI: 10.1080/03079457.2018.1546375 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; Wild birds.

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#Genetic relationship between #poultry and #wildbird viruses during the highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N6 epidemic in the #Netherlands, 2017-2018 (Transbound Emerg Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2019 Mar 15. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13169. [Epub ahead of print]

Genetic relationship between poultry and wild bird viruses during the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N6 epidemic in the Netherlands, 2017-2018.

Beerens N1, Heutink R1, Pritz-Verschuren S1, Germeraad EA1, Bergervoet SA1, Harders F1, Bossers A1, Koch G1.

Author information: 1 Wageningen Bioveterinary Research, Lelystad, the Netherlands.

 

Abstract

In the Netherlands, three commercial poultry farms and two hobby holdings were infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N6 virus in the winter of 2017-2018. This H5N6 virus is a reassortant of HPAI H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4 group B viruses detected in Eurasia in 2016. H5N6 viruses were also detected in several dead wild birds during the winter. However, wild bird mortality was limited compared to the caused by the H5N8 group B virus in 2016-2017. H5N6 virus was not detected in wild birds after March, but in late summer infected wild birds were found again. In this study, the complete genome sequences of poultry and wild bird viruses were determined to study their genetic relationship. Genetic analysis showed that the outbreaks in poultry were not the result of farm-to-farm transmissions, but rather resulted from separate introductions from wild birds. Wild birds infected with viruses related to the first outbreak in poultry were found at short distances from the farm, within a short time frame. However, no wild bird viruses related to outbreaks 2 and 3 were detected. The H5N6 virus isolated in summer shares a common ancestor with the virus detected in outbreak 1. This suggests long-term circulation of H5N6 virus in the local wild bird population. In addition, the pathogenicity of H5N6 virus in ducks was determined, and compared to that of H5N8 viruses detected in 2014 and 2016. A similar high pathogenicity was measured for H5N6 and H5N8 group B viruses, suggesting that biological or ecological factors in the wild bird population may have affected the mortality rates during the H5N6 epidemic. These observations suggest different infection dynamics for the H5N6 and H5N8 group B viruses in the wild bird population.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza; H5N6; full genome sequencing; genetic analysis

PMID: 30874364 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.13169

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; H5N8; Reassortant Strain; Poultry; Wild birds; Netherlands.

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#Human exposures to #H5N6 #Avian #influenza, #England, 2018 (J Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Infect Dis. 2019 Feb 21. pii: jiz080. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiz080. [Epub ahead of print]

Human exposures to H5N6 Avian influenza, England, 2018.

Thornton AC1, Parry-Ford F2, Tessier E2, Oppilamany N3, Zhao H2, Dunning J4, Pebody R1, Dabrera G1.

Author information: 1 National Infection Service, Public Health England, London, UK. 2 Immunisations and Countermeasures Division, National Infection Service, Public Health England, London, UK. 3 Respiratory Diseases Department, National Infection Service, Public Health England, London, UK. 4 Virus Reference Department, National Infection Service, Public Health England, London, UK.

 

Abstract

The human risk following exposure to the European reassortant avian influenza A (H5N6) is unknown. We used routine data collected as part of public health follow-up to assess outcomes of individuals exposed to H5N6 infected wild birds in England. There were 19 separate incidents of confirmed H5N6 among wild birds in the first quarter of 2018 in England and 69 individuals exposed to infected birds during these incidents. Five exposed individuals developed respiratory symptoms. However, no H5N6 infection was detected among those individuals with respiratory symptoms who underwent diagnostic testing, indicating that the human risk from this strain remains low.

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza; follow-up; prophylaxis; public health

PMID: 30788504 DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiz080

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; Human; England.

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