Characterization of #avian #influenza #H5N3 #reassortants isolated from #migratory waterfowl and #domestic #ducks in #China from 2015 to 2018 (Transbound Emerg Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2019 Aug 11. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13324. [Epub ahead of print]

Characterization of avian influenza H5N3 reassortants isolated from migratory waterfowl and domestic ducks in China from 2015 to 2018.

Li X1, Cui P2, Zeng X2, Jiang Y2, Li Y1, Yang J1, Pan Y1, Gao X1, Zhao C1, Wang J1, Wang K1, Deng G2, Guo J1.

Author information: 1 College of Agricultural, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng, People’s Republic of China. 2 State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, People’s Republic of China.

 

Abstract

Wild and domestic aquatic birds are the natural reservoirs of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). All subtypes of AIVs, including 16 hemagglutinin (HA) and nine neuraminidase (NA), have been isolated from the waterfowls. The H5 viruses in wild birds display distinct biological differences from their highly pathogenic H5 counterparts. Here, we isolated seven H5N3 AIVs including three from wild birds and four from domestic ducks in China from 2015 to 2017. The isolation sites of all the seven viruses were located in the region of the East Asian-Australasian Migratory Flyway. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the surface genes of these viruses originated from the wild bird H5 HA subtype and the N3 Eurasian lineage. The internal genes of the seven H5N3 isolates are derived from the five gene donors isolated from the wild birds or ducks in Eastern-Asia region. They were also divided into five genotypes according to their surface genes and internal gene combinations. Interestingly, two of the seven H5N3 viruses contributed their partial internal gene segments (PB1, M and NS) to the newly emerged H7N4 reassortants, which have caused first human H7N4 infection in China in 2018. Moreover, we found that the H5N3 virus used in this study react with the anti-serum of the H5 subtype vaccine isolate (Re-11 and Re-12) and reacted well with the Re-12 anti-serum. Our findings suggest that worldwide intensive surveillance and the H5 vaccination (Re-11 and Re-12) in domestic ducks are needed to monitor the emergence of novel H5N3 reassortants in wild birds and domestic ducks and to prevent H5N3 viruses transmission from the apparently healthy wild birds and domestic ducks to chickens.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: H5N3; avian influenza virus; ducks; migratory birds

PMID: 31402584 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.13324

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N3; Reassortant strain; Poultry; Wild Birds; China.

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The #Emergence and Decennary #Distribution of Clade 2.3.4.4 #HPAI #H5Nx (Microorganisms., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Microorganisms. 2019 May 29;7(6). pii: E156. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms7060156.

The Emergence and Decennary Distribution of Clade 2.3.4.4 HPAI H5Nx.

Antigua KJC1, Choi WS2, Baek YH3, Song MS4.

Author information: 1 College of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 28644, Korea. tineantigua@gmail.com. 2 College of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 28644, Korea. tuckgirlee@naver.com. 3 College of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 28644, Korea. microuni@chungbuk.ac.kr. 4 College of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 28644, Korea. songminsuk@chungbuk.ac.kr.

 

Abstract

Reassortment events among influenza viruses occur naturally and may lead to the development of new and different subtypes which often ignite the possibility of an influenza outbreak. Between 2008 and 2010, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 of the N1 subtype from the A/goose/Guangdong/1/96-like (Gs/GD) lineage generated novel reassortants by introducing other neuraminidase (NA) subtypes reported to cause most outbreaks in poultry. With the extensive divergence of the H5 hemagglutinin (HA) sequences of documented viruses, the WHO/FAO/OIE H5 Evolutionary Working Group clustered these viruses into a systematic and unified nomenclature of clade 2.3.4.4 currently known as “H5Nx” viruses. The rapid emergence and circulation of these viruses, namely, H5N2, H5N3, H5N5, H5N6, H5N8, and the regenerated H5N1, are of great concern based on their pandemic potential. Knowing the evolution and emergence of these novel reassortants helps to better understand their complex nature. The eruption of reports of each H5Nx reassortant through time demonstrates that it could persist beyond its usual seasonal activity, intensifying the possibility of these emerging viruses’ pandemic potential. This review paper provides an overview of the emergence of each novel HPAI H5Nx virus as well as its current epidemiological distribution.

KEYWORDS: H5Nx; avian; avian influenza; dissemination; epidemiology; evolution

PMID: 31146461 DOI: 10.3390/microorganisms7060156

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Reassortant strain; H5N1; H5N2; H5N3; H5N5; H5N6; H5N8; Poultry; Wild birds.

