#Preclinical evaluation of the efficacy of an #H5N8 #vaccine candidate (IDCDC-RG43A) in mouse and ferret models for #pandemic preparedness (Vaccine, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vaccine. 2018 Nov 27. pii: S0264-410X(18)31589-5. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.11.064. [Epub ahead of print]

Preclinical evaluation of the efficacy of an H5N8 vaccine candidate (IDCDC-RG43A) in mouse and ferret models for pandemic preparedness.

Jeong JH1, Kim EH1, Lloren KKS1, Kwon JJ1, Kwon HI1, Ahn SJ1, Kim YI1, Choi WS1, Si YJ1, Lee OJ1, Han HJ2, Baek YH1, Song MS3, Choi YK4, Kim CJ5.

Author information: 1 Department of Microbiology, Chungbuk National University College of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Cheongju, Republic of Korea. 2 Department of Microbiology, Chungbuk National University College of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Cheongju, Republic of Korea; Research & Development Center, Green Cross Corporation, Yongin, Republic of Korea; Research & Development Center, Green Cross Wellbeing Corporation, Seongnam, Republic of Korea. 3 Department of Microbiology, Chungbuk National University College of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Cheongju, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: songminsuk@chungbuk.ac.kr. 4 Department of Microbiology, Chungbuk National University College of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Cheongju, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: choiki55@chungbuk.ac.kr. 5 College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: cjkim@cnu.ac.kr.

 

Abstract

Because H5N1 influenza viruses continuously threaten the public health, the WHO has prepared various clades of H5N1 mock-up vaccines as one of the measures for pandemic preparedness. The recent worldwide outbreak of H5Nx virus which belongs to clade 2.3.4.4 and of which H5N6 subtype belongs and already caused human infection also increases the need of pandemic vaccine for such novel emerging viruses. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy and immunogenicity of an egg-based and inactivated whole-virus H5N8 (IDCDC-RG43A) developed by CDC containing HA and NA gene of the parent virus A/gyrfalcon/Washington/41088-6/2014. Mice vaccinated two times elicited low to moderate antibody titer in varying amount of antigen doses against the homologous H5N8 vaccine virus and heterologous intra-clade 2.3.4.4 H5N6 (A/Sichuan/26221/2014) virus. Mice immunized with at least 3.0 µg/dose of IDCDC-RG43A with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant were completely protected from lethal challenge with the mouse-adapted H5N8 (A/Environment/Korea/ma468/2015, maH5N8) as well as cleared the viral replication in tissues including lung, brain, spleen, and kidney. Vaccinated ferrets induced high antibody titers against clade 2.3.4.4 H5N8/H5N6 viruses and the antibody showed high cross-reactivity to clade 2.2 H5N1 but not to clade 1 and 2.3.4 viruses as measured by hemagglutinin inhibition and serum neutralization assays. Furthermore, administration of the vaccine in ferrets resulted in attenuation of clinical disease signs and virus spread to peripheral organs including lung, spleen, and kidney from high dose challenge with maH5N8 virus. The protective and immunogenic characteristic of the candidate vaccine are essential attributes to be considered for further clinical trials as a pre-pandemic vaccine for a potential pandemic virus.

KEYWORDS: H5N8 pre-pandemic vaccine; Immunogenicity; Preclinical evaluation; Protective efficacy

PMID: 30502069 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.11.064

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Pandemic Influenza; Pandemic Preparedness; Vaccines; H5N1; H5N6; H5N8.

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#Phylogenetic variations of highly pathogenic #H5N6 #avian #influenza viruses isolated from #wildbirds in the Izumi plain, #Japan during the 2016/17 winter season (Transbound Emerg Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2018 Nov 30. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13087. [Epub ahead of print]

Phylogenetic variations of highly pathogenic H5N6 avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in the Izumi plain, Japan during the 2016/17 winter season.

Ozawa M1,2,3, Matsuu A2,3, Khalil AMA1,3, Nishi N1, Tokorozaki K4, Masatani T2,3, Horie M2,3, Okuya K1, Ueno K1, Kuwahara M5, Toda S4.

