#Influenza #Hemagglutinins #H2, #H5, #H6, and #H11 are not Targets of Pulmonary #Surfactant Protein D: N-glycan subtypes in host-pathogen interactions (J Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Influenza Hemagglutinins H2, H5, H6, and H11 are not Targets of Pulmonary Surfactant Protein D: N-glycan subtypes in host-pathogen interactions

Lisa Parsons, Yanming An, Li Qi, Mitchell White, Roosmarijn van der Woude, Kevan Hartshorn, Jeffery K. Taubenberger, Robert P. de Vries, John F. Cipollo

DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01951-19

 

ABSTRACT

Seasonal influenza carrying key hemagglutinin (HA) head region glycosylation sites can be removed from the lung by pulmonary surfactant protein D (SP-D). Little is known about HA head glycosylation of low pathogenicity A type influenza virus (LPAIV) subtypes. These can pose a pandemic threat through reassortmant and emergence in human populations. Since the presence of head region high mannose glycosites dictates SP-D activity, the ability to predict these glycosite glycan subtypes may be of value. Here we investigate the activities of two recombinant human SP-D forms against representative LPAIV including H2N1, H5N1, H6N1, H11N9, an avian H3N8 and a human seasonal H3N2 subtype. Using mass spectrometry, we determined the glycan subclasses and heterogeneities at each head glycosylation site. Sequence alignment and molecular structure analysis of the HAs were performed for LPIAV strains in comparison to seasonal H3N2 and avian H3N8. Intramolecular contacts were determined between protein backbone and glycosite glycan based on available three-dimensional structure data. We found that glycosite “N165” (H3 numbering) is occupied by high mannose glycans in H3 HA but by complex glycans in all LVIAV HAs. SP-D was not active on LPAIV but was on H3 HAs. Since SP-D affinity for influenza HA depends on the presence of high mannose glycan on the head region our data demonstrate that SP-D may not protect against virus containing these HA subtypes. Our results also demonstrate that glycan subtype can be predicted at some glycosites based on sequence comparisons and three dimensional structural analysis.

 

Importance

Low pathogenicity A type influenza virus (LPAIV) subtypes can reassort with circulating human strains and pandemic viruses can emerge in human populations as was seen in the 1957 pandemic, where an H2 virus reassorted with the circulating H1N1 to create a novel H2N2 genotype. Lung surfactant protein D (SP-D), a key factor in first line innate immunity defence, removes IAV through interaction with hemagglutinin (HA) head region high mannose glycan(s). While it is known that both H1 and H3 HAs, have a key high mannose glycosite(s) in the head region, little is known about such glycosylation of LPAIV strains H2N1, H5N1, H6N1, or H11N9, which may pose future health risks. Here, we demonstrate that the hemagglutinins of LPAIV strains do not have the required high mannose glycans, do not interact with SP-D, and that sequence analysis can predict glycan subtype thus predicting presence or absence of this virulence marker.

Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Influenza A; Reassortant strains; H1N1; H2N2; H2N1; H3N2; H3N8; H5N1; H6N1; H11N9; Viral pathogenesis.

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SUSCEPTIBILITY OF LAUGHING #GULLS (LEUCOPHAEUS ATRICILLA) AND #MALLARDS (ANAS PLATYRHYNCHOS) TO RUDDY TURNSTONE (ARENARIA INTERPRES MORINELLA) ORIGIN TYPE A #INFLUENZA VIRUSES (J Wildl Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Wildl Dis. 2019 Sep 18. [Epub ahead of print]

SUSCEPTIBILITY OF LAUGHING GULLS (LEUCOPHAEUS ATRICILLA) AND MALLARDS (ANAS PLATYRHYNCHOS) TO RUDDY TURNSTONE (ARENARIA INTERPRES MORINELLA) ORIGIN TYPE A INFLUENZA VIRUSES.

Bahnson CS1, Poulson RL1, Hollander LP1, Bradley JAC1, Stallknecht DE1.

Author information: 1 Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, 589 D. W. Brooks Drive, College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Population Health, The University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA.

