Clade 2.3.4.4 #H5 North #American Highly Pathogenic #Avian #Influenza Viruses Infect, but Do Not Cause #Clinical Signs in, American Black #Ducks (Anas rubripes) (Avian Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Avian Dis. 2019 Jan 18;63(2):366-370. doi: 10.1637/11950-081418-ResNote.1.

Clade 2.3.4.4 H5 North American Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses Infect, but Do Not Cause Clinical Signs in, American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes).

Spackman E1, Prosser DJ2, Pantin-Jackwood M3, Stephens CB3, Berlin AM2.

Author information: 1 Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, United States National Poultry Research Center, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Athens, GA 30605, erica.spackman@ars.usda.gov. 2 Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, United States Geological Survey, Laurel, MD 20708. 3 Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, United States National Poultry Research Center, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Athens, GA 30605.

 

Abstract in English, Spanish

Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) from the goose/Guangdong/1996 clade 2.3.4.4 H5 lineage spread from Asia into North America in 2014, most likely by wild bird migrations. Although several variants of the virus were detected, H5N8 and H5N2 were the most widespread in North American wild birds and domestic poultry. In early 2015, the H5N2 virus spread through commercial poultry in the Midwest, and >50 million chickens and turkeys died or had to be culled. Related H5 HPAIVs are still endemic in much of the Eastern Hemisphere. The wild bird species that were involved with dissemination of the virus in North America are not known. Dabbling ducks, especially mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), typically have the highest detection rates for avian influenza viruses. To better characterize the wild avian species that could spread the virus, American black ducks (Anas rubripes), which are closely related to mallards, were challenged with the North American H5N2 and H5N8 index HPAIV isolates: A/Northern Pintail/WA/40964/2014 H5N2 and A/Gyrfalcon/WA/41088/2014 H5N8. Although the American black ducks could be infected with low doses of both isolates (≤102 50% egg infective doses), ducks shed the H5N2 longer than the H5N8 (10 vs. 7 days) and the titers of virus shed were higher. Although there were too few ducks available on which to draw definitive conclusions, this suggests that American black ducks could serve as a more efficient reservoir for the H5N2 virus than the H5N8 virus.

KEYWORDS: H5 influenza; avian virus; duck virus; highly pathogenic avian influenza virus

PMID: 31251539 DOI: 10.1637/11950-081418-ResNote.1

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N2; H5N8; Reassortant strain; Wild Birds; USA.

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Development of #American-Lineage #Influenza #H5N2 #Reassortant #Vaccine Viruses for #Pandemic #Preparedness (Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Viruses. 2019 Jun 11;11(6). pii: E543. doi: 10.3390/v11060543.

Development of American-Lineage Influenza H5N2 Reassortant Vaccine Viruses for Pandemic Preparedness.

Chen PL1,2, Hu AY3, Lin CY4, Weng TC5, Lai CC6,7, Tseng YF8, Cheng MC9,10, Chia MY11,12, Lin WC13, Yeh CT14, Su IJ15, Lee MS16.

Author information: 1 National Institution of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, National Health Research Institutes (NHRI), Zhunan, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan. letitia@nhri.org.tw. 2 Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan. letitia@nhri.org.tw. 3 National Institution of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, National Health Research Institutes (NHRI), Zhunan, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan. alanhu@nhri.org.tw. 4 National Institution of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, National Health Research Institutes (NHRI), Zhunan, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan. grayingaries@outlook.com. 5 National Institution of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, National Health Research Institutes (NHRI), Zhunan, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan. wtc@nhri.org.tw. 6 National Institution of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, National Health Research Institutes (NHRI), Zhunan, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan. laicc2@nhri.org.tw. 7 College of Life Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan. laicc2@nhri.org.tw. 8 National Institution of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, National Health Research Institutes (NHRI), Zhunan, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan. yufents@gmail.com. 9 Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan. mccheng@mail.npust.edu.tw. 10 Animal Health Research Institutes, Danshui, New Taipei City 25158, Taiwan. mccheng@mail.npust.edu.tw. 11 National Institution of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, National Health Research Institutes (NHRI), Zhunan, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan. chiaminyuan@dragon.nchu.edu.tw. 12 Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan. chiaminyuan@dragon.nchu.edu.tw. 13 Institute of Preventive Medicine, National Defence Medical Centre, Taipei 23742, Taiwan. spps057@gmail.com. 14 Institute of Preventive Medicine, National Defence Medical Centre, Taipei 23742, Taiwan. yyhome@mail.ndmctsgh.edu.tw. 15 National Institution of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, National Health Research Institutes (NHRI), Zhunan, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan. suihjen0704@stust.edu.tw. 16 National Institution of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, National Health Research Institutes (NHRI), Zhunan, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan. minshi@nhri.org.tw.

