Integrated #Aedes #management for the control of Aedes-borne #diseases (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]


Integrated Aedes management for the control of Aedes-borne diseases

David Roiz , Anne L. Wilson, Thomas W. Scott, Dina M. Fonseca, Frédéric Jourdain, Pie Müller, Raman Velayudhan, Vincent Corbel

Published: December 6, 2018 / DOI:




Diseases caused by Aedes-borne viruses, such as dengue, Zika, chikungunya, and yellow fever, are emerging and reemerging globally. The causes are multifactorial and include global trade, international travel, urbanisation, water storage practices, lack of resources for intervention, and an inadequate evidence base for the public health impact of Aedes control tools. National authorities need comprehensive evidence-based guidance on how and when to implement Aedes control measures tailored to local entomological and epidemiological conditions.

Methods and findings

This review is one of a series being conducted by the Worldwide Insecticide resistance Network (WIN). It describes a framework for implementing Integrated Aedes Management (IAM) to improve control of diseases caused by Aedes-borne viruses based on available evidence. IAM consists of a portfolio of operational actions and priorities for the control of Aedes-borne viruses that are tailored to different epidemiological and entomological risk scenarios. The framework has 4 activity pillars: (i) integrated vector and disease surveillance, (ii) vector control, (iii) community mobilisation, and (iv) intra- and intersectoral collaboration as well as 4 supporting activities: (i) capacity building, (ii) research, (iii) advocacy, and (iv) policies and laws.


IAM supports implementation of the World Health Organisation Global Vector Control Response (WHO GVCR) and provides a comprehensive framework for health authorities to devise and deliver sustainable, effective, integrated, community-based, locally adapted vector control strategies in order to reduce the burden of Aedes-transmitted arboviruses. The success of IAM requires strong commitment and leadership from governments to maintain proactive disease prevention programs and preparedness for rapid responses to outbreaks.


Author summary

Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus are mosquito species that thrive in towns and cities and can transmit viruses to humans that cause diseases, such as dengue, Zika, chikungunya, and yellow fever. The geographic range of human infection with these viruses is rapidly expanding globally. Even when preventative or therapeutic treatments are available to fight these diseases, controlling the mosquito vector will remain an important control option. We therefore developed a framework called IAM that offers decision-making guidance based on available evidence of effective control of Aedes at different levels of infestation and virus transmission risk. Our work aims to strengthen the capacity of countries at risk of and/or affected by these diseases and vectors so they will be better prepared for existing and emerging Aedes-borne disease threats.


Citation: Roiz D, Wilson AL, Scott TW, Fonseca DM, Jourdain F, Müller P, et al. (2018) Integrated Aedes management for the control of Aedes-borne diseases. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 12(12): e0006845.

Editor: Olaf Horstick, University of Heidelberg, GERMANY

Published: December 6, 2018

Copyright: © 2018 Roiz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Funding: This review was funded by an award to VC and the WIN network from the World Health Organization’s Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases ( DR was partially supported by the ANR grant INVACOST. The funders had no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, nor the writing of the manuscript, nor the decision to publish.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Arbovirus; Mosquitoes; Aedes spp.


#Genomic and #epidemiological #monitoring of #yellowfever virus #transmission #potential (Science, abstract)

[Source: Science, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Genomic and epidemiological monitoring of yellow fever virus transmission potential

