#Avian #H11 #influenza virus isolated from domestic #poultry in a #Colombian live #animal #market (Emerg Microbes Infect., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Emerg Microbes Infect. 2016 Dec 7;5(12):e121. doi: 10.1038/emi.2016.121.

Avian H11 influenza virus isolated from domestic poultry in a Colombian live animal market.

Jiménez-Bluhm P1, Karlsson EA1, Ciuoderis KA2, Cortez V1, Marvin SA1, Hamilton-West C3, Schultz-Cherry S1, Osorio JE2.

Author information: 1Department of Infectious Diseases, St Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA. 2Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA. 3Faculty of Veterinary Science, Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago 8820808, Chile.

 

Abstract

Live animal markets (LAMs) are an essential source of food and trade in Latin American countries; however, they can also serve as ‘hotbeds’ for the emergence and potential spillover of avian influenza viruses (AIV). Despite extensive knowledge of AIV in Asian LAMs, little is known about the prevalence South American LAMs. To fill this gap in knowledge, active surveillance was carried out at the major LAM in Medellin, Colombia between February and September 2015. During this period, overall prevalence in the market was 2.67% and a North American origin H11N2 AIV most similar to a virus isolated from Chilean shorebirds asymptomatically spread through multiple bird species in the market resulting in 17.0% positivity at peak of infection. Phenotypically, the H11 viruses displayed no known molecular markers associated with increased virulence in birds or mammals, had α2,3-sialic acid binding preference, and caused minimal replication in vitro and little morbidity in vivo. However, the Colombian H11N2 virus replicated and transmitted effectively in chickens explaining the spread throughout the market. Genetic similarity to H11 viruses isolated from North and South American shorebirds suggest that the LAM occurrence may have resulted from a wild bird to domestic poultry spillover event. The ability to spread in domestic poultry as well as potential for human infection by H11 viruses highlight the need for enhanced AIV surveillance in South America in both avian species and humans.

PMID: 27924808 DOI: 10.1038/emi.2016.121

[PubMed – in process]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H11N2; Poultry; Colombia.

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Evidence for the #introduction, #reassortment and #persistence of diverse #influenza A viruses in #Antarctica (J Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Evidence for the introduction, reassortment and persistence of diverse influenza A viruses in Antarctica

Aeron C. Hurt1,2⇑, Yvonne C. F. Su3, Malet Aban1, Heidi Peck1, Hilda Lau1, Chantal Baas1, Yi-Mo Deng1, Natalie Spirason1, Patrik Ellström4, Jorge Hernandez4,5, Bjorn Olsen6, Ian G. Barr1, Dhanasekaran Vijaykrishna3 and Daniel Gonzalez-Acuna7

Author Affiliations: 1WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza, North Melbourne, Victoria 3051, Australia. 2University of Melbourne, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia. 3Program in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke-NUS Medical School, 8 College Road, Singapore 169857. 4Zoonosis Science Center, IMBIM, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. 5Department of Microbiology, Kalmar County Hospital, Kalmar, Sweden. 6Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. 7Universidad de Concepción, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Chillán, Chile.

 

ABSTRACT

Avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance in Antarctica during 2013 revealed the prevalence of evolutionarily distinct influenza viruses of H11N2 subtype in Adélie penguins. Here we present results from the continued surveillance of AIV on the Antarctic Peninsula during 2014 and 2015. In addition to the continued detection of H11 subtype viruses during 2014 in a snowy sheathbill, we isolated a novel H5N5 subtype virus during 2015 in a chinstrap penguin. Gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the H11 virus detected in 2014 had a >99.1% nucleotide similarity to the H11N2 viruses isolated in 2013, suggesting continued prevalence of this virus over multiple years in Antarctica. However, phylogenetic analysis of the H5N5 virus showed that their genome segments were recently introduced into the continent, except for the NP gene that was similar to that in the endemic H11N2 viruses. Our analysis indicates geographically diverse origins for the H5N5 virus genes; with the majority of its genome segments derived from North American lineage viruses, but the neuraminidase gene derived from a Eurasian lineage virus. In summary, we show the persistence of AIV lineages over multiple years in Antarctica; recent introduction of gene segments from diverse regions; and reassortment between different AIV lineages in Antarctica, which together, significantly increases our understanding of AIV ecology in this fragile and pristine environment.

 

IMPORTANCE

Analysis of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) detected in Antarctica reveals both the relatively recent introduction of an H5N5 AIV predominantly of North American-like origin, as well as the persistence of an evolutionarily divergent H11 AIV. These data demonstrate that the flow of viruses from North America may be more common than initially thought, and that once introduced, these AIVs have the potential to be maintained within Antarctica. The future introduction of AIVs from North America into the Antarctic Peninsula is of particular concern given that highly pathogenic H5Nx viruses have recently been circulating amongst wild birds in parts of Canada and the Unites States following the movement of these viruses from Eurasia via migratory birds. The introduction of a highly pathogenic influenza virus into penguin colonies within Antarctica might have devastating consequences.

 

FOOTNOTES

Corresponding author: Aeron C. Hurt, WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza, Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory (VIDRL), Peter Doherty Institute, 792 Elizabeth St, Melbourne, Vic 3000, Australia, Ph: +61 3 9342 9314; Fax: +61 3 9342 9329; Email: aeron.hurt@influenzacentre.org

Copyright © 2016 Hurt et al.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Avian Influenza; H5N5; H11N2; Wildbirds; Antarctica; Reassortant strains.

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