#Vector #Competence and #Vertical #Transmission of #Zika Virus in #Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vector Competence and Vertical Transmission of Zika Virus in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

Xiaoxia Guo, Chunxiao Li, Yongqiang Deng, Yuting Jiang, Aijuan Sun, Qinmei Liu, Yande Dong, Dan Xing, Wuchun Cao, Chengfeng Qin, and Tongyan Zhao

Published Online: 14 Jan 2020 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2019.2492

 

Abstract

Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne pathogen belonging to the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae. Aedes albopictus is widely distributed in China. However, little is known about the vector competence of Ae. albopictus in China. The present study presents the oral susceptibility and vector competence of Ae. albopictus Guangzhou strain to ZIKV. Additionally, vertical transmission of ZIKV is described. The results demonstrated the susceptibility of local Ae. albopictus mosquitoes to ZIKV with an extrinsic incubation period of 6 days. Disseminated infection was observed in Ae. albopictus starting on day 2 postinfection (PI). Starting on day 6 PI, the saliva of Ae. albopictus exhibited ZIKV infection, and the transmission rate was 36.4%. Vertical transmission was observed during the first gonotrophic cycle. The minimum infection rate was observed in third-to-fourth instar larvae.

Keywords: Zika Virus; Mosquitoes; Aedes albopictus; China.

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#Risk of #dengue in Central #Africa: #Vector competence studies with #Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) populations and dengue 2 virus (PLOS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Risk of dengue in Central Africa: Vector competence studies with Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) populations and dengue 2 virus

Basile Kamgang , Marie Vazeille, Armel N. Tedjou, Theodel A. Wilson-Bahun, Aurélie P. Yougang, Laurence Mousson, Charles S. Wondji , Anna-Bella Failloux

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Published: December 30, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007985 / This is an uncorrected proof.

 

Abstract

Introduction

Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne diseases worldwide but was considered scarce in West-Central Africa. During the last decade, dengue outbreaks have increasingly been reported in urban foci in this region suggesting major epidemiological changes. However, in Central Africa where both vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are well established, the role of each species in dengue transmission remains poorly investigated.

Methodology/Principal findings

Field-collected strains of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus from different ecological settings in Central Africa were experimentally challenged with dengue 2 virus (DENV-2). Mosquitoes were analysed at 14- and 21-days post-infection. Analysis provide evidence that both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in Central Africa were able to transmit dengue virus with Ae. aegypti exhibiting a higher transmission rate. Unexpectedly, two Ae. aegypti populations from Bénoué and Maroua, in northern Cameroon, were not able to transmit DENV-2.

Conclusions/Significance

We conclude that both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus are susceptible to DENV-2 and may intervene as active dengue vectors. These findings highlight the urgent need to plan a vector surveillance program and control methods against dengue vectors in Central Africa in order to prevent future outbreaks.

 

Author summary

Dengue virus (DENV) is a flavivirus mainly transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes notably Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. In Central Africa where both vectors, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus are well established, the role of each species in dengue transmission remains poorly investigated. Here, we assessed the vector competence of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus collected in different ecological settings in Central Africa to transmit dengue 2 virus (DENV-2). We provide evidence that both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in Central Africa were able to transmit dengue virus with Ae. aegypti exhibiting a higher transmission rate. These findings could increase the risk of dengue outbreak in the region and emphasize the need for a comprehensive vector surveillance program to prevent and preparedness for an intervention in case of outbreaks.

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Citation: Kamgang B, Vazeille M, Tedjou AN, Wilson-Bahun TA, Yougang AP, Mousson L, et al. (2019) Risk of dengue in Central Africa: Vector competence studies with Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) populations and dengue 2 virus. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(12): e0007985. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007985

Editor: Duane J. Gubler, Duke-NUS GMS, SINGAPORE

Received: September 9, 2019; Accepted: December 10, 2019; Published: December 30, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Kamgang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript.

Funding: BK was funded by the Wellcome Trust, 204862/Z/16/Z (https://wellcome.ac.uk). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Flavivirus; Dengue fever; Africa region; Mosquitoes; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus.

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#Mosquitoes of North-Western #Europe as Potential #Vectors of #Arboviruses: A Review (Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Viruses. 2019 Nov 14;11(11). pii: E1059. doi: 10.3390/v11111059.

