#Vector #Competence and #Vertical #Transmission of #Zika Virus in #Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vector Competence and Vertical Transmission of Zika Virus in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

Xiaoxia Guo, Chunxiao Li, Yongqiang Deng, Yuting Jiang, Aijuan Sun, Qinmei Liu, Yande Dong, Dan Xing, Wuchun Cao, Chengfeng Qin, and Tongyan Zhao

Published Online: 14 Jan 2020 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2019.2492



Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne pathogen belonging to the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae. Aedes albopictus is widely distributed in China. However, little is known about the vector competence of Ae. albopictus in China. The present study presents the oral susceptibility and vector competence of Ae. albopictus Guangzhou strain to ZIKV. Additionally, vertical transmission of ZIKV is described. The results demonstrated the susceptibility of local Ae. albopictus mosquitoes to ZIKV with an extrinsic incubation period of 6 days. Disseminated infection was observed in Ae. albopictus starting on day 2 postinfection (PI). Starting on day 6 PI, the saliva of Ae. albopictus exhibited ZIKV infection, and the transmission rate was 36.4%. Vertical transmission was observed during the first gonotrophic cycle. The minimum infection rate was observed in third-to-fourth instar larvae.

Keywords: Zika Virus; Mosquitoes; Aedes albopictus; China.


#Risk of #dengue in Central #Africa: #Vector competence studies with #Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) populations and dengue 2 virus (PLOS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]


Risk of dengue in Central Africa: Vector competence studies with Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) populations and dengue 2 virus

Basile Kamgang , Marie Vazeille, Armel N. Tedjou, Theodel A. Wilson-Bahun, Aurélie P. Yougang, Laurence Mousson, Charles S. Wondji , Anna-Bella Failloux


Published: December 30, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007985 / This is an uncorrected proof.




Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne diseases worldwide but was considered scarce in West-Central Africa. During the last decade, dengue outbreaks have increasingly been reported in urban foci in this region suggesting major epidemiological changes. However, in Central Africa where both vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are well established, the role of each species in dengue transmission remains poorly investigated.

Methodology/Principal findings

Field-collected strains of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus from different ecological settings in Central Africa were experimentally challenged with dengue 2 virus (DENV-2). Mosquitoes were analysed at 14- and 21-days post-infection. Analysis provide evidence that both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in Central Africa were able to transmit dengue virus with Ae. aegypti exhibiting a higher transmission rate. Unexpectedly, two Ae. aegypti populations from Bénoué and Maroua, in northern Cameroon, were not able to transmit DENV-2.


We conclude that both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus are susceptible to DENV-2 and may intervene as active dengue vectors. These findings highlight the urgent need to plan a vector surveillance program and control methods against dengue vectors in Central Africa in order to prevent future outbreaks.


Author summary

Dengue virus (DENV) is a flavivirus mainly transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes notably Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. In Central Africa where both vectors, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus are well established, the role of each species in dengue transmission remains poorly investigated. Here, we assessed the vector competence of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus collected in different ecological settings in Central Africa to transmit dengue 2 virus (DENV-2). We provide evidence that both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in Central Africa were able to transmit dengue virus with Ae. aegypti exhibiting a higher transmission rate. These findings could increase the risk of dengue outbreak in the region and emphasize the need for a comprehensive vector surveillance program to prevent and preparedness for an intervention in case of outbreaks.


Citation: Kamgang B, Vazeille M, Tedjou AN, Wilson-Bahun TA, Yougang AP, Mousson L, et al. (2019) Risk of dengue in Central Africa: Vector competence studies with Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) populations and dengue 2 virus. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(12): e0007985. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007985

Editor: Duane J. Gubler, Duke-NUS GMS, SINGAPORE

Received: September 9, 2019; Accepted: December 10, 2019; Published: December 30, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Kamgang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript.

Funding: BK was funded by the Wellcome Trust, 204862/Z/16/Z (https://wellcome.ac.uk). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Flavivirus; Dengue fever; Africa region; Mosquitoes; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus.


#Mosquitoes of North-Western #Europe as Potential #Vectors of #Arboviruses: A Review (Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Viruses. 2019 Nov 14;11(11). pii: E1059. doi: 10.3390/v11111059.

Mosquitoes of North-Western Europe as Potential Vectors of Arboviruses: A Review.

Martinet JP1,2, Ferté H1,3, Failloux AB2, Schaffner F4,5, Depaquit J1,3.

Author information: 1 Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, ANSES, SFR Cap Santé, EA7510 ESCAPE-USC VECPAR, 51 rue Cognacq-Jay, 51096 Reims CEDEX, France. 2 Arbovirus et Insectes Vecteurs, Département de Virologie, Institut Pasteur, 25-28 rue du docteur Roux, 75015 Paris, France. 3 Laboratoire de Parasitologie, Hôpital Maison-Blanche, CHU de Reims, 45 rue Cognacq-Jay, 51100 Reims, France. 4 National Centre for Vector Entomology, Institute of Parasitology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Rämistrasse 71, 8006 Zürich, Switzerland. 5 Francis Schaffner Consultancy, Lörracherstrasse 50, 4125 Riehen (Basel-Land), Switzerland.