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Inter-Species Host #Gene Expression Differences in Response to #Human and #Avian #Influenza A Virus Strains (Int J Mol Sci., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Int J Mol Sci. 2017 Nov 1;18(11). pii: E2295. doi: 10.3390/ijms18112295.

Inter-Species Host Gene Expression Differences in Response to Human and Avian Influenza A Virus Strains.

Taye B1,2,3, Yeo D4, Lee RTC5, Tan BH6,7, Sugrue RJ8, Maurer-Stroh S9,10.

Author information: 1 School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551, Singapore. biruhalem@bii.a-star.edu.sg. 2 Bioinformatics Institute (BII), 30 Biopolis Street, #07-01 Matrix Building, Singapore 138671, Singapore. biruhalem@bii.a-star.edu.sg. 3 Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa P.O. Box 1176, Ethiopia. biruhalem@bii.a-star.edu.sg. 4 School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551, Singapore. ysuyin@dso.org.sg. 5 Bioinformatics Institute (BII), 30 Biopolis Street, #07-01 Matrix Building, Singapore 138671, Singapore. leetc@bii.a-star.edu.sg. 6 Detection and Diagnostics Laboratory, DSO National Laboratories, 27 Medical Drive, Singapore 117510, Singapore. tboonhua@dso.org.sg. 7 LKC School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551, Singapore. tboonhua@dso.org.sg. 8 School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551, Singapore. rjsugrue@ntu.edu.sg. 9 Bioinformatics Institute (BII), 30 Biopolis Street, #07-01 Matrix Building, Singapore 138671, Singapore. sebastianms@bii.a-star.edu.sg. 10 Department of Biological Sciences (DBS), National University Singapore (NUS), 14 Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543, Singapore. sebastianms@bii.a-star.edu.sg.

 

Abstract

Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses are a source of sporadic human infections and could also contribute to future pandemic outbreaks but little is known about inter-species differences in the host responses to these viruses. Here, we studied host gene expression signatures of cell lines from three species (human, chicken, and canine) in response to six different viruses (H1N1/WSN, H5N2/F59, H5N2/F118, H5N2/F189, H5N3 and H9N2). Comprehensive microarray probe set re-annotation and ortholog mapping of the host genes was necessary to allow comparison over extended functionally annotated gene sets and orthologous pathways. The annotations are made available to the community for commonly used microarray chips. We observe a strong tendency of the response being cell type- rather than virus-specific. In chicken cells, we found up-regulation of host factors inducing virus infectivity (e.g., oxysterol binding protein like 1A (OSBPL1A) and Rho GTPase activating protein 21 (ARHGAP21)) while reducing apoptosis (e.g., mitochondrial ribosomal protein S27 (MRPS27)) and increasing cell proliferation (e.g., COP9 signalosome subunit 2 (COPS2)). On the other hand, increased antiviral, pro-apoptotic and inflammatory signatures have been identified in human cells while cell cycle and metabolic pathways were down-regulated. This signature describes how low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses are being tolerated and shed from chicken but potentially causing cellular disruption in mammalian cells.

KEYWORDS: apoptosis; influenza A virus; inter-species transcriptome; metabolic pathways

PMID: 29104227 PMCID: PMC5713265 DOI: 10.3390/ijms18112295 [Indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; H5N2; H5N3; H9N2; Poultry; Human.

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Immunization of Domestic #Ducks with Live Nonpathogenic #H5N3 #Influenza Virus Prevents Shedding and Transmission of Highly Pathogenic #H5N1 Virus to Chickens (Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Viruses. 2018 Mar 31;10(4). pii: E164. doi: 10.3390/v10040164.

Immunization of Domestic Ducks with Live Nonpathogenic H5N3 Influenza Virus Prevents Shedding and Transmission of Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Virus to Chickens.

Gambaryan A1, Gordeychuk I2,3, Boravleva E4, Lomakina N5, Kropotkina E6, Lunitsin A7, Klenk HD8, Matrosovich M9.