Mosquitoes of North-Western Europe as Potential Vectors of Arboviruses: A Review.

Martinet JP1,2, Ferté H1,3, Failloux AB2, Schaffner F4,5, Depaquit J1,3.

Author information: 1 Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, ANSES, SFR Cap Santé, EA7510 ESCAPE-USC VECPAR, 51 rue Cognacq-Jay, 51096 Reims CEDEX, France. 2 Arbovirus et Insectes Vecteurs, Département de Virologie, Institut Pasteur, 25-28 rue du docteur Roux, 75015 Paris, France. 3 Laboratoire de Parasitologie, Hôpital Maison-Blanche, CHU de Reims, 45 rue Cognacq-Jay, 51100 Reims, France. 4 National Centre for Vector Entomology, Institute of Parasitology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Rämistrasse 71, 8006 Zürich, Switzerland. 5 Francis Schaffner Consultancy, Lörracherstrasse 50, 4125 Riehen (Basel-Land), Switzerland.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The intensification of trade and travel is linked to the growing number of imported cases of dengue, chikungunya or Zika viruses into continental Europe and to the expansion of invasive mosquito species such as Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus. Local outbreaks have already occurred in several European countries. Very little information exists on the vector competence of native mosquitoes for arboviruses. As such, the vectorial status of the nine mosquito species largely established in North-Western Europe (Aedes cinereus and Aedes geminus, Aedes cantans, Aedes punctor, Aedes rusticus, Anopheles claviger s.s., Anopheles plumbeus, Coquillettidia richiardii, Culex pipiens s.l., and Culiseta annulata) remains mostly unknown.

OBJECTIVES:

To review the vector competence of both invasive and native mosquito populations found in North-Western Europe (i.e., France, Belgium, Germany, United Kingdom, Ireland, The Netherlands, Luxembourg and Switzerland) for dengue, chikungunya, Zika, West Nile and Usutu viruses.

METHODS:

A bibliographical search with research strings addressing mosquito vector competence for considered countries was performed.

RESULTS:

Out of 6357 results, 119 references were related to the vector competence of mosquitoes in Western Europe. Eight species appear to be competent for at least one virus.

CONCLUSIONS:

Aedes albopictus is responsible for the current outbreaks. The spread of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus increases the risk of the autochthonous transmission of these viruses. Although native species could contribute to their transmission, more studies are still needed to assess that risk.

KEYWORDS: Aedes; Anopheles; Culex; Culiseta; Usutu; West Nile; Zika; chikungunya; dengue; transmission

PMID: 31739553 DOI: 10.3390/v11111059

Keywords: Zika Virus; Mosquitoes; Aedes albopictus; France.

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#Zika virus #threshold determines #transmission by #European #Aedes albopictus #mosquitoes (Emerg Microbes Infect., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Emerg Microbes Infect. 2019;8(1):1668-1678. doi: 10.1080/22221751.2019.1689797.

Zika virus threshold determines transmission by European Aedes albopictus mosquitoes.

Vazeille M1, Madec Y2, Mousson L1, Bellone R1, Barré-Cardi H3, Sousa CA4, Jiolle D5, Yébakima A6, de Lamballerie X7, Failloux AB1.

Author information: 1 Institut Pasteur, Department of Virology, Arboviruses and Insect Vectors, Paris, France. 2 Institut Pasteur, Department of Infection and Epidemiology, Emerging Diseases Epidemiology, France. 3 Office de l’Environnement de la Corse, Observatoire Conservatoire des Insectes de Corse, Corte, France. 4 Global Health and Tropical Medicine, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal. 5 UMR MIVEGEC (IRD 224-CNRS 5290-UM), Maladies Infectieuses et Vecteurs: Ecologie, Génétique, Evolution et Contrôle, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Montpellier, France. 6 VECCOTRA, Rivière salée, Martinique. 7 Unité des Virus Emergents (UVE), Aix Marseille Université, IHU Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France.

