#Fungal #Aflatoxins Reduce #Respiratory #Mucosal #Ciliary Function (Sci Rep., abstract)

[Source: Scientific Reports, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Article | OPEN

Fungal Aflatoxins Reduce Respiratory Mucosal Ciliary Function

Robert J. Lee, Alan D. Workman, Ryan M. Carey, Bei Chen, Phillip L. Rosen, Laurel Doghramji, Nithin D. Adappa, James N. Palmer, David W. Kennedy & Noam A. Cohen

Scientific Reports 6, Article number: 33221 (2016) / doi:10.1038/srep33221

Received: 26 April 2016 – Accepted: 23 August 2016 – Published online: 14 September 2016

 

Abstract

Aflatoxins are mycotoxins secreted by Aspergillus flavus, which can colonize the respiratory tract and cause fungal rhinosinusitis or bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. A. flavus is the second leading cause of invasive aspergillosis worldwide. Because many respiratory pathogens secrete toxins to impair mucociliary immunity, we examined the effects of acute exposure to aflatoxins on airway cell physiology. Using air-liquid interface cultures of primary human sinonasal and bronchial cells, we imaged ciliary beat frequency (CBF), intracellular calcium, and nitric oxide (NO). Exposure to aflatoxins (0.1 to 10 μM; 5 to 10 minutes) reduced baseline (~6–12%) and agonist-stimulated CBF. Conditioned media (CM) from A. fumigatus, A. niger, and A. flavus cultures also reduced CBF by ~10% after 60 min exposure, but effects were blocked by an anti-aflatoxin antibody only with A. flavus CM. CBF reduction required protein kinase C but was not associated with changes in calcium or NO. However, AFB2 reduced NO production by ~50% during stimulation of the ciliary-localized T2R38 receptor. Using a fluorescent reporter construct expressed in A549 cells, we directly observed activation of PKC activity by AFB2. Aflatoxins secreted by respiratory A. flavus may impair motile and chemosensory functions of airway cilia, contributing to pathogenesis of fungal airway diseases.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Aflatoxins.

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#Aflatoxin B1 #contamination in #maize in #Europe increases due to #climatechange (Sci Rep., abstract)

[Source: Scientific Reports, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Article / Open

Aflatoxin B1 contamination in maize in Europe increases due to climate change

P. Battilani, P. Toscano, H. J. Van der Fels-Klerx, A. Moretti, M. Camardo Leggieri, C. Brera,  A. Rortais, T. Goumperis & T. Robinson

Scientific Reports 6, Article number: 24328 (2016) / doi:10.1038/srep24328

Received: 09 December 2015 – Accepted: 24 March 2016 – Published online: 12 April 2016

 

Abstract

Climate change has been reported as a driver for emerging food and feed safety issues worldwide and its expected impact on the presence of mycotoxins in food and feed is of great concern. Aflatoxins have the highest acute and chronic toxicity of all mycotoxins; hence, the maximal concentration in agricultural food and feed products and their commodities is regulated worldwide. The possible change in patterns of aflatoxin occurrence in crops due to climate change is a matter of concern that may require anticipatory actions. The aim of this study was to predict aflatoxin contamination in maize and wheat crops, within the next 100 years, under a +2 °C and +5 °C climate change scenario, applying a modelling approach. Europe was virtually covered by a net, 50 × 50 km grids, identifying 2254 meshes with a central point each. Climate data were generated for each point, linked to predictive models and predictions were run consequently. Aflatoxin B1 is predicted to become a food safety issue in maize in Europe, especially in the +2 °C scenario, the most probable scenario of climate change expected for the next years. These results represent a supporting tool to reinforce aflatoxin management and to prevent human and animal exposure.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; European Region; Climate Change; Food Safety; Aflatoxins.

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#Africa- #Aflatoxins–#Poisoning #Health and #Trade (AllAfrica News, November 23 2015)

[Source: All Africa News, full page: (LINK).]

Africa- Aflatoxins – Poisoning Health and Trade [   !   ]

[IPS] Bulawayo -Aflatoxin contamination is a growing threat to trade, food and health security in sub-Saharan Africa, where smallholder farmers are challenged by food production and now climate change, researchers said.

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Keywords: Africa; Food Safety; Aflatoxins.

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