Author information: 1 Chumakov Federal Scientific Center for Research and Development of Immune-and-Biological Products of the Russian Academy of Sciences, premises 8, building 1, Village of Institute of Poliomyelitis, Settlement “Moskovskiy”, 108819 Moscow, Russia. al.gambaryan@gmail.com. 2 Chumakov Federal Scientific Center for Research and Development of Immune-and-Biological Products of the Russian Academy of Sciences, premises 8, building 1, Village of Institute of Poliomyelitis, Settlement “Moskovskiy”, 108819 Moscow, Russia. lab.gord@gmail.com. 3 Institute for Translational Medicine and Biotechnology, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, 8 Trubetskaya St., 119991 Moscow, Russia. lab.gord@gmail.com. 4 Chumakov Federal Scientific Center for Research and Development of Immune-and-Biological Products of the Russian Academy of Sciences, premises 8, building 1, Village of Institute of Poliomyelitis, Settlement “Moskovskiy”, 108819 Moscow, Russia. e@boravlev.mccme.ru. 5 Chumakov Federal Scientific Center for Research and Development of Immune-and-Biological Products of the Russian Academy of Sciences, premises 8, building 1, Village of Institute of Poliomyelitis, Settlement “Moskovskiy”, 108819 Moscow, Russia. nflomakina@yandex.ru. 6 Chumakov Federal Scientific Center for Research and Development of Immune-and-Biological Products of the Russian Academy of Sciences, premises 8, building 1, Village of Institute of Poliomyelitis, Settlement “Moskovskiy”, 108819 Moscow, Russia. ekropotkina@list.ru. 7 Federal Research Center for Virology and Microbiology, Bld. 1 Academic Baculov St., 601125 Settl. Volginsky, Vladimir Region, Russia. lunicyn@mail.ru. 8 Institute of Virology, Philipps University, Hans-Meerwein-Str. 2, 35043 Marburg, Germany. klenk@staff.uni-marburg.de. 9 Institute of Virology, Philipps University, Hans-Meerwein-Str. 2, 35043 Marburg, Germany. matrosov@staff.uni-marburg.de.

 

Abstract

Wild ducks are known to be able to carry avian influenza viruses over long distances and infect domestic ducks, which in their turn infect domestic chickens. Therefore, prevention of virus transmission between ducks and chickens is important to control the spread of avian influenza. Here we used a low pathogenic wild aquatic bird virus A/duck/Moscow/4182/2010 (H5N3) for prevention of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) transmission between ducks and chickens. We first confirmed that the ducks orally infected with H5N1 HPAIV A/chicken/Kurgan/3/2005 excreted the virus in feces. All chickens that were in contact with the infected ducks became sick, excreted the virus, and died. However, the ducks orally inoculated with 10⁴ 50% tissue culture infective doses of A/duck/Moscow/4182/2010 and challenged 14 to 90 days later with H5N1 HPAIV did not excrete the challenge virus. All contact chickens survived and did not excrete the virus. Our results suggest that low pathogenic virus of wild aquatic birds can be used for prevention of transmission of H5N1 viruses between ducks and chickens.

KEYWORDS: H5N1; influenza virus A; poultry vaccine; transmission and environmental control

PMID: 29614716 DOI: 10.3390/v10040164

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; H5N3; Poultry; Vaccines.

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Systems-based #approach to examine the #cytokine responses in primary mouse lung #macrophages infected with low pathogenic #avian #Influenza virus circulating in South East Asia (BMC Genomics, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Genomics. 2017 May 30;18(1):420. doi: 10.1186/s12864-017-3803-6.

Systems-based approach to examine the cytokine responses in primary mouse lung macrophages infected with low pathogenic avian Influenza virus circulating in South East Asia.

Taye B1,2,3, Chen H2,4, Myaing MZ2, Tan BH5,6, Maurer-Stroh S1,7,8, Sugrue RJ9.

Author information: 1 Bioinformatics Institute, A*STAR, 30 Biopolis Street #07-01, Matrix, Singapore, 138671, Republic of Singapore. 2 School of Biological Science, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore, 637551, Republic of Singapore. 3 Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, P.O.BOX 1176, Ethiopia. 4 Current address Genome Institute of Singapore, A*STAR, 60 Biopolis Street, #02-01, Genome, Singapore, 138672, Republic of Singapore. 5 Detection and Diagnostics Laboratory, Defence Science Organisation National Laboratories, 27 Medical Drive, Singapore, 117510, Republic of Singapore. 6 LKC School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Ave, Singapore, 639798, Republic of Singapore. 7 National Public Health Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Singapore, Republic of Singapore. 8 Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, 8 Medical Drive, Singapore, 117597, Republic of Singapore. 9 School of Biological Science, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore, 637551, Republic of Singapore. RJSUGRUE@ntu.edu.sg.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Influenza A virus (IAV) is a major public health concern, being responsible for the death of approximately half a million people each year. Zoonotic transmissions of the virus from swine and avian origin have occurred in the past, and can potentially lead to the emgergence of new IAV stains in future pandemics. Pulmonary macrophages have been implicated in disease severity in the lower airway, and understanding the host response of macrophages infected with avian influenza viruses should provide new therapeutic strategies.