 

Abstract

Novel low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H5N2 viruses hit poultry farms in Taiwan in 2003, and evolved into highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses in 2010. These viruses are reassortant viruses containing HA and NA genes from American-lineage H5N2 and six internal genes from local H6N1 viruses. According to a serological survey, the Taiwan H5N2 viruses can cause asymptomatic infections in poultry workers. Therefore, a development of influenza H5N2 vaccines is desirable for pandemic preparation. In this study, we employed reverse genetics to generate a vaccine virus having HA and NA genes from A/Chicken/CY/A2628/2012 (E7, LPAI) and six internal genes from a Vero cell-adapted high-growth H5N1 vaccine virus (Vero-15). The reassortant H5N2 vaccine virus, E7-V15, presented high-growth efficiency in Vero cells (512 HAU, 107.6 TCID50/mL), and passed all tests for qualification of candidate vaccine viruses. In ferret immunization, two doses of inactivated whole virus antigens (3 μg of HA protein) adjuvanted with alum could induce robust antibody response (HI titre 113.14). In conclusion, we have established reverse genetics to generate a qualified reassortant H5N2 vaccine virus for further development.

KEYWORDS: American-lineage H5N2 vaccine; American-lineage reassortant influenza viruses; Pandemic preparedness

PMID: 31212631 DOI: 10.3390/v11060543

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; H5N2; H6N1; Reassortant Strain; Vaccines.

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The #Emergence and Decennary #Distribution of Clade 2.3.4.4 #HPAI #H5Nx (Microorganisms., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Microorganisms. 2019 May 29;7(6). pii: E156. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms7060156.

The Emergence and Decennary Distribution of Clade 2.3.4.4 HPAI H5Nx.

Antigua KJC1, Choi WS2, Baek YH3, Song MS4.

Author information: 1 College of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 28644, Korea. tineantigua@gmail.com. 2 College of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 28644, Korea. tuckgirlee@naver.com. 3 College of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 28644, Korea. microuni@chungbuk.ac.kr. 4 College of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 28644, Korea. songminsuk@chungbuk.ac.kr.

 

Abstract

Reassortment events among influenza viruses occur naturally and may lead to the development of new and different subtypes which often ignite the possibility of an influenza outbreak. Between 2008 and 2010, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 of the N1 subtype from the A/goose/Guangdong/1/96-like (Gs/GD) lineage generated novel reassortants by introducing other neuraminidase (NA) subtypes reported to cause most outbreaks in poultry. With the extensive divergence of the H5 hemagglutinin (HA) sequences of documented viruses, the WHO/FAO/OIE H5 Evolutionary Working Group clustered these viruses into a systematic and unified nomenclature of clade 2.3.4.4 currently known as “H5Nx” viruses. The rapid emergence and circulation of these viruses, namely, H5N2, H5N3, H5N5, H5N6, H5N8, and the regenerated H5N1, are of great concern based on their pandemic potential. Knowing the evolution and emergence of these novel reassortants helps to better understand their complex nature. The eruption of reports of each H5Nx reassortant through time demonstrates that it could persist beyond its usual seasonal activity, intensifying the possibility of these emerging viruses’ pandemic potential. This review paper provides an overview of the emergence of each novel HPAI H5Nx virus as well as its current epidemiological distribution.

KEYWORDS: H5Nx; avian; avian influenza; dissemination; epidemiology; evolution

PMID: 31146461 DOI: 10.3390/microorganisms7060156

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Reassortant strain; H5N1; H5N2; H5N3; H5N5; H5N6; H5N8; Poultry; Wild birds.

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#Environmental #Sampling #Survey of #H5N2 Highly Pathogenic #Avian #Influenza-Infected Layer Chicken #Farms in #Minnesota and #Iowa (Avian Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Avian Dis. 2018 Dec;62(4):373-380. doi: 10.1637/11891-050418-Reg.1.

Environmental Sampling Survey of H5N2 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza-Infected Layer Chicken Farms in Minnesota and Iowa.

Lopez KM1, Nezworski J2, Rendahl A1, Culhane M1, Flores-Figueroa C3, Muñoz-Aguayo J3, Halvorson DA1, Johnson R1, Goldsmith T1, Cardona CJ4.