The intensification of trade and travel is linked to the growing number of imported cases of dengue, chikungunya or Zika viruses into continental Europe and to the expansion of invasive mosquito species such as Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus. Local outbreaks have already occurred in several European countries. Very little information exists on the vector competence of native mosquitoes for arboviruses. As such, the vectorial status of the nine mosquito species largely established in North-Western Europe (Aedes cinereus and Aedes geminus, Aedes cantans, Aedes punctor, Aedes rusticus, Anopheles claviger s.s., Anopheles plumbeus, Coquillettidia richiardii, Culex pipiens s.l., and Culiseta annulata) remains mostly unknown.


To review the vector competence of both invasive and native mosquito populations found in North-Western Europe (i.e., France, Belgium, Germany, United Kingdom, Ireland, The Netherlands, Luxembourg and Switzerland) for dengue, chikungunya, Zika, West Nile and Usutu viruses.


A bibliographical search with research strings addressing mosquito vector competence for considered countries was performed.


Out of 6357 results, 119 references were related to the vector competence of mosquitoes in Western Europe. Eight species appear to be competent for at least one virus.


Aedes albopictus is responsible for the current outbreaks. The spread of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus increases the risk of the autochthonous transmission of these viruses. Although native species could contribute to their transmission, more studies are still needed to assess that risk.

KEYWORDS: Aedes; Anopheles; Culex; Culiseta; Usutu; West Nile; Zika; chikungunya; dengue; transmission

PMID: 31739553 DOI: 10.3390/v11111059

Keywords: Zika Virus; Mosquitoes; Aedes albopictus; France.


#Zika virus #threshold determines #transmission by #European #Aedes albopictus #mosquitoes (Emerg Microbes Infect., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Emerg Microbes Infect. 2019;8(1):1668-1678. doi: 10.1080/22221751.2019.1689797.

Zika virus threshold determines transmission by European Aedes albopictus mosquitoes.

Vazeille M1, Madec Y2, Mousson L1, Bellone R1, Barré-Cardi H3, Sousa CA4, Jiolle D5, Yébakima A6, de Lamballerie X7, Failloux AB1.

Author information: 1 Institut Pasteur, Department of Virology, Arboviruses and Insect Vectors, Paris, France. 2 Institut Pasteur, Department of Infection and Epidemiology, Emerging Diseases Epidemiology, France. 3 Office de l’Environnement de la Corse, Observatoire Conservatoire des Insectes de Corse, Corte, France. 4 Global Health and Tropical Medicine, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal. 5 UMR MIVEGEC (IRD 224-CNRS 5290-UM), Maladies Infectieuses et Vecteurs: Ecologie, Génétique, Evolution et Contrôle, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Montpellier, France. 6 VECCOTRA, Rivière salée, Martinique. 7 Unité des Virus Emergents (UVE), Aix Marseille Université, IHU Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France.



Since its emergence in Yap Island in 2007, Zika virus (ZIKV) has affected all continents except Europe. Despite the hundreds of cases imported to European countries from ZIKV-infested regions, no local cases have been reported in localities where the ZIKV-competent mosquito Aedes albopictus is well established. Here we analysed the vector competence of European Aedes (aegypti and albopictus) mosquitoes to different genotypes of ZIKV. We demonstrate that Ae. albopictus from France was less susceptible to the Asian ZIKV than to the African ZIKV. Critically we show that effective crossing of anatomical barriers (midgut and salivary glands) after an infectious blood meal depends on a viral load threshold to trigger: (i) viral dissemination from the midgut to infect mosquito internal organs and (ii) viral transmission from the saliva to infect a vertebrate host. A viral load in body ≥4800 viral copies triggered dissemination and ≥12,000 viral copies set out transmission. Only 27.3% and 18.2% of Ae. albopictus Montpellier mosquitoes meet respectively these two criteria. Collectively, these compelling results stress the poor ability of Ae. albopictus to sustain a local transmission of ZIKV in Europe and provide a promising tool to evaluate the risk of ZIKV transmission in future outbreaks.

KEYWORDS: Aedes albopictus; Europe; Zika; arbovirus; epidemic potential

PMID: 31735122 DOI: 10.1080/22221751.2019.1689797

Keywords: Zika Virus; Mosquitoes; Aedes albopictus; European Region.