 

Abstract

Delaware Bay, USA is the only documented location where influenza A virus (IAV) is consistently detected in a shorebird species, the Ruddy Turnstone (RUTU; Arenaria interpres morinella). Although IAV in shorebirds has been well studied at this site for decades, the importance of other species in the avian community as potential sources for the IAVs that infect RUTUs each spring remains unclear. We determined the susceptibility of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and Laughing gulls (Leucophaeus atricilla), to IAVs isolated from RUTUs in order to gain insight into the potential host range of these viruses. Captive-reared gulls were challenged with RUTU-origin H6N1, H10N7, H11N9, H12N4, and H13N6 IAV, as well as Mallard-origin H6N1 and H11N9. We challenged captive-reared Mallards with the same viruses, except for H13N6. At a biologically plausible challenge dose (104 50% embryo infective doses/0.1 mL), one of five gulls challenged with both H6N1 IAVs shed virus. The remaining gulls were resistant to infection with all viruses. In contrast, all Mallards were infected and shed virus. The H12N4 Mallard challenge group was an exception with no birds infected. These results indicated that Mallards are permissive to infection with viruses originating from a shorebird host and that interspecies transmission could occur. In contrast, host adaptation of IAVs to RUTUs may compromise their ability to be transmitted back to gulls.

KEYWORDS: Delaware Bay; Laughing gull; Mallard; Ruddy Turnstone; influenza A virus

PMID: 31532732

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Wild Birds; H6N1; H10N7; H11N9; H12N4; H13N6; USA.

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Detection of #reassortant #avian #influenza A (#H11N9) virus in #wildbirds in #China (Transbound Emerg Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2018 Oct 19. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13044. [Epub ahead of print]

Detection of reassortant avian influenza A (H11N9) virus in wild birds in China.

Ge Y1,2,3, Yao Q1, Wang X4, Chai H2, Deng G3, Chen H3, Hua Y2.

Author information: 1 Agriculture College, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang, Guangdong Province, China. 2 College of Wildlife Resources, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China. 3 State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, China. 4 Natural Conservation & Management Station of Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui Province,, China.

 

Abstract

Human infectious avian influenza virus (AIV) H7N9 emerged in China in 2013. The N9 gene of H7N9, which has the ability to cause death in humans, originated from an H11N9 influenza strain circulating in wild birds. To investigate the frequency and distribution of the N9 gene of the H11N9 and H7N9 influenza virus circulating in wild birds between 2006 and 2015, 35,604 samples were collected and tested. No H7N9 but four strains of the H11N9 subtype AIV were isolated, and phylogenetic analyses showed that the four H11N9 viruses were intra-subtype and inter-subtype reassortant viruses. A sequence analysis revealed that all six internal genes of A/wild bird/Anhui/L306/2014 (H11N9) originated from an H9N2 AIV isolated in Korea. The H9N2 strain, which is an inner gene donor reassorted with other subtypes, is a potential threat to poultry and even humans. it is necessary to increase monitoring of the emergence and spread of H11N9 AIV in wild birds.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: H11N9; avian influenza virus; phylogenetic analyses; reassortment; wild birds

PMID:30338936 DOI:10.1111/tbed.13044

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H11N9; H9N2; H7N9; Reassortant Strain; Wild Birds; China.

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#Genetic characterization of low-pathogenic #avian #influenza viruses isolated on the Izumi plain in #Japan: possible association of dynamic movements of #wildbirds with AIV evolution (Arch Virol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Arch Virol. 2018 Jan 3. doi: 10.1007/s00705-017-3698-1. [Epub ahead of print]

Genetic characterization of low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated on the Izumi plain in Japan: possible association of dynamic movements of wild birds with AIV evolution.

Nakagawa H1, Okuya K1, Kawabata T1, Matsuu A2,3, Takase K2,3,4, Kuwahara M5, Toda S6, Ozawa M7,8.

Author information: 1 Laboratory of Animal Hygiene, Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kagoshima University, 1-21-24 Korimoto, Kagoshima, 890-0065, Japan. 2 Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Transboundary Animal Diseases Center, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan. 3 United Graduate School of Veterinary Science, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi, Yamaguchi, Japan. 4 Laboratory of Animal Microbiology, Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan. 5 Matsuoka Research Institute for Science, Koganei, Tokyo, Japan. 6 Kagoshima Crane Conservation Committee, Izumi, Kagoshima, Japan. 7 Laboratory of Animal Hygiene, Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kagoshima University, 1-21-24 Korimoto, Kagoshima, 890-0065, Japan. mozawa@vet.kagoshima-u.ac.jp. 8 Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Transboundary Animal Diseases Center, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan. mozawa@vet.kagoshima-u.ac.jp.

