Emergence of #Zika Virus in #Culex tritaeniorhynchus and #Anopheles sinensis #Mosquitoes in #China (Virol Sin., abstract)

[Source: Virologica Sinica, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Emergence of Zika Virus in Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Anopheles sinensis Mosquitoes in China

Jing Wang,  Hongbin Xu, Song Song, Rui Cheng, Na Fan, Shihong Fu, Shaozai Zhang, Ziqian Xu, Ying He, Wenwen Lei, Fan Li, Huanyu Wang, Xiaoqing Lu & Guodong Liang

Virologica Sinica (2020)



Zika virus (ZIKV) has been isolated from mosquitoes such as Aedes, Mansonia uniformis, and Culex perfuscus; However, the isolation of ZIKV from Anopheles sinensis and Culex tritaeniorhynchus has not yet been reported. In June and July 2018, 22,985 mosquitoes and 57,500 midges were collected in Jiangxi Province in southeastern China. Among them, six strains of ZIKV were isolated from mosquitoes: four from An. sinensis and two from Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. Molecular genetic analysis showed that the ZIKV isolated from An. sinensis and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus belonged to genotype 2 in the Asian evolutionary branch of ZIKV. In addition, the ZIKV strains isolated from An. sinensis and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus had amino acid substitutions identical to ZIKV strains prevalent in South America since 2015. This study is the first to isolate ZIKV from mosquito specimens collected in the wild of Jiangxi Province, China; This is also the first time that ZIKV has been isolated from An. sinensis and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. Given that An. sinensis and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus have a very wide geographical distribution in China and even in eastern and southern Asia, the isolation of several strains of ZIKV from these two mosquitoes poses new challenges for the prevention and control of ZIKV infection in the mainland of China and countries and regions with the same distribution of mosquitoes.

Keywords: Zika Virus; Mosquitoes; China; Jiangxi; Aedes spp.; Culex spp.


#SARS-CoV-2 Does Not Replicate in #Aedes #Mosquito #Cells nor Present in #Field-Caught Mosquitoes from #Wuhan (Virol Sin., summary)

[Source: Virologica Sinica, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

SARS-CoV-2 Does Not Replicate in Aedes Mosquito Cells nor Present in Field-Caught Mosquitoes from Wuhan

Han Xia, Evans Atoni, Lu Zhao, Nanjie Ren, Doudou Huang, Rongjuan Pei, Zhen Chen, Jin Xiong, Raphael Nyaruaba, Shuqi Xiao, Bo Zhang & Zhiming Yuan

Virologica Sinica (2020)


Dear Editor, Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiologic agent of COVID-19, is an enveloped, positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that first discovered in December 2019 from a seafood market in Wuhan, China (Zhou et al. 2020). This novel coronavirus causes severe respiratory illness in humans, and a pandemic has been declared due to its worldwide spread.


Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Aedes spp.; Mosquitoes.


#Surveillance for #Zika in #Mexico: naturally infected #mosquitoes in #urban and semi-urban areas (Pathog Glob Health, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Pathog Glob Health. 2020 Jan 5:1-6. doi: 10.1080/20477724.2019.1706291. [Epub ahead of print]

Surveillance for Zika in Mexico: naturally infected mosquitoes in urban and semi-urban areas.

Correa-Morales F1, González-Acosta C2, Mejía-Zúñiga D3, Huerta H4, Pérez-Rentería C4, Vazquez-Pichardo M4, Ortega-Morales AI5, Hernández-Triana LM6, Salazar-Bueyes VM1, Moreno-García M7.

Author information: 1 Subdirección del Programa de Enfermedades Transmitidas por Vectores, Centro Nacional de Programas Preventivos y Control de Enfermedades, Ciudad de México, México. 2 Coordinación de Enfermedades Transmitidas por Vector y Zoonosis, Servicios de Salud de Morelos, Cuernavaca, México. 3 Unidad de Investigación Entomológica y Bioensayos-Servicios de Salud de Chihuahua, Chihuahua, México. 4 Laboratorio de Entomología, Instituto de Diagnóstico y Referencia Epidemiológicos ‘Dr. Manuel Martínez Báez’, Ciudad de México, México. 5 Departamento de Parasitología, Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro Unidad Laguna, Torreón, México. 6 Animal and Plant Health Agency, Virology Department, Wildlife Zoonoses and Vector-Borne Diseases Research Group, Addlestone, UK. 7 Unidad de Investigación Entomológica y Bioensayos-Centro Regional de Control de Vectores Panchimalco-Servicios de Salud de Morelos, Jojutla, México.