N. R. Faria1,*,†, M. U. G. Kraemer1,2,3,*, S. C. Hill1,*, J. Goes de Jesus4,*, R. S. Aguiar5,*, F. C. M. Iani6,7,*, J. Xavier4, J. Quick8, L. du Plessis1, S. Dellicour9, J. Thézé1, R. D. O. Carvalho7, G. Baele9, C.-H. Wu10, P. P. Silveira5, M. B. Arruda5, M. A. Pereira6, G. C. Pereira6, J. Lourenço1, U. Obolski1, L. Abade1,11, T. I. Vasylyeva1, M. Giovanetti4,7, D. Yi12, D. J. Weiss13, G. R. W. Wint1, F. M. Shearer13, S. Funk14, B. Nikolay15,16, V. Fonseca7,17, T. E. R. Adelino6, M. A. A. Oliveira6, M. V. F. Silva6, L. Sacchetto7, P. O. Figueiredo7, I. M. Rezende7, E. M. Mello7, R. F. C. Said18, D. A. Santos18, M. L. Ferraz18, M. G. Brito18, L. F. Santana18, M. T. Menezes5, R. M. Brindeiro5, A. Tanuri5, F. C. P. dos Santos19, M. S. Cunha19, J. S. Nogueira19, I. M. Rocco19, A. C. da Costa20, S. C. V. Komninakis21,22, V. Azevedo7, A. O. Chieppe23, E. S. M. Araujo4, M. C. L. Mendonça4, C. C. dos Santos4, C. D. dos Santos4, A. M. Mares-Guia4, R. M. R. Nogueira4, P. C. Sequeira4, R. G. Abreu24, M. H. O. Garcia24, A. L. Abreu25, O. Okumoto25, E. G. Kroon7, C. F. C. de Albuquerque26, K. Lewandowski27, S. T. Pullan27, M. Carroll28, T. de Oliveira4,17,29, E. C. Sabino20, R. P. Souza19, M. A. Suchard30,31, P. Lemey9, G. S. Trindade7, B. P. Drumond7, A. M. B. Filippis4, N. J. Loman8, S. Cauchemez15,16,*, L. C. J. Alcantara4,7,*,†, O. G. Pybus1,*,†

1 Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. 2 Computational Epidemiology Lab, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. 3 Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. 4 Laboratório de Flavivírus, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 5 Laboratório de Virologia Molecular, Departamento de Genética, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 6 Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública, Instituto Octávio Magalhães, FUNED, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. 7 Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. 8 Institute of Microbiology and Infection, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK. 9 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. 10 Department of Statistics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. 11 The Global Health Network, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. 12 Department of Statistics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA. 13 Malaria Atlas Project, Big Data Institute, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. 14 Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK. 15 Mathematical Modelling of Infectious Diseases and Center of Bioinformatics, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France. 16 CNRS UMR2000: Génomique Évolutive, Modélisation et Santé, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France. 17 KwaZulu-Natal Research, Innovation and Sequencing Platform (KRISP), School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. 18 Secretaria de Estado de Saúde de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. 19 Núcleo de Doenças de Transmissão Vetorial, Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, Brazil. 20 Instituto de Medicina Tropical e Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. 21 Retrovirology Laboratory, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. 22 School of Medicine of ABC (FMABC), Clinical Immunology Laboratory, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil. 23 Coordenação de Vigilância Epidemiológica do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 24 Departamento de Vigilância das Doenças Transmissíveis da Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde, Ministério da Saúde, Brasília-DF, Brazil. 25 Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde, Coordenação Geral de Laboratórios de Saúde Pública, Ministério da Saúde, Brasília-DF, Brazil. 26 Organização Pan – Americana da Saúde/Organização Mundial da Saúde – (OPAS/OMS), Brasília-DF, Brazil. 27 Public Health England, National Infections Service, Porton Down, Salisbury, UK. 28 NIHR HPRU in Emerging and Zoonotic Infections, Public Health England, London, UK. 29 Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), Durban, South Africa. 30 Department of Biostatistics, UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. 31 Department of Biomathematics and Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

†Corresponding author. Email: (N.R.F.); (L.C.J.A.); (O.G.P.)

* These authors contributed equally to this work.

Science  31 Aug 2018: Vol. 361, Issue 6405, pp. 894-899 / DOI: 10.1126/science.aat7115


Arbovirus risk in Brazil

Despite the existence of an effective vaccine for yellow fever, there are still almost 80,000 fatalities from this infection each year. Since 2016, there has been a resurgence of cases in Africa and South America—and this at a time when the vaccine is in short supply. The worry is that yellow fever will spread from the forests to the cities, because its vector, Aedes spp. mosquitoes, are globally ubiquitous. Faria et al. integrate genomic, epidemiological, and case distribution data from Brazil to estimate patterns of geographic spread, the risks of virus exposure, and the contributions of rural versus urban transmission (see the Perspective by Barrett). Currently, the yellow fever epidemic in Brazil seems to be driven by infections acquired while visiting forested areas and indicates spillover from susceptible wild primates.

Science, this issue p. 894; see also p. 847



The yellow fever virus (YFV) epidemic in Brazil is the largest in decades. The recent discovery of YFV in Brazilian Aedes species mosquitos highlights a need to monitor the risk of reestablishment of urban YFV transmission in the Americas. We use a suite of epidemiological, spatial, and genomic approaches to characterize YFV transmission. We show that the age and sex distribution of human cases is characteristic of sylvatic transmission. Analysis of YFV cases combined with genomes generated locally reveals an early phase of sylvatic YFV transmission and spatial expansion toward previously YFV-free areas, followed by a rise in viral spillover to humans in late 2016. Our results establish a framework for monitoring YFV transmission in real time that will contribute to a global strategy to eliminate future YFV epidemics.