Author information: 1 College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108. 2 Blue House Veterinary, 145 West Yellowstone Trail, Buffalo, MN 55314. 3 Mid-Central Research and Outreach Center, University of Minnesota, 1802 18th St. Northeast, Willmar, MN 56201. 4 College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108, ccardona@umn.edu.

 

Abstract in English, Spanish

Respiratory secretions, feces, feathers, and eggs of avian influenza-infected hens provide ample sources of virus which heavily contaminate barn and farm environments during a disease outbreak. Environmental sampling surveys were conducted in the Midwestern United States on affected farms during the 2015 H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak to assess the degree of viral contamination. A total of 930 samples were obtained from various sites inside and outside layer barns housing infected birds and tested with real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. The distribution and load of viral RNA in barns in which most birds were dead at the onset of depopulation efforts (high-mortality barns) were compared with those of barns in which birds were euthanatized before excess mortality occurred (normal-mortality barns). A statistically significant difference was seen between cycle threshold (Ct) values for samples taken of fans, feed troughs, barn floors, barn walls, cages, manure-associated locations, barn doors, egg belts, and the exterior of high-mortality vs. normal-mortality barns. In high-mortality barns, sample sites were found to be the most to least contaminated in the following order: cages, manure-associated locations, barn floors, egg belts, feed troughs, barn doors, barn walls, fans, exterior, and egg processing. Significant changes in Ct values over time following HPAI detection in a barn and depopulation of birds on an infected farm were observed for the manure-associated, barn floor, barn wall, and fan sampling sites. These results show that high mortality in a flock as a result of HPAI will increase contamination of the farm environment. The results also suggest optimal sampling locations for detection of virus; however, the persistence of RNA on highmortality farms may delay the determination that adequate sanitization has been performed for restocking to take place.

KEYWORDS: barn; contamination; disinfection; egg layers; environmental sampling; highly pathogenic avian influenza; virus

PMID: 31119921 DOI: 10.1637/11891-050418-Reg.1

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N2; Poultry; USA; Minnesota; Iowa.

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Estimating within-flock #transmission #rate parameter for #H5N2 highly pathogenic #avian #influenza virus in #Minnesota #turkey flocks during the 2015 #epizootic (Epidemiol Infect., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Epidemiol Infect. 2019 Jan;147:e179. doi: 10.1017/S0950268819000633.

Estimating within-flock transmission rate parameter for H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in Minnesota turkey flocks during the 2015 epizootic.

Ssematimba A1, Malladi S1, Hagenaars TJ2, Bonney PJ1, Weaver JT3, Patyk KA3, Spackman E4, Halvorson DA1, Cardona CJ1.

Author information: 1 Secure Food Systems Team,College of Veterinary Medicine,University of Minnesota,1971 Commonwealth Avenue,Saint Paul,MN 55108,USA. 2 Department of Bacteriology and Epidemiology,Wageningen Bioveterinary Research,P.O. Box 65,8200AB Lelystad,The Netherlands. 3 United States Department of Agriculture,Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services, Science, Technology, and Analysis Services, Center for Epidemiology and Animal Health, Natural Resources Research Center,Bldg. B MS-2W4, 2150 Centre Avenue, Fort Collins, CO 80526,USA. 4 Exotic and Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Unit,US National Poultry Research Center,USDA-ARS,934 College Station Rd. Athens,GA 30605,USA.

 

Abstract

Better control of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks requires deeper understanding of within-flock virus transmission dynamics. For such fatal diseases, daily mortality provides a proxy for disease incidence. We used the daily mortality data collected during the 2015 H5N2 HPAI outbreak in Minnesota turkey flocks to estimate the within-flock transmission rate parameter (β). The number of birds in Susceptible, Exposed, Infectious and Recovered compartments was inferred from the data and used in a generalised linear mixed model (GLMM) to estimate the parameters. Novel here was the correction of these data for normal mortality before use in the fitting process. We also used mortality threshold to determine HPAI-like mortality to improve the accuracy of estimates from the back-calculation approach. The estimated β was 3.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3-4.3) per day with a basic reproduction number of 12.8 (95% CI 9.2-17.2). Although flock-level estimates varied, the overall estimate was comparable to those from other studies. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that the estimated β was highly sensitive to the bird-level latent period, emphasizing the need for its precise estimation. In all, for fatal poultry diseases, the back-calculation approach provides a computationally efficient means to obtain reasonable transmission parameter estimates from mortality data.