 

Abstract

Since its emergence in Yap Island in 2007, Zika virus (ZIKV) has affected all continents except Europe. Despite the hundreds of cases imported to European countries from ZIKV-infested regions, no local cases have been reported in localities where the ZIKV-competent mosquito Aedes albopictus is well established. Here we analysed the vector competence of European Aedes (aegypti and albopictus) mosquitoes to different genotypes of ZIKV. We demonstrate that Ae. albopictus from France was less susceptible to the Asian ZIKV than to the African ZIKV. Critically we show that effective crossing of anatomical barriers (midgut and salivary glands) after an infectious blood meal depends on a viral load threshold to trigger: (i) viral dissemination from the midgut to infect mosquito internal organs and (ii) viral transmission from the saliva to infect a vertebrate host. A viral load in body ≥4800 viral copies triggered dissemination and ≥12,000 viral copies set out transmission. Only 27.3% and 18.2% of Ae. albopictus Montpellier mosquitoes meet respectively these two criteria. Collectively, these compelling results stress the poor ability of Ae. albopictus to sustain a local transmission of ZIKV in Europe and provide a promising tool to evaluate the risk of ZIKV transmission in future outbreaks.

KEYWORDS: Aedes albopictus; Europe; Zika; arbovirus; epidemic potential

PMID: 31735122 DOI: 10.1080/22221751.2019.1689797

Keywords: Zika Virus; Mosquitoes; Aedes albopictus; European Region.

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The first local cases of #Zika virus in #Europe (Lancet, summary)

[Source: The Lancet, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

The first local cases of Zika virus in Europe

Oliver J Brady, Simon I Hay

Published: November 18, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)32790-4

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In October, 2019, the first mosquito-transmitted, locally acquired cases of Zika virus were reported in Europe.1 This outbreak event has implications far beyond the three people affected and represents a new phase in the global Zika threat. When Zika virus first emerged in the Pacific in 2007, then spread to the Americas and the Caribbean in 2015–17, the global community treated Zika virus as an epidemic disease. The Zika virus was expected to spread to Asia,2 but when surveillance began, not only were outbreaks in Asia found to be due to indigenous strains of Zika virus, but the virus was found to have been circulating silently for decades.3

(…)

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OJB reports grants from Wellcome and SIH declares no competing interests.

Keywords: Zika Virus; France.

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#Vector-borne #transmission of #Zika virus in #Europe, southern #France, August 2019 (Euro Surveill., abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vector-borne transmission of Zika virus in Europe, southern France, August 2019

Sandra Giron1, Florian Franke1, Anne Decoppet2, Bernard Cadiou3, Thierry Travaglini3, Laurence Thirion4, Guillaume Durand4,5, Charles Jeannin3, Grégory L’Ambert3, Gilda Grard4,5, Harold Noël6, Nelly Fournet6, Michelle Auzet-Caillaud2, Christine Zandotti5, Samer Aboukaïs2, Pascal Chaud1, Saby Guedj7, Lakri Hamouda7, Xavier Naudot8, Anne Ovize8, Clément Lazarus9, Henriette de Valk6, Marie-Claire Paty6, Isabelle Leparc-Goffart4,5

Affiliations: 1 Santé publique France (French National Public Health Agency), Marseille, France; 2 Regional Health Agency of Provence-Alpes-Côtes d’Azur (ARS Paca), Marseille, France; 3 Entente interdépartementale pour la démoustication du littoral méditerranéen (EID Méditerranée), Montpellier, France; 4 Unité des Virus Emergents (UVE: Aix-Marseille Univ – IRD 190 – Inserm 1207 – IHU Méditerranée Infection), Marseille, France; 5 Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, National Reference Laboratory for Arboviruses, Marseille, France; 6 Santé publique France (French National Public Health Agency), Saint-Maurice, France; 7 Médecin généraliste, Hyères, France; 8 Eurofins Biomnis, Lyon, France; 9 Public Health Emergency Operations Centre, Division of Surveillance and Health Security, Ministry of Health, General Directorate for Health, Health Emergencies Crisis Management Centre, Paris, France

