RNAi-based #bioinsecticide for #Aedes #mosquito #control (Sci Rep., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Sci Rep. 2019 Mar 11;9(1):4038. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-39666-5.

RNAi-based bioinsecticide for Aedes mosquito control.

Lopez SBG1, Guimarães-Ribeiro V1, Rodriguez JVG1, Dorand FAPS1, Salles TS1, Sá-Guimarães TE1, Alvarenga ESL1, Melo ACA1,2, Almeida RV1, Moreira MF3,4.

Author information: 1 Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, 21941-909, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. 2 Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em Entomologia Molecular, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. 3 Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, 21941-909, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. monica@iq.ufrj.br. 4 Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em Entomologia Molecular, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. monica@iq.ufrj.br.



Zika virus infection and dengue and chikungunya fevers are emerging viral diseases that have become public health threats. Their aetiologic agents are transmitted by the bite of genus Aedes mosquitoes. Without effective therapies or vaccines, vector control is the main strategy for preventing the spread of these diseases. Increased insecticide resistance calls for biorational actions focused on control of the target vector population. The chitin required for larval survival structures is a good target for biorational control. Chitin synthases A and B (CHS) are enzymes in the chitin synthesis pathway. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated gene silencing (RNAi) achieves specific knockdown of target proteins. Our goal in this work, a new proposed RNAi-based bioinsecticide, was developed as a potential strategy for mosquito population control. DsRNA molecules that target five different regions in the CHSA and B transcript sequences were produced in vitro and in vivo through expression in E. coli HT115 and tested by direct addition to larval breeding water. Mature and immature larvae treated with dsRNA targeting CHS catalytic sites showed significantly decreased viability associated with a reduction in CHS transcript levels. The few larval and adult survivors displayed an altered morphology and chitin content. In association with diflubenzuron, this bioinsecticide exhibited insecticidal adjuvant properties.

PMID: 30858430 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-39666-5

Keywords: Arbovirus; Mosquitoes; Aedes spp.; Insecticides.



A #Gut #Commensal Bacterium Promotes #Mosquito Permissiveness to #Arboviruses (Cell Host Microbe, abstract)

[Source: Cell Host & Microbe, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

A Gut Commensal Bacterium Promotes Mosquito Permissiveness to Arboviruses

Pa Wu, Peng Sun, Kaixiao Nie, Yibin Zhu, Mingyu Shi, Changguang Xiao, Han Liu, Qiyong Liu, Tongyan Zhao, Xiaoguang Chen, Hongning Zhou, Penghua Wang, Gong Cheng 9

Published: December 27, 2018 / DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2018.11.004



  • The gut commensal Serratia marcescens promotes mosquito permissiveness to arboviruses
  • S. marcescens facilitates arboviral infection via a secreted protein named SmEnhancin
  • SmEnhancin digests gut membrane-bound mucins to enhance viral dissemination in mosquitoes
  • S. marcescens enhances the susceptibility of field mosquitoes to dengue virus



Mosquitoes are hematophagous vectors that can acquire human viruses in their intestinal tract. Here, we define a mosquito gut commensal bacterium that promotes permissiveness to arboviruses. Antibiotic depletion of gut bacteria impaired arboviral infection of a lab-adapted Aedes aegypti mosquito strain. Reconstitution of individual cultivable gut bacteria in antibiotic-treated mosquitoes identified Serratia marcescens as a commensal bacterium critical for efficient arboviral acquisition.S. marcescens facilitates arboviral infection through a secreted protein named SmEnhancin, which digests membrane-bound mucins on the mosquito gut epithelia, thereby enhancing viral dissemination. Field Aedes mosquitoes positive forS. marcescens were more permissive to dengue virus infection than those free of S. marcescens. Oral introduction ofS. marcescens into field mosquitoes that lack this bacterium rendered these mosquitoes highly susceptible to arboviruses. This study defines a commensal-driven mechanism that contributes to vector competence, and extends our understanding of multipartite interactions among hosts, the gut microbiome, and viruses.

Keywords: mosquito – microbiota  – arbovirus – Serratia marcescens – Enhancin

Keywords: Arbovirus; Mosquitoes; Aedes spp.; Serratia marcescens.


