Highly Pathogenic #H5N6 #Avian #Influenza Virus Subtype Clade 2.3.4.4 Indigenous in South #Korea (Sci Rep., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Sci Rep. 2020 Apr 29;10(1):7241. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-64125-x.

Highly Pathogenic H5N6 Avian Influenza Virus Subtype Clade 2.3.4.4 Indigenous in South Korea

Juyoun Shin 1, Shinseok Kang 2, Hyeonseop Byeon 2, Sung-Min Cho 3, Seon-Yeong Kim 3, Yeun-Jun Chung 1 3, Seung-Hyun Jung 4 5

Affiliations: 1 Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea. 2 Chungbuk Veterinary Service Laboratory, Chungju, Republic of Korea. 3 Integrated Research Center for Genome Polymorphism, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea. 4 Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea. hyun@catholic.ac.kr. 5 Cancer Evolution Research Center, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea. hyun@catholic.ac.kr.

PMID: 32350323 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-64125-x

 

Abstract

The outbreaks of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in 2016-2017 and 2017-2018, caused by novel reassortant clade 2.3.4.4 H5N6 viruses, resulted in the loss of one billion birds in South Korea. Here, we characterized the H5N6 viruses isolated from wild birds in South Korea from December 2017 to August 2019 by next-generation sequencing. The results indicated that clade 2.3.4.4 H5N6 viruses isolated in 2017 and 2019 shared almost identical nucleotide sequences with the HPAI H5N6 viruses from 2016 in South Korea. This repeated detection of evolutionarily identical H5N6 viruses in same region for more than three years may suggest indigenization of the HPAI H5N6 virus in South Korea. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the clade 2.3.4.4 H5N6 viruses isolated in 2017 and 2019 were evolutionarily distinct from those isolated in 2018. Molecular analysis revealed that the H5N6 viruses isolated in 2017 and 2019 had features associated with an increased risk of human infection (e.g. a deletion at position 133 of HA and glutamic acid residue at position 92 of NS1). Overall, these genomic features of HPAI H5N6 viruses highlight the need for continuous monitoring of avian influenza viruses in wild migratory birds as well as in domestic birds.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; Poultry; Wild Birds; S. Korea.

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Efficacy of #neuraminidase #inhibitors against #H5N6 highly pathogenic #avian #influenza virus in a non-human #primate model (Antimicrob Agents Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Efficacy of neuraminidase inhibitors against H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in a non-human primate model

Cong Thanh Nguyen, Saori Suzuki, Yasushi Itoh, Hirohito Ishigaki, Misako Nakayama, Kaori Hayashi, Keita Matsuno, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Hiroshi Kida, Kazumasa Ogasawara

DOI: 10.1128/AAC.02561-19

 

ABSTRACT

Attention has been paid to H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) because of its heavy burden on the poultry industry and human mortality. Since an influenza A virus carrying N6 neuraminidase (NA) has never spread in humans, the potential for H5N6 HPAIV to cause disease in humans and the efficacy of antiviral drugs against the virus need to be urgently assessed. We used non-human primates to elucidate the pathogenesis of H5N6 HPAIV as well as to determine the efficacy of antiviral drugs against the virus. H5N6 HPAIV infection led to high fever in cynomolgus macaques. The lung injury caused by the virus was severe with diffuse alveolar damage and neutrophil infiltration. In addition, an increase in IFN-α showed an inverse correlation with virus titers during the infection process. Oseltamivir was effective for reducing H5N6 HPAIV propagation, and continuous treatment with peramivir reduced virus propagation and severity of symptoms in the early stage. This study also showed the pathologically severe lung injury states in the cynomolgus macaques infected with H5N6 HPAIV, even in those that received early antiviral drug treatments, indicating the need for close monitoring and the need for further studies on the virus pathogenicity and new antiviral therapies.

Copyright © 2020 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; Antivirals; Oseltamivir; Peramivir; Animal models.

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A #Fatal #Pediatric Case Infected With #Reassortant #Avian #Influenza A(#H5N6) Virus in Eastern #China (Transbound Emerg Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Apr 5 [Online ahead of print]

A Fatal Pediatric Case Infected With Reassortant Avian Influenza A(H5N6) Virus in Eastern China

Li-Ling Chen 1, Xiang Huo 2, Xian Qi 3, Cheng Liu 1, Haodi Huang 2, Huiyan Yu 3, Zefeng Dong 1, Fei Deng 3, Jiefu Peng 3, Hui Hang 1, Shenjiao Wang 3, Huan Fan 3, Yuanyuan Pang 1, Changjun Bao 2 4

Affiliations: 1 Department of Acute Infectious Diseases, Suzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Suzhou, China, 215000. 2 Section of Epidemiology, Department of Acute Infectious Diseases, Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing, China, 210009. 3 Section of Virology, Department of Acute Infectious Diseases, Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing, China, 210009. 4 National Health Commission Key laboratory of Enteric Pathogenic Microbiology, Nanjing, China, 210009.