Correspondence:  Harold Noel

Citation style for this article: Giron Sandra, Franke Florian, Decoppet Anne, Cadiou Bernard, Travaglini Thierry, Thirion Laurence, Durand Guillaume, Jeannin Charles, L’Ambert Grégory, Grard Gilda, Noël Harold, Fournet Nelly, Auzet-Caillaud Michelle, Zandotti Christine, Aboukaïs Samer, Chaud Pascal, Guedj Saby, Hamouda Lakri, Naudot Xavier, Ovize Anne, Lazarus Clément, de Valk Henriette, Paty Marie-Claire, Leparc-Goffart Isabelle. Vector-borne transmission of Zika virus in Europe, southern France, August 2019. Euro Surveill. 2019;24(45):pii=1900655. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.45.1900655

Received: 29 Oct 2019;   Accepted: 07 Nov 2019

 

Abstract

On 1 October 2019, a locally-acquired Zika virus disease case was laboratory confirmed in Hyères, Var department. Active case finding identified two additional locally-acquired cases living within 90 m, with symptom onset 8 days before the index case. Extensive patient interviews did not yield information supporting transmission through sexual contact or substances of human origin. Vector-borne transmission by local Aedes albopictus mosquitoes is the most likely mode of transmission. Here we describe the public health response.

©  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Keywords: Zika Virus; France.

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#Wolbachia pipientis occurs in #Aedes aegypti populations in #NM and #Florida, #USA (Ecol Evol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Ecol Evol. 2019 Apr 26;9(10):6148-6156. doi: 10.1002/ece3.5198. eCollection 2019 May.

Wolbachia pipientis occurs in Aedes aegypti populations in New Mexico and Florida, USA.

Kulkarni A1, Yu W1, Jiang J1, Sanchez C1, Karna AK1, Martinez KJL1, Hanley KA1, Buenemann M2, Hansen IA1, Xue RD3, Ettestad P4, Melman S4, Duguma D5, Debboun M5, Xu J1.

Author information: 1 Biology Department New Mexico State University Las Cruces New Mexico. 2 Department of Geography New Mexico State University Las Cruces New Mexico. 3 Anastasia Mosquito Control District St. Augustine Florida. 4 New Mexico Department of Health Santa Fe New Mexico. 5 Harris County Public Health Mosquito and Vector Control Division Houston Texas.

 

Abstract

The mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (L.) and Ae. albopictus Skuse are the major vectors of dengue, Zika, yellow fever, and chikungunya viruses worldwide. Wolbachia, an endosymbiotic bacterium present in many insects, is being utilized in novel vector control strategies to manipulate mosquito life history and vector competence to curb virus transmission. Earlier studies have found that Wolbachia is commonly detected in Ae. albopictus but rarely detected in Ae. aegypti. In this study, we used a two-step PCR assay to detect Wolbachia in wild-collected samples of Ae. aegypti. The PCR products were sequenced to validate amplicons and identify Wolbachia strains. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed and used for detecting Wolbachia in selected mosquito specimens as well. We found Wolbachiain 85/148 (57.4%) wild Ae. aegypti specimens from various cities in New Mexico, and in 2/46 (4.3%) from St. Augustine, Florida. Wolbachiawas not detected in 94 samples of Ae. aegypti from Deer Park, Harris County, Texas. Wolbachia detected in Ae. aegypti from both New Mexico and Florida was the wAlbB strain of Wolbachia pipientis. A Wolbachia-positive colony of Ae. aegypti was established from pupae collected in Las Cruces, New Mexico, in 2018. The infected females of this strain transmitted Wolbachia to their progeny when crossed with males of Rockefeller strain of Ae. aegypti, which does not carry Wolbachia. In contrast, none of the progeny of Las Cruces males mated to Rockefeller females were infected with Wolbachia.

KEYWORDS: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Florida; New Mexico; Texas; Wolbachia; wAlbB

PMID: 31161026 PMCID: PMC6540660 DOI: 10.1002/ece3.5198

Keywords: Arbovirus; Mosquitoes; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; New Mexico; Florida; USA.

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On #lifestyle trends, #health and #mosquitoes: Formulating welfare levels for control of the Asian tiger mosquito in #Greece (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

On lifestyle trends, health and mosquitoes: Formulating welfare levels for control of the Asian tiger mosquito in Greece

Antonios Kolimenakis , Kostas Bithas, Dionysis Latinopoulos, Clive Richardson

Published: June 4, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007467 / This is an uncorrected proof.