#Construction sites in #Miami-Dade County, #Florida are highly favorable #environments for vector #mosquitoes (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

PLoS One. 2018 Dec 20;13(12):e0209625. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0209625. eCollection 2018.

Construction sites in Miami-Dade County, Florida are highly favorable environments for vector mosquitoes.

Wilke ABB1, Vasquez C2, Petrie W2, Caban-Martinez AJ1, Beier JC1.

Author information: 1 Department of Public Health Sciences, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, United States of America. 2 Miami-Dade County Mosquito Control Division, Miami, FL, United States of America.



Urbanization is increasing globally, and construction sites are an integral part of the urbanization process. It is unknown to what extent construction sites create favorable breeding conditions for mosquitoes. The main objectives of the present study were to identify what species of mosquitoes are present at construction sites and the respective physical features associated with their production. Eleven construction sites were cross-sectionally surveyed for the presence of mosquitoes in Miami-Dade County, Florida including in areas previously affected by the Zika virus outbreak in 2016. A total of 3.351 mosquitoes were collected; 2.680 adults and 671 immatures. Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus comprised 95% of all collected mosquitoes and were the only species found in their immature forms breeding inside construction sites. Results for the Shannon and Simpson indices, considering both immature and adult specimens, yielded the highest values for Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti. The individual rarefaction curves indicated that sampling sufficiency was highly asymptotic for Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, and the plots of cumulative species abundance (ln S), Shannon index (H) and log evenness (ln E) (SHE) revealed the lack of heterogeneity of species composition, diversity and evenness for the mosquitoes found breeding in construction sites. The most productive construction site breeding features were elevator shafts, Jersey plastic barriers, flooded floors and stair shafts. The findings of this study indicate that vector mosquitoes breed in high numbers at construction sites and display reduced biodiversity comprising almost exclusively Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Such findings suggest that early phase construction sites have suitable conditions for the proliferation of vector mosquitoes. More studies are needed to identify modifiable worker- and organizational-level factors to improve mosquito control practices and guide future mosquito control strategies in urban environments.

PMID: 30571764 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0209625

Keywords: Mosquitoes; Aedes spp.; Culex spp.; Aedes aegypti; Culex quinquefasciatus; USA; Florida.


#Sequential #Infection of #Aedes aegypti #Mosquitoes with #Chikungunya Virus and #Zika Virus Enhances Early Zika Virus Transmission (Insects, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Insects. 2018 Dec 1;9(4). pii: E177. doi: 10.3390/insects9040177.

Sequential Infection of Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes with Chikungunya Virus and Zika Virus Enhances Early Zika Virus Transmission.

Magalhaes T1, Robison A2, Young MC3, Black WC 4th4, Foy BD5, Ebel GD6, Rückert C7.

Author information: 1 Arthropod-borne and Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. Tereza.Magalhaes@colostate.edu. 2 Arthropod-borne and Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. lexir5394@gmail.com. 3 Arthropod-borne and Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. emceeyoung@gmail.com. 4 Arthropod-borne and Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. William.Black@colostate.edu. 5 Arthropod-borne and Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. Brian.Foy@colostate.edu. 6 Arthropod-borne and Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. Gregory.Ebel@colostate.edu. 7 Arthropod-borne and Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. Claudia.Rueckert@Colostate.edu.



In urban settings, chikungunya, Zika, and dengue viruses are transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Since these viruses co-circulate in several regions, coinfection in humans and vectors may occur, and human coinfections have been frequently reported. Yet, little is known about the molecular aspects of virus interactions within hosts and how they contribute to arbovirus transmission dynamics. We have previously shown that Aedes aegypti exposed to chikungunya and Zika viruses in the same blood meal can become coinfected and transmit both viruses simultaneously. However, mosquitoes may also become coinfected by multiple, sequential feeds on single infected hosts. Therefore, we tested whether sequential infection with chikungunya and Zika viruses impacts mosquito vector competence. We exposed Ae. aegypti mosquitoes first to one virus and 7 days later to the other virus and compared infection, dissemination, and transmission rates between sequentially and single infected groups. We found that coinfection rates were high after sequential exposure and that mosquitoes were able to co-transmit both viruses. Surprisingly, chikungunya virus coinfection enhanced Zika virus transmission 7 days after the second blood meal. Our data demonstrate heterologous arbovirus synergism within mosquitoes, by unknown mechanisms, leading to enhancement of transmission under certain conditions.