PMID: 32248624 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.13561

 

Abstract

Avian influenza A(H5N6) keeps evolving, causing outbreaks in birds and sporadic infections in human. Here we report a fatal pediatric infection caused by a novel reassortant H5N6 virus. The patient was an obese 9-year-old girl. She initiated with fever and cough, then developed pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and respiratory failure. Lower respiratory tract aspirates and anal swabs were serially taken till the patient’s death. Viral isolation, genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were conducted. A novel reassortant H5N6 virus was isolated from the patient. Except the PA gene, all other 7 genes of the virus belonged to H5N6 genotype A (S4-like virus). The PA gene was probably obtained from Eurasian waterfowl influenza viruses. The H5N6 virus was consistently detected from the patient’s respiratory samples till the 17th day after symptom onset, but not from anal swabs or urine sample by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Significantly elevated (32-fold) serum antibodies to H5N6 virus were observed during the patient’s course of disease. Aside from the identified novel reassortant H5N6 viral strain, obesity, delayed confirmation of etiology and specific antiviral treatment, and prolonged virus shedding could have contributed to the poor clinical outcome.

Keywords: Avian influenza; Fatal case; H5N6; Human infection; Reassortment.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; Human; China; ARDS; Reassortant strain.

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#Avian #influenza #human #infections at the human-animal interface (J Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Avian influenza human infections at the human-animal interface

Damien A M Philippon, Peng Wu, Benjamin J Cowling, Eric H Y Lau

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, jiaa105, https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa105

Published: 10 March 2020

 

Abstract

Background

Avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) are among the most concerning emerging and re-emerging pathogens because of the potential risk in causing an influenza pandemic with catastrophic impact. The recent increase in domestic animals and poultry worldwide was followed by an increase of human AIV outbreaks reported.

Methods

We reviewed the epidemiology of human infections with AIV from the literature including reports from the World Health Organization, extracting information on virus subtype, time, location, age, sex, outcome and exposure.

Results

We described the characteristics of more than 2,500 laboratory-confirmed human infections with AIVs. Human infections with H5N1 and H7N9 were more frequently reported than other subtypes. The risk of death was highest among reported cases infected with H5N1, H5N6, H7N9 and H10N8 infections. Older people and males tended to have a lower risk of infection with most AIV subtypes, except for H7N9. Visiting live poultry markets were mostly reported by H7N9, H5N6 and H10N8 cases, while exposure to sick or dead bird mostly reported by H5N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N4, H7N7 and H10N7 cases.

Discussion

Understanding the profile of human cases of different AIV subtypes would guide control strategy. Continued monitoring of human infections with AIVs is essential for pandemic preparedness.

avian influenza, human infection, review

Issue Section:  Review

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Keywords: Avian Influenza; Human; H5N1; H5N6; H7N3; H7N7; H7N9; H9N2; H10N8.

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#Sporadic occurrence of #H9N2 #avian #influenza #infections in #human in #Anhui province, eastern #China: A notable #problem (Microb Pathog., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Microb Pathog. 2019 Dec 18:103940. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2019.103940. [Epub ahead of print]

Sporadic occurrence of H9N2 avian influenza infections in human in Anhui province, eastern China: A notable problem.

He J1, Wu Q2, Yu JL1, He L3, Sun Y1, Shi YL1, Chen QQ1, Ge YL1, Zhang ZH1, Li WW1, Hou S3, Zhu M3, Wu JB3, Su B1, Hu WB4, Pan HF5.

Author information: 1 Anhui Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 12560, Fanhua Avenue, Hefei, China; Key Laboratory for Medical and Health of the 13th Five-Year Plan, 12560, Fanhua Avenue, Hefei, Anhui, China. 2 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishan Road, Hefei, Anhui, China; Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Major Autoimmune Diseases, 81 Meishan Road, Hefei, Anhui, China. 3 Anhui Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 12560, Fanhua Avenue, Hefei, China. 4 School of Public Health and Social Work & Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Electronic address: w2.hu@qut.edu.au. 5 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishan Road, Hefei, Anhui, China; Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Major Autoimmune Diseases, 81 Meishan Road, Hefei, Anhui, China; School of Public Health and Social Work & Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Electronic address: panhaifeng1982@sina.com.