Keywords: Yellow Fever; Aedes spp.; Brazil; Flavivirus; Wildlife; Human.


In-depth molecular analysis of a small cohort of #human and #Aedes #mosquito (adults and larvae) samples from #Kolkata revealed absence of #Zika but high prevalence of #dengue virus (J Med Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Med Microbiol. 2018 Jun 13. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.000769. [Epub ahead of print]

In-depth molecular analysis of a small cohort of human and Aedes mosquito (adults and larvae) samples from Kolkata revealed absence of Zika but high prevalence of dengue virus.

Sukla S1, Ghosh A1, Saha R2, De A3, Adhya S1, Biswas S1.

Author information: 1 ​CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, 4, Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032, West Bengal, India. 2 ​Department of Microbiology, Calcutta National Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata 700014, West Bengal, India. 3 ​Department of Dermatology, Calcutta National Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata 700014, West Bengal, India.




Zika virus infections have recently been reported in many dengue-endemic areas globally. Both dengue (DENV) and Zika (ZIKV) virus are transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, raising the possibility of mixed infections in both vector and host. We evaluated DENV and ZIKV prevalence in human and vector samples in Kolkata, a DENV-endemic city.


Blood samples were collected from 70 patients presenting dengue-like fever symptoms at a hospital in Kolkata during 2015-16. Serum was obtained and tested for DENV infection by DENV NS1-based ELISA. Adult (n=8) and larval stages (n=12) of Aedes were also collected. A RT-PCR-based screening of both viruses supplemented by amplicon sequencing was performed.


Of the 70 samples, 20 DENV NS1-positive serum samples were used for detailed molecular study for DENV infection. Eighteen of these (90 %) were positive by hemi-nested serotype-specific RT-PCR for DENV1/2/3, with four samples showing evidence of DENV2-3 or DENV1-3 mixed infection. None were ZIKV-positive using NS5 or ENV-based PCR, though weak amplification of a DENV1 NS5 sequence was detected in three serum samples indicating cross-reactivity of the primers. All mosquito samples were ZIKV-negative, whereas 5/8 (63 %) of adult mosquitoes and 11/12 (92 %) of larvae were DENV3-positive.


Both host and vector samples showed absence of ZIKV but high prevalence of DENV. The high rate of infection of larvae with DENV is suggestive of trans-ovarial transmission that could contribute to the surge of human infections during each post-monsoon season. It would be important to guard against false positives using the available Zika-reporting primer sets.

PMID: 29897327 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.000769

Keywords: Flavivirus; Mosquitoes; Human; India; Dengue Fever; Zika Virus; Aedes spp.


#Threats of #Zika virus #transmission for #Asia and its Hindu-Kush #Himalayan region (Infect Dis Poverty., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Infect Dis Poverty. 2018 May 15;7(1):40. doi: 10.1186/s40249-018-0426-3.

Threats of Zika virus transmission for Asia and its Hindu-Kush Himalayan region.

Dhimal M1,2, Dahal S3, Dhimal ML4,5, Mishra SR6, Karki KB3, Aryal KK3, Haque U7, Kabir MI8, Guin P9,10, Butt AM11, Harapan H12, Liu QY13, Chu C14, Montag D15, Groneberg DA4, Pandey BD16, Kuch U4, Müller R4.

Author information: 1 Nepal Health Research Council (NHRC), Ramshah Path, Kathmandu, Nepal. 2 Institute of Occupational Medicine, Social Medicine and Environmental Medicine, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. 3 Nepal Health Research Council (NHRC), Ramshah Path, Kathmandu, Nepal. 4 Institute of Occupational Medicine, Social Medicine and Environmental Medicine, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. 5 Faculty of Social Sciences, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. 6 The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. 7 Department of Public Health, Baldwin Wallace University, Berea, Ohio, USA. 8 Department of Epidemiology, National Institute of Preventive and Social Medicine, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Dhaka, Bangladesh. 9 Public Health Foundation of India, Gurgaon, Haryana, India. 10 Centre for Environmental Health, Gurgaon, Haryana, India. 11 Translational Genomics Laboratory, Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Islamabad, 45550, Pakistan. 12 Medical Research Unit, School of Medicine, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia. 13 WHO Collaborating Centre for Vector Surveillance and Management, SKLID, CCID, ICDC, China CDC, Beijing, China. 14 Centre for Environment and Population Health, Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland, Australia. 15 Barts and the London School of Medicine, Centre for Primary Care and Public Health, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK. 16 Department of Health Services, Ministry of Health, Government of Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal.