 

Abstract

The expansion of urban ecosystems and climate change, both outcomes of massive lifestyle changes, contribute to a series of side effects such as environmental deterioration, spread of diseases, increased greenhouse gas emissions and introduction of invasive species. In the case of the Athens metropolitan area, an invasive mosquito species—the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus)–has spread widely in the last decade. This spread is favoured within urban environments and is also affected by changing climatic trends. The Asian tiger mosquito is accompanied by risks of mosquito-borne diseases, greater nuisance levels, and increased expenses incurring for its confrontation. The main aims of this paper are (i) to estimate the various costs associated with their control of this invasive species, as well as its health and nuisance impacts, (ii) to evaluate the level of citizens’ well-being from averting these impacts and (iii) to record citizens’ and experts’ perceptions regarding alternative control measures. Evidence shows that experts tend to place a high value on mosquito control when associated with serious health risks, while citizens are more sensitive and concerned about the environmental impacts of control methods. The synthesis of results produced by the current study could act as a preliminary guide for the estimation of societal welfare from the confrontation of similar problems in the context of a complex ecosystem.

 

Author summary

This paper is based on several years’ collaboration among researchers from various disciplines, key health policy makers and stakeholders in an attempt to evaluate the economic dimensions related to the presence of the Asian Tiger Mosquito (Aedes albopictus) and the challenges of tackling mosquito-borne disease outbreaks in Greece and Southern Europe. Similar studies have been conducted and continue to be published in Europe and the USA examining the socioeconomic benefit from the implementation of relevant control and prevention strategies. These studies conclude that there are significant benefits related both to the reduction of nuisance levels and the reduction of the health risks posed by various mosquito species. In our case, the application of an updated economic analysis on the effectiveness of relevant public control and prevention programs provides essential information for public health decision-making, bearing in mind the significant restructuring of the public sector and the fiscal crisis apparent in the European South.

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Citation: Kolimenakis A, Bithas K, Latinopoulos D, Richardson C (2019) On lifestyle trends, health and mosquitoes: Formulating welfare levels for control of the Asian tiger mosquito in Greece. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(6): e0007467. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007467

Editor: Olaf Horstick, University of Heidelberg, GERMANY

Received: October 2, 2018; Accepted: May 14, 2019; Published: June 4, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Kolimenakis et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: Part of this research has been co-financed by the European Union (EU Environmental Funding Programme LIFE+ Environment Policy and Governance) and Greek national funds through the LIFE CONOPS project “Development & demonstration of management plans against—the climate change enhanced—invasive mosquitoes in S. Europe” (LIFE12ENV/GR/000466). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Climate change; Mosquitoes; Aedes albopictus; Society; Poverty; Greece.

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#Aedes albopictus is a competent #vector of #Zika virus: A meta-analysis (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: PLoS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Aedes albopictus is a competent vector of Zika virus: A meta-analysis

Benjamin A. McKenzie , Alan E. Wilson, Sarah Zohdy

Published: May 21, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0216794

 

Abstract

Background

Much work has been done in recent years to determine the vector competence of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) for Zika virus (ZIKV). If competent, Ae. albopictus could become an important vector in the spread of ZIKV to areas which until now have been considered safe from the virus. Despite much speculation about Ae. albopictus’ competence for ZIKV, there have been, to date, no quantitative syntheses of Ae. albopictus’ competence, nor have the potentially confounding differences between studies been addressed.

Methodology/ principle findings

This study represents a quantitative meta-analysis of the literature surrounding this topic by examining infection rates (IR) and transmission rates (TR) among sample populations of Ae. albopictus at 7 and 14 days post infection (dpi) across 15 journal articles comprising 23 studies. Our analyses examined potentially confounding variables in the studies contained therein, including: geographic origin of viral strain or mosquito population tested, whether sympatry of the tested viral strain and mosquito population was important, and freshness of blood meal. Our results suggest 1) Ae albopictus is a competent vector for ZIKV and 2) that origin of Ae. albopictus population and origin of viral strain had significant effects on the competence of Ae. albopictus to transmit ZIKV.