KEYWORDS: Zika; arboviruses; chikungunya; coinfection; mosquitoes; sequential infection

PMID: 30513725 DOI: 10.3390/insects9040177

Keywords: Arbovirus; Chikungunya fever; Zika Virus; Dengue fever; Mosquitoes; Aedes spp.; Aedes aegypti.


Integrated #Aedes #management for the control of Aedes-borne #diseases (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]


Integrated Aedes management for the control of Aedes-borne diseases

David Roiz , Anne L. Wilson, Thomas W. Scott, Dina M. Fonseca, Frédéric Jourdain, Pie Müller, Raman Velayudhan, Vincent Corbel

Published: December 6, 2018 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006845




Diseases caused by Aedes-borne viruses, such as dengue, Zika, chikungunya, and yellow fever, are emerging and reemerging globally. The causes are multifactorial and include global trade, international travel, urbanisation, water storage practices, lack of resources for intervention, and an inadequate evidence base for the public health impact of Aedes control tools. National authorities need comprehensive evidence-based guidance on how and when to implement Aedes control measures tailored to local entomological and epidemiological conditions.

Methods and findings

This review is one of a series being conducted by the Worldwide Insecticide resistance Network (WIN). It describes a framework for implementing Integrated Aedes Management (IAM) to improve control of diseases caused by Aedes-borne viruses based on available evidence. IAM consists of a portfolio of operational actions and priorities for the control of Aedes-borne viruses that are tailored to different epidemiological and entomological risk scenarios. The framework has 4 activity pillars: (i) integrated vector and disease surveillance, (ii) vector control, (iii) community mobilisation, and (iv) intra- and intersectoral collaboration as well as 4 supporting activities: (i) capacity building, (ii) research, (iii) advocacy, and (iv) policies and laws.


IAM supports implementation of the World Health Organisation Global Vector Control Response (WHO GVCR) and provides a comprehensive framework for health authorities to devise and deliver sustainable, effective, integrated, community-based, locally adapted vector control strategies in order to reduce the burden of Aedes-transmitted arboviruses. The success of IAM requires strong commitment and leadership from governments to maintain proactive disease prevention programs and preparedness for rapid responses to outbreaks.


Author summary

Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus are mosquito species that thrive in towns and cities and can transmit viruses to humans that cause diseases, such as dengue, Zika, chikungunya, and yellow fever. The geographic range of human infection with these viruses is rapidly expanding globally. Even when preventative or therapeutic treatments are available to fight these diseases, controlling the mosquito vector will remain an important control option. We therefore developed a framework called IAM that offers decision-making guidance based on available evidence of effective control of Aedes at different levels of infestation and virus transmission risk. Our work aims to strengthen the capacity of countries at risk of and/or affected by these diseases and vectors so they will be better prepared for existing and emerging Aedes-borne disease threats.


Citation: Roiz D, Wilson AL, Scott TW, Fonseca DM, Jourdain F, Müller P, et al. (2018) Integrated Aedes management for the control of Aedes-borne diseases. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 12(12): e0006845. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006845

Editor: Olaf Horstick, University of Heidelberg, GERMANY

Published: December 6, 2018

Copyright: © 2018 Roiz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Funding: This review was funded by an award to VC and the WIN network from the World Health Organization’s Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (http://www.who.int/tdr/). DR was partially supported by the ANR grant INVACOST. The funders had no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, nor the writing of the manuscript, nor the decision to publish.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Arbovirus; Mosquitoes; Aedes spp.