Zika cases have been reported in 29 out of the 32 states of Mexico. Information regarding which mosquito species might be driving Zika virus transmission/maintenance in nature must be regularly updated. From January 2017 to November 2018, mosquitoes were collected indoors and outdoors using the CDC backpack aspirator in urban and semi-urban areas with evidence of mosquito-borne disease transmission. 3873 mosquito pools were tested for Zika infection using the CDC Trioplex real-time RT-PCR. For each collected specie, maximum likelihood estimator of infection rate (MLE) was estimated. Results showed 492 mosquito pools positive for Zika virus RNA. The majority of the positive pools were Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus) (54.6%, MLE = 19) (males and females) and Culex (Culex) quinquefasciatus (Say) (19.5%, MLE = 16.8). For the first time, ZIKV infection was detected in Ae. (Georgecraigius) epactius (Dyar and Knab) (MLE = 17.1), Cx. (Melanoconion) erraticus (Dyar and Knab) (MLE = non-estimable), Culiseta (Culiseta) inornata (Williston) (MLE = non estimable), and Cs (Cs.) particeps (Adams) (MLE = 369.5). Other detected species were: Ae. (Stg.) albopictus (Skuse) (MLE = 90.5), Cx. (Cx.) coronator s.l. (Dyar and Knab) (MLE = 102.8) and Cx. (Cx.) tarsalis (Coquillett) (MLE = 117.2). However, our results do not allow for the incrimination of these species as vectors of ZIKV. Routine surveillance should start to consider other mosquito species across the taxonomic spectrum of the Culicidae.

KEYWORDS: Arbovirus; Culicidae; mosquito-borne diseases; vector control

PMID: 31902313 DOI: 10.1080/20477724.2019.1706291

Keywords: Zika Virus; Mosquitoes; Aedes spp.; Mexico.


#Entomological Data and #Detection of #WNV in #Mosquitoes in #Greece (2014–2016), Before Disease Re-Emergence in 2017 (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Entomological Data and Detection of West Nile Virus in Mosquitoes in Greece (2014–2016), Before Disease Re-Emergence in 2017

Eleni Patsoula, Stavroula Beleri, Nikolaos Tegos, Rima Mkrtsian, Annita Vakali, and Danai Pervanidou

Published Online: 11 Nov 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2018.2422



West Nile virus (WNV) cases were seasonally recorded in humans and animals in Greece, from 2010 to 2014, and circulation of the virus was detected in different Regional Units of the country. Small scale entomological surveillance activities were carried out by several regions and regional units in Greece, during 2014–2016, with the participation of subcontractors for the vector control programs aiming to record presence/absence of mosquito species, and monitor and control mosquito populations. Mosquito traps were placed in rural and urban sites; specimens were collected, morphologically characterized, and pooled by date of collection, location, and species types. Mosquito pools containing Culex pipiens, Aedes caspius, and Aedes albopictus were examined for the presence of WNV and positive pools were detected in different areas of the country. Sequencing of a selected number of amplicons revealed WNV lineage 2 partial NS5 gene sequences. In this study, we present data on the mosquito species composition in the areas of study and WNV detection from several parts of Greece, in 6, 11, and 26 mosquito pools corresponding to the years 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively. A total of 15 WNV human infections were reported to the public health authorities of the country in 2014, whereas no human cases were detected for 2015–2016. Taking into consideration the complex epidemiological profile of WNV and unforeseen changes in its circulation, re-emergence of WNV human cases in Greece was possible and expected, thus rendering surveillance activities imperative.

Keywords: West Nile Virus; Mosquitoes; Aedes spp.; Culex spp.; Greece.


#Epidemiologic, #Entomologic, and #Virologic Factors of the 2014–15 #RossRiver Virus #Outbreak, #Queensland, #Australia (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 12—December 2019 / Research

Epidemiologic, Entomologic, and Virologic Factors of the 2014–15 Ross River Virus Outbreak, Queensland, Australia

Cassie C. Jansen, Martin A. Shivas, Fiona J. May, Alyssa T. Pyke, Michael B. Onn, Kerryn Lodo, Sonja Hall-Mendelin, Jamie L. McMahon, Brian L. Montgomery, Jonathan M. Darbro, Stephen L. Doggett, and Andrew F. van den Hurk

