#COVID19: the current #situation in #Afghanistan (Lancet Glob Health, summary)

[Source: Lancet Global Health, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

COVID-19: the current situation in Afghanistan

Jaffer Shah, Sedighe Karimzadeh, Tareq Mohammed Ali Al-Ahdal, Sayed Hamid Mousavi, Shafi Ullah Zahid, Nguyen Tien Huy

Open Access | Published: April 02, 2020 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30124-8


On March 11, 2020, WHO declared the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which originated in Wuhan, China, and has since spread around the world, a global pandemic. As of March 25, 2020, 413 467 cases of COVID-19 have been confirmed in more than 180 countries and territories and at least 18 000 deaths have been reported from around the world. COVID-19 is now establishing a foothold in impoverished, war-torn nations, such as Afghanistan.1


Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Afghanistan.


The first #COVID19 case in #Afghanistan acquired from #Iran (Lancet Infect Dis., summary)

[Source: Lancet Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

The first COVID-19 case in Afghanistan acquired from Iran

Sayed H Mousavi, Jaffer Shah, Hoang T N Giang, Tareq M A Al-Ahdal, Shafi U Zahid, Fardina Temory, Feda M Paikan, Sedighe Karimzadeh, Nguyen T Huy

Published: March 23, 2020 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30231-0


The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has now spread to over 100 countries with more than 100 000 laboratory-confirmed cases worldwide.1
Here we describe the first case of COVID-19 in Afghanistan acquired from Iran.
A 35-year-old male Afghan shopkeeper visited Qom, Iran, for 1 week beginning Feb 9, 2020. In Iran, he had contact with employees from the shoe company that supplied his shop. He returned to his home in Herat, Afghanistan, by car on Feb 15, 2020, where he spent time with his family and friends without any precautions. On Feb 16, his symptoms began with fever, headache, cough, and dyspnoea. 5 days later, he felt increased concern and decided to visit a private clinic. At the private clinic, he was suspected of COVID-19 as he had recently returned from Iran, where the COVID-19 epidemic has intensified. The patient was referred to the governmental hospital to further investigate COVID-19 disease.



We declare no competing interests. SHM and JS contributed equally to this work. Patient consent was obtained for publication.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Afghanistan; Iran.


#CCHF, Herat Province, #Afghanistan, 2017 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 8—August 2019 / Research Letter

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Herat Province, Afghanistan, 2017

Aziz-ur-Rahman Niazi, Mohammad Jawed Jawad, Ahmad Amirnajad, Peter A. Durr, and David T. Williams

Author affiliations: Herat University, Herat, Afghanistan (A.-u.-R. Niazi, M.J. Jawad); Department of Public Health, Herat (A. Amirnajad); CSIRO,; Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Geelong, Victoria, Australia (P.A. Durr, D.T. Williams)



We studied the clinical and epidemiologic features of an outbreak of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Herat Province, Afghanistan. The study comprised 63 patients hospitalized in 2017. The overall case-fatality rate was 22.2%; fatal outcome was significantly associated with a negative IgM test result, longer prothrombin time, and nausea.

Keywords: CCHF; Afghanistan.


#Phylogenetic analysis of #H9N2 #avian #influenza viruses in #Afghanistan (2016-2017) (Arch Virol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Arch Virol. 2017 Oct;162(10):3161-3165. doi: 10.1007/s00705-017-3474-2. Epub 2017 Jul 3.

Phylogenetic analysis of H9N2 avian influenza viruses in Afghanistan (2016-2017).

Hosseini H1, Ghalyanchilangeroudi A2, Fallah Mehrabadi MH3, Sediqian MS4, Shayeganmehr A5, Ghafouri SA6, Maghsoudloo H6, Abdollahi H6, Farahani RK6.

Author information: 1 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch, Alborz, Iran. 2 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. arashghalyanchi@gmail.com. 3 Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research and Extension Organization, Tehran, Iran. 4 Faculty of Veterinary Science, Herat University, Herat, Afghanistan. 5 Department of Poultry Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. 6 Iranian Veterinary Organization, Tehran, Iran.