#Genomic and #epidemiological #monitoring of #yellowfever virus #transmission #potential (Science, abstract)

[Source: Science, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Genomic and epidemiological monitoring of yellow fever virus transmission potential

N. R. Faria1,*,†, M. U. G. Kraemer1,2,3,*, S. C. Hill1,*, J. Goes de Jesus4,*, R. S. Aguiar5,*, F. C. M. Iani6,7,*, J. Xavier4, J. Quick8, L. du Plessis1, S. Dellicour9, J. Thézé1, R. D. O. Carvalho7, G. Baele9, C.-H. Wu10, P. P. Silveira5, M. B. Arruda5, M. A. Pereira6, G. C. Pereira6, J. Lourenço1, U. Obolski1, L. Abade1,11, T. I. Vasylyeva1, M. Giovanetti4,7, D. Yi12, D. J. Weiss13, G. R. W. Wint1, F. M. Shearer13, S. Funk14, B. Nikolay15,16, V. Fonseca7,17, T. E. R. Adelino6, M. A. A. Oliveira6, M. V. F. Silva6, L. Sacchetto7, P. O. Figueiredo7, I. M. Rezende7, E. M. Mello7, R. F. C. Said18, D. A. Santos18, M. L. Ferraz18, M. G. Brito18, L. F. Santana18, M. T. Menezes5, R. M. Brindeiro5, A. Tanuri5, F. C. P. dos Santos19, M. S. Cunha19, J. S. Nogueira19, I. M. Rocco19, A. C. da Costa20, S. C. V. Komninakis21,22, V. Azevedo7, A. O. Chieppe23, E. S. M. Araujo4, M. C. L. Mendonça4, C. C. dos Santos4, C. D. dos Santos4, A. M. Mares-Guia4, R. M. R. Nogueira4, P. C. Sequeira4, R. G. Abreu24, M. H. O. Garcia24, A. L. Abreu25, O. Okumoto25, E. G. Kroon7, C. F. C. de Albuquerque26, K. Lewandowski27, S. T. Pullan27, M. Carroll28, T. de Oliveira4,17,29, E. C. Sabino20, R. P. Souza19, M. A. Suchard30,31, P. Lemey9, G. S. Trindade7, B. P. Drumond7, A. M. B. Filippis4, N. J. Loman8, S. Cauchemez15,16,*, L. C. J. Alcantara4,7,*,†, O. G. Pybus1,*,†

1 Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. 2 Computational Epidemiology Lab, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. 3 Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. 4 Laboratório de Flavivírus, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 5 Laboratório de Virologia Molecular, Departamento de Genética, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 6 Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública, Instituto Octávio Magalhães, FUNED, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. 7 Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. 8 Institute of Microbiology and Infection, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK. 9 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. 10 Department of Statistics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. 11 The Global Health Network, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. 12 Department of Statistics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA. 13 Malaria Atlas Project, Big Data Institute, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. 14 Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK. 15 Mathematical Modelling of Infectious Diseases and Center of Bioinformatics, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France. 16 CNRS UMR2000: Génomique Évolutive, Modélisation et Santé, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France. 17 KwaZulu-Natal Research, Innovation and Sequencing Platform (KRISP), School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. 18 Secretaria de Estado de Saúde de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. 19 Núcleo de Doenças de Transmissão Vetorial, Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, Brazil. 20 Instituto de Medicina Tropical e Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. 21 Retrovirology Laboratory, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. 22 School of Medicine of ABC (FMABC), Clinical Immunology Laboratory, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil. 23 Coordenação de Vigilância Epidemiológica do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 24 Departamento de Vigilância das Doenças Transmissíveis da Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde, Ministério da Saúde, Brasília-DF, Brazil. 25 Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde, Coordenação Geral de Laboratórios de Saúde Pública, Ministério da Saúde, Brasília-DF, Brazil. 26 Organização Pan – Americana da Saúde/Organização Mundial da Saúde – (OPAS/OMS), Brasília-DF, Brazil. 27 Public Health England, National Infections Service, Porton Down, Salisbury, UK. 28 NIHR HPRU in Emerging and Zoonotic Infections, Public Health England, London, UK. 29 Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), Durban, South Africa. 30 Department of Biostatistics, UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. 31 Department of Biomathematics and Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

†Corresponding author. Email: nuno.faria@zoo.ox.ac.uk (N.R.F.); luiz.alcantara@ioc.fiocruz.br (L.C.J.A.); oliver.pybus@zoo.ox.ac.uk (O.G.P.)

* These authors contributed equally to this work.