Author affiliations: Communicable Diseases Branch, Queensland Government Department of Health, Herston, Queensland, Australia (C.C. Jansen, K. Lodo); Brisbane City Council, Fortitude Valley, Queensland, Australia (M.A. Shivas, M.B. Onn); Metro North Hospital and Health Service, Windsor, Queensland, Australia (F.J. May); Forensic and Scientific Services, Queensland Government Department of Health, Coopers Plains, Queensland, Australia (A.T. Pyke, S. Hall-Mendelin, J.L. McMahon, A.F. van den Hurk); Metro South Hospital and Health Service, Coopers Plains (B.L. Montgomery); Queensland Institute of Medical Research Berghofer, Herston (J.M. Darbro); University of Sydney and Westmead Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (S.L. Doggett)



Australia experienced its largest recorded outbreak of Ross River virus (RRV) during the 2014–15 reporting year, comprising >10,000 reported cases. We investigated epidemiologic, entomologic, and virologic factors that potentially contributed to the scale of the outbreak in Queensland, the state with the highest number of notifications (6,371). Spatial analysis of human cases showed that notifications were geographically widespread. In Brisbane, human case notifications and virus detections in mosquitoes occurred across inland and coastal locations. Viral sequence data demonstrated 2 RRV lineages (northeastern genotypes I and II) were circulating, and a new strain containing 3 unique amino acid changes in the envelope 2 protein was identified. Longitudinal mosquito collections demonstrated unusually high relative abundance of Culex annulirostris and Aedes procax mosquitoes, attributable to extensive freshwater larval habitats caused by early and persistent rainfall during the reporting year. Increased prevalence of these mosquitoes probably contributed to the scale of this outbreak.

Keywords: Ross River Virus; Mosquitoes; Culex spp.; Aedes spp.; Queensland; Australia.


RNAi-based #bioinsecticide for #Aedes #mosquito #control (Sci Rep., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Sci Rep. 2019 Mar 11;9(1):4038. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-39666-5.

RNAi-based bioinsecticide for Aedes mosquito control.

Lopez SBG1, Guimarães-Ribeiro V1, Rodriguez JVG1, Dorand FAPS1, Salles TS1, Sá-Guimarães TE1, Alvarenga ESL1, Melo ACA1,2, Almeida RV1, Moreira MF3,4.

Author information: 1 Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, 21941-909, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. 2 Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em Entomologia Molecular, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. 3 Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, 21941-909, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. monica@iq.ufrj.br. 4 Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em Entomologia Molecular, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. monica@iq.ufrj.br.



Zika virus infection and dengue and chikungunya fevers are emerging viral diseases that have become public health threats. Their aetiologic agents are transmitted by the bite of genus Aedes mosquitoes. Without effective therapies or vaccines, vector control is the main strategy for preventing the spread of these diseases. Increased insecticide resistance calls for biorational actions focused on control of the target vector population. The chitin required for larval survival structures is a good target for biorational control. Chitin synthases A and B (CHS) are enzymes in the chitin synthesis pathway. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated gene silencing (RNAi) achieves specific knockdown of target proteins. Our goal in this work, a new proposed RNAi-based bioinsecticide, was developed as a potential strategy for mosquito population control. DsRNA molecules that target five different regions in the CHSA and B transcript sequences were produced in vitro and in vivo through expression in E. coli HT115 and tested by direct addition to larval breeding water. Mature and immature larvae treated with dsRNA targeting CHS catalytic sites showed significantly decreased viability associated with a reduction in CHS transcript levels. The few larval and adult survivors displayed an altered morphology and chitin content. In association with diflubenzuron, this bioinsecticide exhibited insecticidal adjuvant properties.

PMID: 30858430 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-39666-5

Keywords: Arbovirus; Mosquitoes; Aedes spp.; Insecticides.


A #Gut #Commensal Bacterium Promotes #Mosquito Permissiveness to #Arboviruses (Cell Host Microbe, abstract)

[Source: Cell Host & Microbe, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

A Gut Commensal Bacterium Promotes Mosquito Permissiveness to Arboviruses

Pa Wu, Peng Sun, Kaixiao Nie, Yibin Zhu, Mingyu Shi, Changguang Xiao, Han Liu, Qiyong Liu, Tongyan Zhao, Xiaoguang Chen, Hongning Zhou, Penghua Wang, Gong Cheng 9

Published: December 27, 2018 / DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2018.11.004



  • The gut commensal Serratia marcescens promotes mosquito permissiveness to arboviruses
  • S. marcescens facilitates arboviral infection via a secreted protein named SmEnhancin
  • SmEnhancin digests gut membrane-bound mucins to enhance viral dissemination in mosquitoes
  • S. marcescens enhances the susceptibility of field mosquitoes to dengue virus