Author information: 1 Laboratory of Animal Hygiene, Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Kagoshima, Japan. 2 Transboundary Animal Diseases Research Center, Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Kagoshima, Japan. 3 United Graduate School of Veterinary Science, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi, Yamaguchi, Japan. 4 Kagoshima Crane Conservation Committee, Izumi, Kagoshima, Japan. 5 Matsuoka Research Institute for Science, Koganei, Tokyo, Japan.

 

Abstract

During the 2016/2017 winter season, we isolated 33 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of H5N6 subtype and three low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) from debilitated or dead wild birds, duck feces, and environmental water samples collected in the Izumi plain, an overwintering site for migratory birds in Japan. Genetic analyses of the H5N6 HPAIV isolates revealed previously unreported phylogenetic variations in the PB2, PB1, PA, and NS gene segments and allowed us to propose two novel genotypes for the contemporary H5N6 HPAIVs. In addition, analysis of the four gene segments identified close phylogenetic relationships between our three LPAIV isolates and the contemporary H5N6 HPAIV isolates. Our results implied the co-circulation and co-evolution of HPAIVs and LPAIVs within the same wild bird populations, thereby highlighting the importance of avian influenza surveillance targeting not only for HPAIVs, but also for LPAIVs.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: H5N6 subtype; highly pathogenic avian influenza virus; phylogenetic variations

PMID: 30499632 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.13087

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; Wild Birds; Japan.

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T160A #mutation-induced deglycosylation at site 158 in #HA is a critical determinant of the dual #RB properties of clade 2.3.4.4 #H5NX subtype #avian #influenza viruses (Vet Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vet Microbiol. 2018 Apr;217:158-166. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.03.018. Epub 2018 Mar 17.

T160A mutation-induced deglycosylation at site 158 in hemagglutinin is a critical determinant of the dual receptor binding properties of clade 2.3.4.4 H5NX subtype avian influenza viruses.

Gao R1, Gu M2, Liu K1, Li Q1, Li J1, Shi L1, Li X1, Wang X2, Hu J2, Liu X2, Hu S2, Chen S2, Peng D3, Jiao X3, Liu X4.

Author information: 1 College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225009, China. 2 College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225009, China; Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225009, China. 3 College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225009, China; Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225009, China; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonosis, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225009, China. 4 College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225009, China; Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225009, China; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonosis, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225009, China. Electronic address: xfliu@yzu.edu.cn.

 

Abstract

Most clade 2.3.4.4 H5NX subtype avian influenza viruses possess a T160A amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein that has been shown to affect the receptor binding properties of a clade 2.3.4 H5N1 virus. However, the effect of this single site mutation on the HA backbone of clade 2.3.4.4 H5NX viruses remains unclear. In this study, two H5N6 field isolates possessing HA-160A with dual α-2,3 and α-2,6 receptor binding properties (Y6 virus) and HA-160T with α-2,3 receptor binding affinity (HX virus), respectively, were selected to generate HA mutants containing all of the internal genes from A/PR8/H1N1 virus for comparative investigation. We found that the Y6-P-160A and RHX-P-160A viruses each with 160A in the HA resulting in loss of glycosylation at site 158 exhibited binding to the two receptor types, whereas the RY6-P-160T and HX-P-160T viruses each with 160T in the HA displayed selective binding to α-2,3 receptors only. In addition, differences were noted in the replication of these four H5N6 recombinants in avian and mammalian cells, as well as in their pathogenicity in mice. The contribution of deglycosylation at site 158 to the acquisition of human-like receptors was further verified in H5N2, H5N5 and H5N8 reassortants. Therefore, we conclude that the lack of glycosylation at site 158 induced by the T160A mutation in HA is a critical determinant for the dual receptor binding properties of clade 2.3.4.4 H5NX viruses. This new insight may be helpful in assessing the pandemic potential of novel H5 isolates.

KEYWORDS: 158; Clade 2.3.4.4; Glycosylation; H5NX; Receptor

PMID: 29615249 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.03.018 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N2; H5N5; H5N6; H5N8; Reassortant Strain.