Science  31 Aug 2018: Vol. 361, Issue 6405, pp. 894-899 / DOI: 10.1126/science.aat7115


Arbovirus risk in Brazil

Despite the existence of an effective vaccine for yellow fever, there are still almost 80,000 fatalities from this infection each year. Since 2016, there has been a resurgence of cases in Africa and South America—and this at a time when the vaccine is in short supply. The worry is that yellow fever will spread from the forests to the cities, because its vector, Aedes spp. mosquitoes, are globally ubiquitous. Faria et al. integrate genomic, epidemiological, and case distribution data from Brazil to estimate patterns of geographic spread, the risks of virus exposure, and the contributions of rural versus urban transmission (see the Perspective by Barrett). Currently, the yellow fever epidemic in Brazil seems to be driven by infections acquired while visiting forested areas and indicates spillover from susceptible wild primates.

Science, this issue p. 894; see also p. 847



The yellow fever virus (YFV) epidemic in Brazil is the largest in decades. The recent discovery of YFV in Brazilian Aedes species mosquitos highlights a need to monitor the risk of reestablishment of urban YFV transmission in the Americas. We use a suite of epidemiological, spatial, and genomic approaches to characterize YFV transmission. We show that the age and sex distribution of human cases is characteristic of sylvatic transmission. Analysis of YFV cases combined with genomes generated locally reveals an early phase of sylvatic YFV transmission and spatial expansion toward previously YFV-free areas, followed by a rise in viral spillover to humans in late 2016. Our results establish a framework for monitoring YFV transmission in real time that will contribute to a global strategy to eliminate future YFV epidemics.

Keywords: Yellow Fever; Aedes spp.; Brazil; Flavivirus; Wildlife; Human.


In-depth molecular analysis of a small cohort of #human and #Aedes #mosquito (adults and larvae) samples from #Kolkata revealed absence of #Zika but high prevalence of #dengue virus (J Med Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Med Microbiol. 2018 Jun 13. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.000769. [Epub ahead of print]

In-depth molecular analysis of a small cohort of human and Aedes mosquito (adults and larvae) samples from Kolkata revealed absence of Zika but high prevalence of dengue virus.

Sukla S1, Ghosh A1, Saha R2, De A3, Adhya S1, Biswas S1.

Author information: 1 ​CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, 4, Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032, West Bengal, India. 2 ​Department of Microbiology, Calcutta National Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata 700014, West Bengal, India. 3 ​Department of Dermatology, Calcutta National Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata 700014, West Bengal, India.




Zika virus infections have recently been reported in many dengue-endemic areas globally. Both dengue (DENV) and Zika (ZIKV) virus are transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, raising the possibility of mixed infections in both vector and host. We evaluated DENV and ZIKV prevalence in human and vector samples in Kolkata, a DENV-endemic city.


Blood samples were collected from 70 patients presenting dengue-like fever symptoms at a hospital in Kolkata during 2015-16. Serum was obtained and tested for DENV infection by DENV NS1-based ELISA. Adult (n=8) and larval stages (n=12) of Aedes were also collected. A RT-PCR-based screening of both viruses supplemented by amplicon sequencing was performed.


Of the 70 samples, 20 DENV NS1-positive serum samples were used for detailed molecular study for DENV infection. Eighteen of these (90 %) were positive by hemi-nested serotype-specific RT-PCR for DENV1/2/3, with four samples showing evidence of DENV2-3 or DENV1-3 mixed infection. None were ZIKV-positive using NS5 or ENV-based PCR, though weak amplification of a DENV1 NS5 sequence was detected in three serum samples indicating cross-reactivity of the primers. All mosquito samples were ZIKV-negative, whereas 5/8 (63 %) of adult mosquitoes and 11/12 (92 %) of larvae were DENV3-positive.


Both host and vector samples showed absence of ZIKV but high prevalence of DENV. The high rate of infection of larvae with DENV is suggestive of trans-ovarial transmission that could contribute to the surge of human infections during each post-monsoon season. It would be important to guard against false positives using the available Zika-reporting primer sets.

PMID: 29897327 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.000769

Keywords: Flavivirus; Mosquitoes; Human; India; Dengue Fever; Zika Virus; Aedes spp.