 

Abstract

H9N2 viruses can cause great economic losses to the domestic poultry industry when co-infected with other influenza viruses or pathogens. . To better understand the molecular characteristics of H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) and analyze the genetic evolutionary relationship, we isolated three H9N2 subtypes AIVs from nasopharyngeal swab specimens from the three cases reported in Anhui province since 2015, and systematically reviewed the genome-wide data of 21 poultry–isolated H9N2 viruses during 1998-2017. The six internal genes of three human-isolated viruses and recent poultry-isolated viruses (since 2014) in Anhui province presented high gene homologies with HPAI H7N9, even including H10N8 and H5N6. The three human-isolated H9N2 AIVs and poultry-isolated viruses (since 2008) in Anhui province were highly similar, and classified into genotype S. Seven N-linked potential glycosylation sites in the HA protein were detected in the three human-isolated viruses, which also appeared in poultry-isolated H9N2 AIVs. None of the human-isolated H9N2 AIVs had the I368V mutation in PB1 protein, but all the poultry-isolated H9N2 viruses in 2017 carried this mutation. Multidisciplinary, cross-regional and cross-sectoral approaches are warranted to address complex public health challenges and achieve the goal of ‘one health’.

Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

KEYWORDS: A (H9N2); Avian influenza; Avian influenza virus; Human infection; Poultry

PMID: 31863839 DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2019.103940

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H9N2; H5N6; H7N9; H10N8; Reassortant strain; Human; Poultry; China; Anhui.

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Highly pathogenic #H5N6 #avian #influenza virus #outbreak in Pavo cristatus in #Jiangxi Province, #China (Emerg Microbes Infect., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Emerg Microbes Infect. 2019;8(1):377-380. doi: 10.1080/22221751.2019.1586411.

Highly pathogenic H5N6 avian influenza virus outbreak in Pavo cristatus in Jiangxi Province, China.

Li M1, Feng S1,2, Lv S3, Luo J1, Guo J3, Sun J3, He H1.

Author information: 1 National Research Center for Wildlife Borne Diseases, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China. 2 College of Life Sciences, University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China. 3 Center of Animal Disease Prevention and Control of Tong Zhou District, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.

 

Abstract

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a persistent threat to poultry, wild birds, humans, and other mammals. The continually evolving HPAI H5N6 virus has induced great losses in breeding industries in growing regions around the world. In this study, we confirmed an outbreak of the HPAI H5N6 virus in captive Pavo cristatus in Jiangxi Province, China. The causative agents H5N6 viruses were isolated and designated JS01, JS02, and K10. Animal experiments showed that all three isolates exhibited high pathogenicity to chickens, but they need adaption to effectively infect mice. A phylogenetic analysis showed that all three isolates were clustered in H5 clade 2.3.4.4c. No novel genetic reassortant was found in JS01, JS02, and K10 viruses. It was estimated that JS01, JS02, and K10 H5N6 viruses were direct descendants of the H5N6 virus circulating in South of China. The estimated divergence time from tMRCAs was anywhere between May 2014 to June 2016. Although the number of outbreaks of avian influenza decreased significantly in 2018, the threat from avian influenza to public health remains serious. Enhanced active surveillance is required to monitor the transmission and evolution of H5 influenza viruses.

KEYWORDS: H5N6; Influenza virus; Pavo Cristatus

PMID: 31851878 DOI: 10.1080/22221751.2019.1586411

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; Poultry; Jiangxi; China.

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Detection of highly pathogenic #avian #influenza A(#H5N6) viruses in #waterfowl in #Bangladesh (Virology, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Virology. 2019 Aug;534:36-44. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2019.05.011. Epub 2019 May 28.

Detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N6) viruses in waterfowl in Bangladesh.

Yang G1, Chowdury S2, Hodges E1, Rahman MZ2, Jang Y1, Hossain ME2, Jones J1, Stark TJ1, Di H1, Cook PW1, Ghosh S2, Azziz-Baumgartner E1, Barnes JR1, Wentworth DE1, Kennedy E3, Davis CT4.

Author information: 1 Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA. 2 International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. 3 Division of Global Health Protection, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address: ftw3@cdc.gov. 4 Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address: ctdavis@cdc.gov.

 

Abstract

Bangladesh has reported repeated outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5) viruses in poultry since 2007. Because of the large number of live poultry markets (LPM) relative to the population density of poultry throughout the country, these markets can serve as sentinel sites for HPAI A(H5) detection. Through active LPM surveillance during June 2016-June 2017, HPAI A(H5N6) viruses along with 14 other subtypes of influenza A viruses were detected. The HPAI A(H5N6) viruses belonged to clade 2.3.4.4 and were likely introduced into Bangladesh around March 2016. Human infections with influenza clade 2.3.4.4 viruses in Bangladesh have not been identified, but the viruses had several molecular markers associated with potential human infection. Vigilant surveillance at the animal-human interface is essential to identify emerging avian influenza viruses with the potential to threaten public and animal health.

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: A(H5N6); Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus; Live poultry market; Orthomyxovirus; Waterfowl

PMID: 31176062 DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2019.05.011 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; Poultry; Live poultry markets; Bangladesh.

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