 

Abstract

The Izumi plain in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan, is an overwintering site of endangered cranes (hooded cranes and white-naped cranes) and of many other migratory birds (including wild ducks) that are considered carriers of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). To assess the risks of a highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreak in the crane populations, we tested various environmental samples for AIVs in this area. In the 2014-2015 winter season, we isolated one AIV of the H6N2 subtype from the cranes’ roost water and two AIVs of the H11N9 subtype from a crane fecal sample and a cloacal swab of a dead spot-billed duck. Genetic analysis of these AIV isolates indicated that our H6N2 isolate is genetically close to AIVs isolated from wild birds in Southeast Asian countries, except that the PB1 and NS genes belong to the North American virus lineage. All genes of the two H11N9 isolates are related to AIVs belonging to the Eurasian virus lineage. Notably, in our phylogenetic trees, H11 HA and N9 NA genes showing high sequence similarity to the corresponding genes of isolates from wild birds in South Africa and Spain, respectively, did not cluster in the major groups with recent wild-bird isolates from East Asia. These results suggest that AIVs with viral gene segments derived from various locations and bird species have been brought to the Izumi plain. These findings imply a possible association of dynamic movements of wild birds with AIV evolution.

PMID: 29299682 DOI: 10.1007/s00705-017-3698-1

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H6N2; H11N9; Wild Birds; Japan.

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#Avian #Influenza Virus #Surveillance in South-Central #Spain Using #Fecal Samples of Aquatic #Birds Foraging at #Landfills (Front Vet Sci., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Front Vet Sci. 2017 Oct 23;4:178. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2017.00178. eCollection 2017.

Avian Influenza Virus Surveillance in South-Central Spain Using Fecal Samples of Aquatic Birds Foraging at Landfills.

Bárbara A1, Torrontegi O2, Camacho MC1, Barral M2, Hernández JM3, Höfle U1.

Author information: 1 SaBio Working Group, Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos IREC (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ciudad Real, Spain. 2 NEIKER-Tecnalia, Derio, Spain. 3 Freelancer (Formerly affiliated with Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos IREC (CSIC-UCLM), Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real, Spain), Ciudad Real, Spain.

 

Abstract

Aquatic wild birds have been intensively studied to better understand their role in avian influenza virus (AIV) maintenance and spread. To date, AIV surveillance has primarily focused on natural aquatic environments where different bird species aggregate and viral survival is enhanced. However, artificial habitats such as landfills are attracting substantial numbers of wild birds, AIV reservoir species included. The use of landfills as a predictable food source has significantly influenced population size, migratory traits, and feeding behavior of white storks (Ciconia ciconia) and black-headed gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) among others. Considering the proximity of landfills to urban settlements and frequently poultry-farms, targeted monitoring of AIV in bird species that forage at landfills but are known to also frequent urban and agricultural habitats could be a useful means for monitoring of AIV, especially during periods of bird aggregation. During the wintering season 2014-2015, the prevalence of AIV in five avian species at two landfills in South-Central Spain was explored by rRT-PCR and species related temporal variation in AIV prevalence determined. We collected and tested 1,186 fresh fecal samples from white storks (N = 689), cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis, N = 116) and mixed flocks of gulls (N = 381) as well as cloacal and oral swabs from five birds found dead. Seven samples contained AIV, five from gulls and one each from a stork and a cattle egret. Overall, AIV prevalence was 0.60%. No significant temporal variation was observed in AIV prevalence. Prevalence differed significantly among the sampled taxonomic groups, being highest in gulls (1.31%). H16N3 subtype was detected from a cattle egret and H11N9 subtype from a white stork, whereas gulls harbored both subtypes in addition to H11N3 subtype. H16 subtype detection in a cattle egret evidences its host range may not be restricted to gulls. Our results indicate that wild birds foraging at landfills may carry different LPAIV subtypes.