Asia and its Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is particularly vulnerable to environmental change, especially climate and land use changes further influenced by rapid population growth, high level of poverty and unsustainable development. Asia has been a hotspot of dengue fever and chikungunya mainly due to its dense human population, unplanned urbanization and poverty. In an urban cycle, dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes which are also competent vectors of Zika virus (ZIKV). Over the last decade, DENV and CHIKV transmissions by Ae. aegypti have extended to the Himalayan countries of Bhutan and Nepal and ZIKV could follow in the footsteps of these viruses in the HKH region. The already established distribution of human-biting Aedes mosquito vectors and a naïve population with lack of immunity against ZIKV places the HKH region at a higher risk of ZIKV. Some of the countries in the HKH region have already reported ZIKV cases. We have documented an increasing threat of ZIKV in Asia and its HKH region because of the high abundance and wide distribution of human-biting mosquito vectors, climate change, poverty, report of indigenous cases in the region, increasing numbers of imported cases and a naïve population with lack of immunity against ZIKV. An outbreak anywhere is potentially a threat everywhere. Therefore, in order to ensure international health security, all efforts to prevent, detect, and respond to ZIKV ought to be intensified now in Asia and its HKH region. To prepare for possible ZIKV outbreaks, Asia and the HKH region can also learn from the success stories and strategies adopted by other regions and countries in preventing ZIKV and associated complications. The future control strategies for DENV, CHIKV and ZIKV should be considered in tandem with the threat to human well-being that is posed by other emerging and re-emerging vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, and by the continuing urgent need to strengthen public primary healthcare systems in the region.

KEYWORDS: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Chikungunya virus; Dengue virus; Hindu Kush Himalayas; Mountain; Poverty, Zika virus

PMID: 29759076 DOI: 10.1186/s40249-018-0426-3

Keywords: Arbovirus; Dengue Fever; Chikungunya Fever; Zika Virus; Mosquitoes; Asia Region; Aedes spp.


#Mosquito #saliva re-shapes #alphavirus #infection and immunopathogenesis (J Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Mosquito saliva re-shapes alphavirus infection and immunopathogenesis

Siew-Wai Fong a,b, R. Manjunatha Kini a and Lisa F.P. Ng b,c#

Author Affiliations: a Department of Biological Science, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543, Singapore; b Singapore Immunology Network, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore (A*STAR), Singapore 138648, Singapore; c Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7BE, United Kingdom



Alphaviruses are transmitted to humans via bites of infected mosquitoes. Although alphaviruses have caused a wide magnitude of outbreaks and crippling disease, licensed vaccines or antiviral therapies remain limited. Mosquito vectors such as Aedes and Culex are the main culprits in the transmission of alphaviruses. This review explores how mosquito saliva may promote alphavirus infection. Identifying the roles of mosquito-derived factors in alphavirus pathogenesis will generate novel tools to circumvent and control mosquito-borne alphavirus infections in humans.



#Address correspondence to Lisa F.P.Ng,

Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Alphavirus; Mosquitoes; Culex spp.; Aedes spp.


#Vector Competence of Some #Mosquito Species From #Canada For #Zika Virus (J Am Mosq Control Assoc., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2017 Dec;33(4):276-281. doi: 10.2987/17-6664.1.

Vector Competence of Some Mosquito Species From Canada For Zika Virus.

Dibernardo A, Turell MJ, Lindsay LR, Loomer C, Iranpour M.