KEYWORDS: Analysis of data; avian flu; mathematical modelling; veterinary epidemiology

PMID: 31063119 DOI: 10.1017/S0950268819000633

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N2; Poultry; USA; Minnesota.

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Age-dependent #pathogenesis of clade 2.3.4.4A #H5N2 #HPAIV in experimentally infected Broad Breasted White #turkeys (Vet Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vet Microbiol. 2019 Apr;231:183-190. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2019.03.011. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Age-dependent pathogenesis of clade 2.3.4.4A H5N2 HPAIV in experimentally infected Broad Breasted White turkeys.

Carnaccini S1, Santos JJS1, Obadan AO1, Pantin-Jackwood MJ2, Suarez DL2, Rajão DS1, Perez DR3.

Author information: 1 Poultry Diagnostic and Research Center, University of Georgia, College of Veterinary Medicine, 953 College Station Rd, Athens, GA 30602 United States. 2 Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, U.S. National Poultry Research Center, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 934 College Station Rd., Athens, GA, 30605, United States. 3 Poultry Diagnostic and Research Center, University of Georgia, College of Veterinary Medicine, 953 College Station Rd, Athens, GA 30602 United States. Electronic address: dperez1@uga.edu.

 

Abstract

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a viral disease with devastating consequences to the poultry industry as it results in high morbidity, mortality and international trade restrictions. In the present study, we characterized age-related differences in terms of pathology in commercial white broad breasted turkeys inoculated with A/turkey/Minnesota/12582/2015 (H5N2) HPAIV clade 2.3.4.4A, a virus from the largest HPAI poultry outbreak that affected the Unites States in 2014-2015. Turkeys infected at 6-weeks of age showed inapparent to little clinical signs with rapid disease progression, reaching 100% mortality at 3 days post infection (dpi). In contrast, turkeys infected at 16-weeks of age developed ataxia and lethargy and reached 100% mortality by 5 dpi. Infection in the 6-weeks old turkeys resulted in peracute lesions consistent of extensive hemorrhages, edema and necrosis, but inflammation was not prominent. In the 16-weeks old turkeys, necrosis and hemorrhages in tissues were accompanied by a more prominent subacute inflammatory infiltrate. Both age groups showed presence of avian influenza virus (AIV) nucleoprotein (NP) in multiple cell types including neurons, glial cells, ependymal cells, respiratory epithelial cells, air capillary epithelium and pulmonary macrophages, cardiac myocytes, smooth muscle fibers, pancreatic acini and ductal cells. Cells of the vascular walls stained strongly positive for viral antigens, but no positivity was found in the endothelial cells of any organs. These findings indicate that age is a determinant factor in the progression of the disease and delay of mortality during infection with the H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4A HPAI virus in naïve white broad breasted turkeys.

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza virus; H5N2; HPAI; Immunohistochemistry; Pathogenicity; Turkeys

PMID: 30955808 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2019.03.011 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N2; Poultry.

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#Shedding of clade 2.3.4.4 #H5N8 and #H5N2 highly pathogenic #avian #influenza viruses in peridomestic #wildbirds in the #US (Transbound Emerg Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2019 Feb 10. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13147. [Epub ahead of print]

Shedding of clade 2.3.4.4 H5N8 and H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in peridomestic wild birds in the U.S.

Bosco-Lauth AM1, Marlenee NL1, Hartwig AE1, Bowen RA1, Root JJ2.

Author information: 1 Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA. 2 United States Department of Agriculture, National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, CO, USA.

 

Abstract

European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and rock pigeons (Columba livia) are all wild birds commonly found in large numbers in and around human dwellings and domestic livestock operations. This study evaluated the susceptibility of these species to three strains of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HP AIV) clade 2.3.4.4 isolated in the US. Experimental infection of European starlings and rock pigeons did not result in any overt signs attributable to AIV infection and no virus shedding was detected from the oral and cloacal routes. House sparrows shed by the oral route and exhibited limited mortality. Individuals from all three species seroconverted following infection. These data suggest that none of these birds are a likely potential bridge host for future HP AIV outbreaks but that their seroconversion may be a useful surveillance tool for detection of circulating H5 HP AIV.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Columba livia ; Passer domesticus ; Sturnus vulgaris ; Avian influenza virus; Biosecurity; Clade 2.3.4.4; European starling; Experimental infection; H5N2; H5N8; Highly pathogenic; House sparrow; Outbreak; Rock pigeon

PMID: 30740920 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.13147

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N2; H5N8; Wild Birds; USA.

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