KEYWORDS: H16; avian influenza virus; cattle egrets; gulls; landfills; non-invasive sampling; surveillance; white storks

PMID: 29124060 PMCID: PMC5662893 DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2017.00178

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Wild Birds; Spain; H16N3; H11N9; H11N3.

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#Genetic analysis of a novel #reassortant #H11N9 Isolated from #waterfowl in South #Korea in 2016 (Virus Genes, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Virus Genes. 2017 Apr 6. doi: 10.1007/s11262-017-1453-z. [Epub ahead of print]

Genetic analysis of a novel reassortant H11N9 Isolated from waterfowl in South Korea in 2016.

Le TB1,2, Lee IH1,2, Kim HS3, Oh SK1,2, Seo SH4,5.

Author information: 1 Laboratory of Influenza Research, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 305-764, Republic of Korea. 2 Laboratory of Influenza Research, College of Veterinary Medicine, Institute of Influenza Virus, Chungnam National University, 99 Dae-Hak Ro, Yuseong Gu, Daejeon, 305-764, Republic of Korea. 3 Laboratory of Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 305-764, Republic of Korea. 4 Laboratory of Influenza Research, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 305-764, Republic of Korea. seos@cnu.ac.kr. 5 Laboratory of Influenza Research, College of Veterinary Medicine, Institute of Influenza Virus, Chungnam National University, 99 Dae-Hak Ro, Yuseong Gu, Daejeon, 305-764, Republic of Korea. seos@cnu.ac.kr.

 

Abstract

Aquatic birds are known to harbor all the known influenza A viruses. In the winter of January 2016, we surveyed influenza A virus in the feces of migratory birds in South Korea. The novel re-assorted H11N9 avian influenza virus, which contains genes from avian influenza viruses of poultry and wild birds, was isolated. The polymerase basic 2 (PB2), polymerase basic 1 (PB1), hemagglutinin (HA), and nucleoprotein (NP) genes were most closely related to those of domestic duck-origin avian influenza viruses, while the non-structural (NS) gene was closely related to that of domestic goose-origin avian influenza virus. The polymerase acidic (PA), neuraminidase (NA), and matrix (M) genes were most similar to those of wild bird-origin avian influenza viruses. Our results suggested that the interaction between wild birds and domestic poultry could possibly create novel re-assorted avian influenza viruses circulating in wild birds.

KEYWORDS: H11N9; Influenza virus; Wild birds

PMID: 28386784 DOI: 10.1007/s11262-017-1453-z

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Wild Birds; Reassortant Strains; S. Korea; H11N9.

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Characterization of a #reassortant #H11N9 subtype #avian #influenza virus isolated from bean #goose along the East #Asian-Australian #flyway (Virus Genes., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Virus Genes. 2016 Oct 11. [Epub ahead of print]

Characterization of a reassortant H11N9 subtype avian influenza virus isolated from bean goose along the East Asian-Australian flyway.

Yao Y1, Shao Z1, He B1, Yang W1, Chen J2, Zhang T3, Chen X1, Chen J4.

Author information: 1Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science, Wuhan Academy of Agricultural Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430208, Hubei, People’s Republic of China. 2CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hubei, People’s Republic of China. 3Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modelling, Center for Earth System Science Tsinghua University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China. 4Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science, Wuhan Academy of Agricultural Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430208, Hubei, People’s Republic of China. xkschenjie@sina.com.

 

Abstract

During the surveillance of avian influenza viruses in the Dongxi Lake wetland of Hubei in 2015-2016, an H11N9 avian influenza virus was isolated from a bean goose (Anser fabalis). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the HA gene of this isolate belongs to the North American lineage; however, the NA and the internal genes of the isolate were generated from the Eurasian lineage. This strain had reduced pathogenicity in mice and was capable of replication in the mouse lung without prior adaptation. This is the first report detecting H11N9 subtype influenza virus from migratory birds in central China. These findings highlight the transmission of avian influenza virus along the East Asian-Australian flyway and the need for continuing surveillance in central China.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza virus; Genetic analysis; H11N9; Migratory bird; Virus reassortment

PMID: 27730427 DOI: 10.1007/s11262-016-1401-3

[PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Wild Birds; Reassortant Strain; H11N9.

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