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#Human #infections with #avian #influenza viruses in mainland #China: A particular #risk for southeastern China (J Infect., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Infection, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Human infections with avian influenza viruses in mainland China: A particular risk for southeastern China

Bin Xiang, Wenxian Zhu, Renrong You, Libin Chen, Yaling Li, Qiuyan Lin, Ming Liao, Tao Ren

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2017.05.002

Published online: May 11, 2017 – Accepted:May 4, 2017

 

Abstract

As reported recently in this Journal, human infections with different subtypes of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) including H5N1, H5N6, H7N9, H10N8 and H9N2 have been identified in mainland China from 2005 to 2017.1–4Since the first H5N1 human case was confirmed in Hunan province in December 2005, a total of 46 human cases were reported in mainland China, of which 29 cases were fatal; while human infections with H5N6 virus was firstly documented in Sichuan province on March 3, 2014, 11 of 16 patients have been fatal (Table S1).

© 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; China; Human; H5N1; H5N6; H7N9; H10N8; H9N2.

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Increasing #genetic diversity of #H5N6 #avian #influenza virus in #China: A serious #threat to persistence and dissemination in #Guangdong province (J Infect., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Infection, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Increasing genetic diversity of H5N6 avian influenza virus in China: A serious threat to persistence and dissemination in Guangdong province

Shimin Gao1, Yinfeng Kang1, Siyao Li, Bin Xiang, Haili Ma, Runyu Yuan

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2017.10.003

Published online: October 13, 2017 – Accepted: October 2, 2017

 

Abstract

Ever since Pan and colleagues reported in this journal the first case of human infection of highly pathogenic H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) in Sichuan province, southwest China,1 the virus has been documented in several other provinces, including Guangdong, Yunnan, Hunan, Guangxi, Anhui, and Hubei (Fig. 1). Currently, of the 16 infected, 9 have died (Supplementary Table S1), which raises concerns for public health and security (http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/258733/1/WER9233-460-475.pdf?ua=1).

{1} These authors equally contributed to this paper.

© 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Human; Poultry; China; A/H5N6; Guangdong.

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Two novel #reassortant high pathogenic #H7N9 viruses isolated in Southern #China in fifth wave shows internal #genomic diversity and high #virulence in #chickens and #ducks (J Infect., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Infection, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Two novel reassortant high pathogenic H7N9 viruses isolated in Southern China in fifth wave shows internal genomic diversity and high virulence in chickens and ducks

Lihong He, Dong Liu, Jiao Hu, Lei Shi, Jiao Liu, Tianyu Cai, Liwei Shi, Han Gu, Jiangyan Zhao, Xiaoquan Wang, Min Gu, Shunlin Hu, Xiaowen Liu, Zenglei Hu, Xiufan Liu

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2018.10.012

Published online: November 02, 2018 – Accepted: October 13, 2018 – Received: October 6, 2018

 

Abstract

Recently, articles in this journal have reported human infected highly pathogenic (HP) H7N9 viruses in fifth wave and three low pathogenic (LP) H7N9 viruses reasserted with subtype H5N6 and H6N9 circulating in Guangdong, China1,2, indicating the H7N9 viruses were sustaining evolution. Numerous studies have confirmed that H7N9 viruses with multiple basic amino acids in the HA cleavage site was HP to chickens.3–5 While, there seldom have reports of HP H7N9 viruses isolated from ducks with a high degree of diversity among the internal genes.

© 2018 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The British Infection Association.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N9; H5N6; H6N9; China; Poultry; Reassortant Strain.

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Highly Pathogenic #Avian #Influenza A(#H5N6) in Domestic #Cats, South #Korea (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 24, Number 12—December 2018 / Dispatch

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N6) in Domestic Cats, South Korea

KyungHyun Lee1, Eun-Kyoung Lee1, HyunKyoung Lee, Gyeong-Beom Heo, Yu-Na Lee, Ji-Youl Jung, You-chan Bae, ByungJae So, Youn-Jeong Lee  , and Eun-Jin Choi

Author affiliations: Author affiliation: Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon, South Korea

 

Abstract

In December 2016, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) infection with systemic pathological lesions was found in cats in South Korea. Genetic analyses indicated that the feline isolates were similar to HPAI H5N6 viruses isolated in chicken farms nearby. This finding highlights the need for monitoring of domestic mammals during HPAI outbreaks.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; Poultry; Cats; South Korea.

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