Conclusions/ significance

These results indicate a need to further explore the effects of methodology on vector competence studies and to examine in more detail the geographic variation in the competence of Ae. albopictus for ZIKV as well as the underlying causes of said variation. The ability of Ae. albopictus to carry and transmit ZIKV also points to a need to create new vector control strategies in case of a ZIKV outbreak in an area where Ae. albopictus is prominent. Finally, this study represents a potential template for future meta-analyses in the field of vector competence, where this type of study has been under-utilized despite the abundance of relevant studies.

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Citation: McKenzie BA, Wilson AE, Zohdy S (2019) Aedes albopictus is a competent vector of Zika virus: A meta-analysis. PLoS ONE 14(5): e0216794. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0216794

Editor: Luciano Andrade Moreira, Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou, BRAZIL

Received: November 20, 2018; Accepted: April 29, 2019; Published: May 21, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 McKenzie et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript as a supplementary data table and cited references.

Funding: Funding was provided by the United States Department of Agriculture to AW and SZ. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Zika Virus; Aedes albopictus; Mosquitoes.

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Evidence for #infection but not #transmission of #Zika virus by #Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) from #Spain (Parasit Vectors., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Parasit Vectors. 2019 May 3;12(1):204. doi: 10.1186/s13071-019-3467-y.

Evidence for infection but not transmission of Zika virus by Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Spain.

Hernández-Triana LM1, Barrero E2, Delacour-Estrella S3, Ruiz-Arrondo I4, Lucientes J3, Fernández de Marco MDM2, Thorne L2, Lumley S5, Johnson N2,6, Mansfield KL2, Fooks AR2,7.

Author information: 1 Wildlife Zoonoses and Vector-borne Diseases Research Group, Animal and Plant Health Agency, Woodham Lane, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, KT15 3NB, UK. luis.hernandez-triana@apha.gov.uk. 2 Wildlife Zoonoses and Vector-borne Diseases Research Group, Animal and Plant Health Agency, Woodham Lane, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, KT15 3NB, UK. 3 Department of Animal Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain. 4 Center for Rickettsiosis and Vector-Borne Diseases Group, Hospital Universitario San Pedro-CIBIR, Logroño, Spain. 5 Public Health England, Porton Down, Salisbury, SP4 0JG, UK. 6 Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU27XH, UK. 7 Department of Clinical Infection, Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

A number of mosquito-borne viruses such as dengue virus (DENV), Usutu virus (USUV), West Nile virus (WNV) are autochthonously transmitted in Europe and six invasive mosquito species have been detected in this temperate region. This has increased the risk for the emergence of further mosquito-borne diseases. However, there is a paucity of information on whether European populations of invasive mosquito species are competent to transmit arboviruses. In this study, the susceptibility of Aedes albopictus originating from Spain and a laboratory-adapted colony of Aedes aegypti, was assessed for infection with, and transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV). Vertical transmission in both species was also assessed.

METHODS:

Aedes albopictus colonised from eggs collected in Spain and an existing colony of Ae. aegypti were fed infectious blood meals containing ZIKV (Polynesian strain) at 1.6 × 107 PFU/ml. Blood-fed mosquitoes were separated and maintained at 20 °C or 25 °C. Legs, saliva and bodies were sampled from specimens at 7, 14 and 21 days post-infection (dpi) in order to determine infection, dissemination and transmission rates. All samples were analysed by real-time RT-PCR using primers targeting the ZIKV NS1 gene.

RESULTS:

At 14 dpi and 21 dpi, ZIKV RNA was detected in the bodies of both species at both temperatures. However, live virus only was detected in the saliva of Ae. aegypti at 25 °C with a transmission rate of 44%. No evidence for virus expectoration was obtained for Ae. albopictus under any condition. Notably, ZIKV RNA was not detectable in the saliva of Ae. aegypti at 20 °C after 21 days. No vertical transmission of ZIKV was detected in this study.

CONCLUSIONS:

Experimental infection of Ae. albopictus colonized from Spain with ZIKV did not result in expectoration of virus in saliva in contrast to results for Ae. aegypti. No evidence of vertical transmission of virus was observed in this study. This suggests that this strain of Ae. albopictus is not competent for ZIKV transmission under the conditions tested.

KEYWORDS: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Spain; Vector competence; Zika virus

PMID: 31053164 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-019-3467-y

Keywords: Zika Virus; Mosquitoes; Aedes aegytpi; Aedes albopictus; Spain.

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