The recent introduction of Zika virus (ZIKV) into the Americas and the occurrence of birth defects associated with infection during pregnancy have created a concern about the spread of this virus into more northern countries in the Americas. Therefore, we examined several species of mosquitoes found in southern Manitoba, Canada, for their susceptibility to infection and their ability to transmit ZIKV. Aedes cinereus, Ae. euedes, Ae. fitchii, Ae. sticticus, Ae. vexans, Coquillettidia perturbans, Culex restuans, and Cx. tarsalis were captured in the vicinity of Winnipeg, Manitoba; brought to the laboratory; and allowed to feed on a ZIKV-sheep blood suspension to determine oral susceptibility. In addition, some of the nonfed individuals were inoculated intrathoracically to examine for the presence of a salivary gland barrier. Despite ingesting blood containing 105.4 plaque-forming units/ml, infection rates were very low, and infected individuals were only detected for Ae. vexans. Transmission was observed for Ae. vexans, Cq. perturbans, and Cx. restuans that had been inoculated with ZIKV, although rates were low. Based on the extremely low vector competence found in this study and the lack of a preferential feeding on humans, it is unlikely than any of the mosquito species tested in this study would be involved in any large-scale transmission of ZIKV in Canada.

KEYWORDS: artificial blood meal; intrathoracic inoculation; pathogen; transmission

PMID: 29369018 DOI: 10.2987/17-6664.1

Keywords: Zika Virus; Mosquitoes; Canada; Aedes spp.; Culex spp.


#Zika virus: An updated #review of #competent or naturally infected #mosquitoes (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Open Access / Review

Zika virus: An updated review of competent or naturally infected mosquitoes

Yanouk Epelboin ,  Stanislas Talaga, Loïc Epelboin,  Isabelle Dusfour

Published: November 16, 2017 / DOI:



Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) that recently caused outbreaks in the Americas. Over the past 60 years, this virus has been observed circulating among African, Asian, and Pacific Island populations, but little attention has been paid by the scientific community until the discovery that large-scale urban ZIKV outbreaks were associated with neurological complications such as microcephaly and several other neurological malformations in fetuses and newborns. This paper is a systematic review intended to list all mosquito species studied for ZIKV infection or for their vector competence. We discuss whether studies on ZIKV vectors have brought enough evidence to formally exclude other mosquitoes than Aedes species (and particularly Aedes aegypti) to be ZIKV vectors. From 1952 to August 15, 2017, ZIKV has been studied in 53 mosquito species, including 6 Anopheles, 26 Aedes, 11 Culex, 2 Lutzia, 3 Coquillettidia, 2 Mansonia, 2 Eretmapodites, and 1 Uranotaenia. Among those, ZIKV was isolated from 16 different Aedes species. The only species other than Aedes genus for which ZIKV was isolated were Anopheles coustani, Anopheles gambiae, Culex perfuscus, and Mansonia uniformis. Vector competence assays were performed on 22 different mosquito species, including 13 Aedes, 7 Culex, and 2 Anopheles species with, as a result, the discovery that A. aegypti and Aedes albopictus were competent for ZIKV, as well as some other Aedes species, and that there was a controversy surrounding Culex quinquefasciatus competence. Although Culex, Anopheles, and most of Aedes species were generally observed to be refractory to ZIKV infection, other potential vectors transmitting ZIKV should be explored.


Author summary

The first isolation of Zika virus (ZIKV) in mosquitoes was made in 1948 in Aedes africanus. Over the next years, knowledge about ZIKV increased, with detection of the virus in primates, including humans and several other mosquito species. Most of these species were collected in Africa during arbovirus surveillance studies and belong to the genus Aedes, and today, 20 mosquito species have been identified that can be naturally infected by ZIKV. Although field studies are essential to have an overview of potential mosquito vectors of ZIKV during outbreaks or involved in the maintenance of the sylvatic cycle, laboratory studies are needed to assess the capacity of a species to transmit the virus to a new host. Since 2015, corresponding to the beginning of the outbreak in Brazil, vector competence studies have multiplied and confirmed that the mosquito A. aegypti, known to transmit dengue fever and chikungunya viruses, was also the main vector of ZIKV. This review aims to highlight the studies conducted from several laboratories about mosquito species naturally infected or tested for their vector competence for ZIKV.


Citation: Epelboin Y, Talaga S, Epelboin L, Dusfour I (2017) Zika virus: An updated review of competent or naturally infected mosquitoes. PLoS Negl Trop Dis11(11): e0005933.

Editor: Gregory D. Ebel, Colorado State University, UNITED STATES

Published: November 16, 2017

Copyright: © 2017 Epelboin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Funding: YE, ST, and ID acknowledge “an Investissement d’Avenir grant of the Agence Nationale de la Recherche” (CEBA: ANR-10-LABX-25-01). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Zika Virus; Mosquitoes; Aedes Aegypti; Aedes Albopictus; Culex Quinquefasciatus; Aedes spp.; Culex spp.