Mosquitoes are hematophagous vectors that can acquire human viruses in their intestinal tract. Here, we define a mosquito gut commensal bacterium that promotes permissiveness to arboviruses. Antibiotic depletion of gut bacteria impaired arboviral infection of a lab-adapted Aedes aegypti mosquito strain. Reconstitution of individual cultivable gut bacteria in antibiotic-treated mosquitoes identified Serratia marcescens as a commensal bacterium critical for efficient arboviral acquisition.S. marcescens facilitates arboviral infection through a secreted protein named SmEnhancin, which digests membrane-bound mucins on the mosquito gut epithelia, thereby enhancing viral dissemination. Field Aedes mosquitoes positive forS. marcescens were more permissive to dengue virus infection than those free of S. marcescens. Oral introduction ofS. marcescens into field mosquitoes that lack this bacterium rendered these mosquitoes highly susceptible to arboviruses. This study defines a commensal-driven mechanism that contributes to vector competence, and extends our understanding of multipartite interactions among hosts, the gut microbiome, and viruses.

Keywords: mosquito – microbiota  – arbovirus – Serratia marcescens – Enhancin

Keywords: Arbovirus; Mosquitoes; Aedes spp.; Serratia marcescens.


#Construction sites in #Miami-Dade County, #Florida are highly favorable #environments for vector #mosquitoes (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

PLoS One. 2018 Dec 20;13(12):e0209625. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0209625. eCollection 2018.

Construction sites in Miami-Dade County, Florida are highly favorable environments for vector mosquitoes.

Wilke ABB1, Vasquez C2, Petrie W2, Caban-Martinez AJ1, Beier JC1.

Author information: 1 Department of Public Health Sciences, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, United States of America. 2 Miami-Dade County Mosquito Control Division, Miami, FL, United States of America.



Urbanization is increasing globally, and construction sites are an integral part of the urbanization process. It is unknown to what extent construction sites create favorable breeding conditions for mosquitoes. The main objectives of the present study were to identify what species of mosquitoes are present at construction sites and the respective physical features associated with their production. Eleven construction sites were cross-sectionally surveyed for the presence of mosquitoes in Miami-Dade County, Florida including in areas previously affected by the Zika virus outbreak in 2016. A total of 3.351 mosquitoes were collected; 2.680 adults and 671 immatures. Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus comprised 95% of all collected mosquitoes and were the only species found in their immature forms breeding inside construction sites. Results for the Shannon and Simpson indices, considering both immature and adult specimens, yielded the highest values for Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti. The individual rarefaction curves indicated that sampling sufficiency was highly asymptotic for Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, and the plots of cumulative species abundance (ln S), Shannon index (H) and log evenness (ln E) (SHE) revealed the lack of heterogeneity of species composition, diversity and evenness for the mosquitoes found breeding in construction sites. The most productive construction site breeding features were elevator shafts, Jersey plastic barriers, flooded floors and stair shafts. The findings of this study indicate that vector mosquitoes breed in high numbers at construction sites and display reduced biodiversity comprising almost exclusively Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Such findings suggest that early phase construction sites have suitable conditions for the proliferation of vector mosquitoes. More studies are needed to identify modifiable worker- and organizational-level factors to improve mosquito control practices and guide future mosquito control strategies in urban environments.

PMID: 30571764 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0209625

Keywords: Mosquitoes; Aedes spp.; Culex spp.; Aedes aegypti; Culex quinquefasciatus; USA; Florida.


#Sequential #Infection of #Aedes aegypti #Mosquitoes with #Chikungunya Virus and #Zika Virus Enhances Early Zika Virus Transmission (Insects, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Insects. 2018 Dec 1;9(4). pii: E177. doi: 10.3390/insects9040177.

Sequential Infection of Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes with Chikungunya Virus and Zika Virus Enhances Early Zika Virus Transmission.

Magalhaes T1, Robison A2, Young MC3, Black WC 4th4, Foy BD5, Ebel GD6, Rückert C7.

Author information: 1 Arthropod-borne and Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. Tereza.Magalhaes@colostate.edu. 2 Arthropod-borne and Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. lexir5394@gmail.com. 3 Arthropod-borne and Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. emceeyoung@gmail.com. 4 Arthropod-borne and Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. William.Black@colostate.edu. 5 Arthropod-borne and Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. Brian.Foy@colostate.edu. 6 Arthropod-borne and Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. Gregory.Ebel@colostate.edu. 7 Arthropod-borne and Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. Claudia.Rueckert@Colostate.edu.