RESULTS:

We used a systems-based approach to investigate the transcriptome response of primary murine lung macrophages (PMФ) infected with the mouse-adapted H1N1/WSN virus and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses H5N2 and H5N3. The results showed that the LPAI viruses H5N2 and H5N3 can infect PMФ with similar efficiency to the H1N1/WSN virus. While all viruses induced antiviral responses, the H5N3 virus infection resulted in higher expression levels of cytokines and chemokines associated with inflammatory responses.

CONCLUSIONS:

The LPAI H5N2 and H5N3 viruses are able to infect murine lung macrophages. However, the H5N3 virus was associated with increased expression of pro-inflammatory mediators. Although the H5N3 virus it is capable of inducing high levels of cytokines that are associated with inflammation, this property is distinct from its inability to efficiently replicate in a mammalian host.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza virus; H5N2; H5N3; Inflammatory response; Macrophages

PMID: 28558796 DOI: 10.1186/s12864-017-3803-6

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N2; H5N3.

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#Virus-like particles displaying #H5, #H7, #H9 #hemagglutinins and N1 #neuraminidase elicit protective #immunity to heterologous #avian #influenza viruses in #chickens (Virology, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Virology. 2016 Dec 6;501:176-182. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2016.12.001. [Epub ahead of print]

Virus-like particles displaying H5, H7, H9 hemagglutinins and N1 neuraminidase elicit protective immunity to heterologous avian influenza viruses in chickens.

Pushko P1, Tretyakova I2, Hidajat R2, Zsak A3, Chrzastek K3, Tumpey TM4, Kapczynski DR3.

Author information: 1Medigen, Inc., 8420 Gas House Pike, Suite S, Frederick, MD 21701, USA. Electronic address: ppushko@medigen-usa.com. 2Medigen, Inc., 8420 Gas House Pike, Suite S, Frederick, MD 21701, USA. 3USDA SEPRL, 934 College Station Rd, Athens, GA, USA. 4Influenza Division, CDC,1600 Clifton Road N.E., Atlanta, GA, USA.

 

Abstract

Avian influenza (AI) viruses circulating in wild birds pose a serious threat to public health. Human and veterinary vaccines against AI subtypes are needed. Here we prepared triple-subtype VLPs that co-localized H5, H7 and H9 antigens derived from H5N1, H7N3 and H9N2 viruses. VLPs also contained influenza N1 neuraminidase and retroviral gag protein. The H5/H7/H9/N1/gag VLPs were prepared using baculovirus expression. Biochemical, functional and antigenic characteristics were determined including hemagglutination and neuraminidase enzyme activities. VLPs were further evaluated in a chicken AI challenge model for safety, immunogenicity and protective efficacy against heterologous AI viruses including H5N2, H7N3 and H9N2 subtypes. All vaccinated birds survived challenges with H5N2 and H7N3 highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) viruses, while all controls died. Immune response was also detectable after challenge with low pathogenicity AI (LPAI) H9N2 virus suggesting that H5/H7/H9/N1/gag VLPs represent a promising approach for the development of broadly protective AI vaccine.

Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

KEYWORDS: Avian flu; Influenza; Recombinant; VLP; Vaccine; Virus-like particle

PMID: 27936463 DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2016.12.001

[PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; poultry; vaccines; H7N9; H9N2; H5N2; H7N3; H5N1.

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Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza viruses #H5N2, #H5N3, and #H5N8 in #Taiwan in 2015 (Vet Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vet Microbiol. 2016 May 1;187:50-7. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.03.012. Epub 2016 Mar 19.

Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses H5N2, H5N3, and H5N8 in Taiwan in 2015.

Lee MS1, Chen LH1, Chen YP1, Liu YP1, Li WC1, Lin YL1, Lee F2.

Author information: 1Animal Health Research Institute, 376 Chung-Cheng Road, Tamsui District, New Taipei City 25158, Taiwan. 2Animal Health Research Institute, 376 Chung-Cheng Road, Tamsui District, New Taipei City 25158, Taiwan. Electronic address: fanlee@mail.nvri.gov.tw.

 

Abstract

A severe epidemic, affecting mainly goose populations, broke out in early January 2015. The causative agents were identified as novel H5 avian influenza viruses carrying N2, N3, and N8 subtypes of the neuraminidase gene. From January 8 to February 11, 766 waterfowl and poultry farms were invaded by the H5 viruses, and more than 2.2 million geese died or were culled. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that these avian influenza viruses derived from the H5 viruses of clade 2.3.4.4 which were emerging in 2014 in East Asia, West Europe, and North America.

Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza; Goose; Subtype H5; Taiwan

PMID: 27066708 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.03.012

[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N2; H5N2; H5N8; Poultry; Taiwan.

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