#RossRiver Virus #Seroprevalence, French #Polynesia, 2014–2015 (@CDC_EIDjournal, abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 23, Number 10—October 2017 / Research Letter

Ross River Virus Seroprevalence, French Polynesia, 2014–2015

Maite Aubry  , Anita Teissier, Michael Huart, Sébastien Merceron, Jessica Vanhomwegen, Claudine Roche, Anne-Laure Vial, Sylvianne Teururai, Sébastien Sicard, Sylvie Paulous, Philippe Desprès, Jean-Claude Manuguerra, Henri-Pierre Mallet, Didier Musso, Xavier Deparis, and Van-Mai Cao-Lormeau

Author affiliations: Institut Louis Malardé, Tahiti, French Polynesia (M. Aubry, A. Teissier, C. Roche, S. Teururai, D. Musso, V.-M. Cao-Lormeau); Centre d’épidémiologie et de santé publique des armées, Marseille, France; and Unité Mixte de Recherche Sciences Economiques et Sociales de la Santé et Traitement de l’Information Médicale, Marseille (M. Huart, S. Sicard, X. Deparis); Institut de la statistique de la Polynésie française, Tahiti; and Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques, Sainte Clotilde, Réunion (S. Merceron); Institut Pasteur, Paris, France (J. Vanhomwegen, S. Paulous, J.-C. Manuguerra); Direction Départementale de la Cohésion Sociale et de la Protection des Populations, Yonne, France (A.-L. Vial); Direction de la Santé de la Polynésie française, Tahiti (A.-L. Vial, H.-P. Mallet); Université de La Réunion, Sainte Clotilde, France ; and Unité Mixte de Recherche Processus Infectieux en Milieu Insulaire Tropical, Sainte Clotilde, France (P. Desprès)

 

Abstract

Ross River virus (RRV), spread by Aedes and Culex mosquitoes, is the most commonly transmitted arbovirus in Australia. A serosurvey of blood donors in French Polynesia during 2011–2013 suggested that RRV circulated without being detected. We report RRV circulation in French Polynesia based on further screening of blood samples collected during 2014–2015.

Keywords: Arbovirus; Mosquitoes; Culex spp.; Aedes spp.; French Polynesia; Ross River Virus.

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Mitigating #Diseases Transmitted by #Aedes #Mosquitoes: A Cluster-Randomised Trial of #Permethrin-Impregnated #School #Uniforms (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017 Jan 19;11(1):e0005197. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005197. eCollection 2017 Jan.

Mitigating Diseases Transmitted by Aedes Mosquitoes: A Cluster-Randomised Trial of Permethrin-Impregnated School Uniforms.

Kittayapong P1,2, Olanratmanee P3, Maskhao P4, Byass P5, Logan J6, Tozan Y7,8, Louis V7, Gubler DJ9, Wilder-Smith A5,6,10,11.

Author information: 1 Center of Excellence for Vectors and Vector-Borne Diseases, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University at Salaya, Nakhon Phatom, Thailand. 2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. 3 Faculty of Science and Technology, Rajabhat Rajanagarindra University, Chachoengsao, Thailand. 4 Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Rajabhat Rajanagarindra University, Chachoengsao, Thailand. 5 Umeå Centre for Global Health Research, Epidemiology and Global Health, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. 6 London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom. 7 Institute of Public Health, Heidelberg University Medical School, Germany. 8 College of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, United States. 9 Emerging Infectious Diseases Program, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore. 10 Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. 11 Institute of Public Health, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Viral diseases transmitted via Aedes mosquitoes are on the rise, such as Zika, dengue, and chikungunya. Novel tools to mitigate Aedes mosquitoes-transmitted diseases are urgently needed. We tested whether commercially insecticide-impregnated school uniforms can reduce dengue incidence in school children.

METHODS:

We designed a cluster-randomised controlled trial in Thailand. The primary endpoint was laboratory-confirmed dengue infections. Secondary endpoints were school absenteeism; and impregnated uniforms’ 1-hour knock-down and 24 hour mosquito mortality as measured by standardised WHOPES bioassay cone tests at baseline and after repeated washing. Furthermore, entomological assessments inside classrooms and in outside areas of schools were conducted.

RESULTS:

We enrolled 1,811 pupils aged 6-17 from 5 intervention and 5 control schools. Paired serum samples were obtained from 1,655 pupils. In the control schools, 24/641 (3.7%) and in the intervention schools 33/1,014 (3.3%) students had evidence of new dengue infections during one school term (5 months). There was no significant difference in proportions of students having incident dengue infections between the intervention and control schools, with adjustment for clustering by school. WHOPES cone tests showed a 100% knock down and mortality of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes exposed to impregnated clothing at baseline and up to 4 washes, but this efficacy rapidly declined to below 20% after 20 washes, corresponding to a weekly reduction in knock-down and mosquito mortality by 4.7% and 4.4% respectively. Results of the entomological assessments showed that the mean number of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes caught inside the classrooms of the intervention schools was significantly reduced in the month following the introduction of the impregnated uniforms, compared to those collected in classrooms of the control schools (p = 0.04).

CONCLUSIONS:

Entomological assessments showed that the intervention had some impact on the number of Aedes mosquitoes inside treatment schools immediately after impregnation and before insecticidal activity declined. However, there was no serological evidence of protection against dengue infections over the five months school term, best explained by the rapid washing-out of permethrin after 4 washes. If rapid washing-out of permethrin could be overcome by novel technological approaches, insecticide-treated clothes might become a potentially cost-effective and scalable intervention to protect against diseases transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes such as dengue, Zika, and chikungunya.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01563640.

PMID: 28103255 PMCID: PMC5245776 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005197

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Aedes Spp.; Mosquitoes; Flavivirus; Dengue; Zika virus; Chikungunya Fever; Arbovirus.

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A #compendium of small #molecule direct-acting and host-targeting #inhibitors as #therapies against #alphaviruses (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

A compendium of small molecule direct-acting and host-targeting inhibitors as therapies against alphaviruses

Kuan-Chieh Ching, Lisa F. P. Ng, Christina L. L. Chai

J Antimicrob Chemother dkx224. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkx224

Published: 21 July 2017

 

Abstract

Alphaviruses were amongst the first arboviruses to be isolated, characterized and assigned a taxonomic status. They are globally widespread, infecting a large variety of terrestrial animals, birds, insects and even fish. Moreover, they are capable of surviving and circulating in both sylvatic and urban environments, causing considerable human morbidity and mortality. The re-emergence of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in almost every part of the world has caused alarm to many health agencies throughout the world. The mosquito vector for this virus, Aedes, is globally distributed in tropical and temperate regions and capable of thriving in both rural and urban landscapes, giving the opportunity for CHIKV to continue expanding into new geographical regions. Despite the importance of alphaviruses as human pathogens, there is currently no targeted antiviral treatment available for alphavirus infection. This mini-review discusses some of the major features in the replication cycle of alphaviruses, highlighting the key viral targets and host components that participate in alphavirus replication and the molecular functions that were used in drug design. Together with describing the importance of these targets, we review the various direct-acting and host-targeting inhibitors, specifically small molecules that have been discovered and developed as potential therapeutics as well as their reported in vitro and in vivo efficacies.

Topic: alphavirus – antiviral agents – virus replication – viruses – pathogenic organism – small molecule – host (organism)

Issue Section: Review

© The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

Keywords: Arbovirus; Alphavirus; Aedes spp.; Antivirals.

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