In urban settings, chikungunya, Zika, and dengue viruses are transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Since these viruses co-circulate in several regions, coinfection in humans and vectors may occur, and human coinfections have been frequently reported. Yet, little is known about the molecular aspects of virus interactions within hosts and how they contribute to arbovirus transmission dynamics. We have previously shown that Aedes aegypti exposed to chikungunya and Zika viruses in the same blood meal can become coinfected and transmit both viruses simultaneously. However, mosquitoes may also become coinfected by multiple, sequential feeds on single infected hosts. Therefore, we tested whether sequential infection with chikungunya and Zika viruses impacts mosquito vector competence. We exposed Ae. aegypti mosquitoes first to one virus and 7 days later to the other virus and compared infection, dissemination, and transmission rates between sequentially and single infected groups. We found that coinfection rates were high after sequential exposure and that mosquitoes were able to co-transmit both viruses. Surprisingly, chikungunya virus coinfection enhanced Zika virus transmission 7 days after the second blood meal. Our data demonstrate heterologous arbovirus synergism within mosquitoes, by unknown mechanisms, leading to enhancement of transmission under certain conditions.

KEYWORDS: Zika; arboviruses; chikungunya; coinfection; mosquitoes; sequential infection

PMID: 30513725 DOI: 10.3390/insects9040177

Keywords: Arbovirus; Chikungunya fever; Zika Virus; Dengue fever; Mosquitoes; Aedes spp.; Aedes aegypti.


Integrated #Aedes #management for the control of Aedes-borne #diseases (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]


Integrated Aedes management for the control of Aedes-borne diseases

David Roiz , Anne L. Wilson, Thomas W. Scott, Dina M. Fonseca, Frédéric Jourdain, Pie Müller, Raman Velayudhan, Vincent Corbel

Published: December 6, 2018 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006845




Diseases caused by Aedes-borne viruses, such as dengue, Zika, chikungunya, and yellow fever, are emerging and reemerging globally. The causes are multifactorial and include global trade, international travel, urbanisation, water storage practices, lack of resources for intervention, and an inadequate evidence base for the public health impact of Aedes control tools. National authorities need comprehensive evidence-based guidance on how and when to implement Aedes control measures tailored to local entomological and epidemiological conditions.

Methods and findings

This review is one of a series being conducted by the Worldwide Insecticide resistance Network (WIN). It describes a framework for implementing Integrated Aedes Management (IAM) to improve control of diseases caused by Aedes-borne viruses based on available evidence. IAM consists of a portfolio of operational actions and priorities for the control of Aedes-borne viruses that are tailored to different epidemiological and entomological risk scenarios. The framework has 4 activity pillars: (i) integrated vector and disease surveillance, (ii) vector control, (iii) community mobilisation, and (iv) intra- and intersectoral collaboration as well as 4 supporting activities: (i) capacity building, (ii) research, (iii) advocacy, and (iv) policies and laws.


IAM supports implementation of the World Health Organisation Global Vector Control Response (WHO GVCR) and provides a comprehensive framework for health authorities to devise and deliver sustainable, effective, integrated, community-based, locally adapted vector control strategies in order to reduce the burden of Aedes-transmitted arboviruses. The success of IAM requires strong commitment and leadership from governments to maintain proactive disease prevention programs and preparedness for rapid responses to outbreaks.


Author summary

Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus are mosquito species that thrive in towns and cities and can transmit viruses to humans that cause diseases, such as dengue, Zika, chikungunya, and yellow fever. The geographic range of human infection with these viruses is rapidly expanding globally. Even when preventative or therapeutic treatments are available to fight these diseases, controlling the mosquito vector will remain an important control option. We therefore developed a framework called IAM that offers decision-making guidance based on available evidence of effective control of Aedes at different levels of infestation and virus transmission risk. Our work aims to strengthen the capacity of countries at risk of and/or affected by these diseases and vectors so they will be better prepared for existing and emerging Aedes-borne disease threats.


Citation: Roiz D, Wilson AL, Scott TW, Fonseca DM, Jourdain F, Müller P, et al. (2018) Integrated Aedes management for the control of Aedes-borne diseases. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 12(12): e0006845. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006845

Editor: Olaf Horstick, University of Heidelberg, GERMANY

Published: December 6, 2018

Copyright: © 2018 Roiz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Funding: This review was funded by an award to VC and the WIN network from the World Health Organization’s Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (http://www.who.int/tdr/). DR was partially supported by the ANR grant INVACOST. The funders had no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, nor the writing of the manuscript, nor the decision to publish.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Arbovirus; Mosquitoes; Aedes spp.