Avian influenza A virus (AIV) subtype H9N2 is the most prevalent subtype found in terrestrial poultry throughout Eurasia and has been isolated from poultry outbreaks worldwide. Tracheal tissue specimens from 100 commercial broiler flocks in Afghanistan were collected between 2016 and 2017. After real-time RT-PCR, AI-positive samples were further characterized. A part of the HA gene was amplified using RT-PCR and sequenced. The results of real-time RT-PCR showed that 40 percent of the flocks were AI positive. Phylogenetic studies showed that these H9N2 AIVs grouped within the Eurasian-lineage G1 AIVs and had a correlation with H9N2 AIV circulating in the poultry population of the neighboring countries over the past decade. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of HA revealed that the detected H9N2 viruses possessed molecular profiles suggestive of low pathogenicity and specificity for the avian-like SAα2,3 receptor, demonstrating their specificity for and adaptation to domestic poultry. The results of the current study provide great insights into H9N2 viruses circulating in Afghanistan’s poultry industry and demonstrate the necessity of planning an applied policy aimed at controlling and managing H9N2 infection in Afghan poultry.

KEYWORDS: Afghanistan; Avian influenza; H9N2; Phylogenetic study

PMID: 28674864 DOI: 10.1007/s00705-017-3474-2 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H9N2; Poultry; Afghanistan.


#Risk for #Death among #Children with #Pneumonia, #Afghanistan (@CDC_EIDjournal, abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 23, Number 8—August 2017 / Dispatch

Risk for Death among Children with Pneumonia, Afghanistan

Rahmani Zabihullah1, Bhim G. Dhoubhadel1, Ferogh A. Rauf, Sahab A. Shafiq, Motoi Suzuki, Kiwao Watanabe, Lay M. Yoshida, Michio Yasunami, Salihi Zabihullah, Christopher M. Parry, Rabi Mirwais, and Koya Ariyoshi

Author affiliations: Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan (R. Zabihullah, B.G. Dhoubhadel, M. Suzuki, K. Watanabe, L.M. Yoshida, M. Yasunami, C.M. Parry, K. Ariyoshi); Abu Ali Sina Balkhi Regional Hospital, Mazar-e-Sharif, Afghanistan (F.A. Rauf, S.A. Shafiq, S. Zabihullah); London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK (C.M. Parry); Public Health Department, Balkh Province, Afghanistan (R. Mirwais)



In Afghanistan, childhood deaths from pneumonia are high. Among 639 children at 1 hospital, the case-fatality rate was 12.1%, and 46.8% of pneumococcal serotypes detected were covered by the 13-valent vaccine. Most deaths occurred within 2 days of hospitalization; newborns and malnourished children were at risk. Vaccination could reduce pneumonia and deaths.

Keywords: Afghanistan; Pneumonia; S. Pneumoniae.


#Respiratory #diphtheria in an #asylum #seeker from #Afghanistan arriving to #Finland via #Sweden, December 2015 (@eurosurveillanc, abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Eurosurveillance, Volume 21, Issue 2, 14 January 2016 / Rapid communication

Respiratory diphtheria in an asylum seeker from Afghanistan arriving to Finland via Sweden, December 2015 [      ]

J Sane 1, T Sorvari 1, M Wideström 2, H Kauma 3, U Kaukoniemi 4, E Tarkka 5, T Puumalainen 6, M Kuusi 1, M Salminen 1, O Lyytikäinen 1

Author affiliations: 1. Department of Infectious Diseases, Infectious Disease Control Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland 2. Department of Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden 3. Department of Internal Medicine, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland 4. Department of Infectious Diseases, Länsi-Pohja Central Hospital, Finland 5. Helsinki University Central Hospital, Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa, Laboratory Services, HUSLAB, Finland 6. Department of Health Protection, Vaccination Programme Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland

Correspondence: Jussi Sane ( jussi.sane@thl.fi)

Citation style for this article: Sane J, Sorvari T, Wideström M, Kauma H, Kaukoniemi U, Tarkka E, Puumalainen T, Kuusi M, Salminen M, Lyytikäinen O. Respiratory diphtheria in an asylum seeker from Afghanistan arriving to Finland via Sweden, December 2015. Euro Surveill. 2016;21(2):pii=30105. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.2.30105

Received:15 December 2015; Accepted:13 January 2016



In December 2015, an asylum seeker originating from Afghanistan was diagnosed with respiratory diphtheria in Finland. He arrived in Finland from Sweden where he had already been clinically suspected and tested for diphtheria. Corynebacterium diphtheriae was confirmed in Sweden and shown to be genotypically and phenotypically toxigenic. The event highlights the importance of early case detection, rapid communication within the country and internationally as well as preparedness plans of diphtheria antitoxin availability.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Migrants; Finland; Sweden; Diphteria.