The first local cases of #Zika virus in #Europe (Lancet, summary)

[Source: The Lancet, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

The first local cases of Zika virus in Europe

Oliver J Brady, Simon I Hay

Published: November 18, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)32790-4


In October, 2019, the first mosquito-transmitted, locally acquired cases of Zika virus were reported in Europe.1 This outbreak event has implications far beyond the three people affected and represents a new phase in the global Zika threat. When Zika virus first emerged in the Pacific in 2007, then spread to the Americas and the Caribbean in 2015–17, the global community treated Zika virus as an epidemic disease. The Zika virus was expected to spread to Asia,2 but when surveillance began, not only were outbreaks in Asia found to be due to indigenous strains of Zika virus, but the virus was found to have been circulating silently for decades.3



OJB reports grants from Wellcome and SIH declares no competing interests.

Keywords: Zika Virus; France.


#Vector-borne #transmission of #Zika virus in #Europe, southern #France, August 2019 (Euro Surveill., abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vector-borne transmission of Zika virus in Europe, southern France, August 2019

Sandra Giron1, Florian Franke1, Anne Decoppet2, Bernard Cadiou3, Thierry Travaglini3, Laurence Thirion4, Guillaume Durand4,5, Charles Jeannin3, Grégory L’Ambert3, Gilda Grard4,5, Harold Noël6, Nelly Fournet6, Michelle Auzet-Caillaud2, Christine Zandotti5, Samer Aboukaïs2, Pascal Chaud1, Saby Guedj7, Lakri Hamouda7, Xavier Naudot8, Anne Ovize8, Clément Lazarus9, Henriette de Valk6, Marie-Claire Paty6, Isabelle Leparc-Goffart4,5

Affiliations: 1 Santé publique France (French National Public Health Agency), Marseille, France; 2 Regional Health Agency of Provence-Alpes-Côtes d’Azur (ARS Paca), Marseille, France; 3 Entente interdépartementale pour la démoustication du littoral méditerranéen (EID Méditerranée), Montpellier, France; 4 Unité des Virus Emergents (UVE: Aix-Marseille Univ – IRD 190 – Inserm 1207 – IHU Méditerranée Infection), Marseille, France; 5 Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, National Reference Laboratory for Arboviruses, Marseille, France; 6 Santé publique France (French National Public Health Agency), Saint-Maurice, France; 7 Médecin généraliste, Hyères, France; 8 Eurofins Biomnis, Lyon, France; 9 Public Health Emergency Operations Centre, Division of Surveillance and Health Security, Ministry of Health, General Directorate for Health, Health Emergencies Crisis Management Centre, Paris, France

Correspondence:  Harold Noel

Citation style for this article: Giron Sandra, Franke Florian, Decoppet Anne, Cadiou Bernard, Travaglini Thierry, Thirion Laurence, Durand Guillaume, Jeannin Charles, L’Ambert Grégory, Grard Gilda, Noël Harold, Fournet Nelly, Auzet-Caillaud Michelle, Zandotti Christine, Aboukaïs Samer, Chaud Pascal, Guedj Saby, Hamouda Lakri, Naudot Xavier, Ovize Anne, Lazarus Clément, de Valk Henriette, Paty Marie-Claire, Leparc-Goffart Isabelle. Vector-borne transmission of Zika virus in Europe, southern France, August 2019. Euro Surveill. 2019;24(45):pii=1900655. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.45.1900655

Received: 29 Oct 2019;   Accepted: 07 Nov 2019



On 1 October 2019, a locally-acquired Zika virus disease case was laboratory confirmed in Hyères, Var department. Active case finding identified two additional locally-acquired cases living within 90 m, with symptom onset 8 days before the index case. Extensive patient interviews did not yield information supporting transmission through sexual contact or substances of human origin. Vector-borne transmission by local Aedes albopictus mosquitoes is the most likely mode of transmission. Here we describe the public health response.

©  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Keywords: Zika Virus; France.


#Wolbachia pipientis occurs in #Aedes aegypti populations in #NM and #Florida, #USA (Ecol Evol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Ecol Evol. 2019 Apr 26;9(10):6148-6156. doi: 10.1002/ece3.5198. eCollection 2019 May.

Wolbachia pipientis occurs in Aedes aegypti populations in New Mexico and Florida, USA.

Kulkarni A1, Yu W1, Jiang J1, Sanchez C1, Karna AK1, Martinez KJL1, Hanley KA1, Buenemann M2, Hansen IA1, Xue RD3, Ettestad P4, Melman S4, Duguma D5, Debboun M5, Xu J1.

Author information: 1 Biology Department New Mexico State University Las Cruces New Mexico. 2 Department of Geography New Mexico State University Las Cruces New Mexico. 3 Anastasia Mosquito Control District St. Augustine Florida. 4 New Mexico Department of Health Santa Fe New Mexico. 5 Harris County Public Health Mosquito and Vector Control Division Houston Texas.



The mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (L.) and Ae. albopictus Skuse are the major vectors of dengue, Zika, yellow fever, and chikungunya viruses worldwide. Wolbachia, an endosymbiotic bacterium present in many insects, is being utilized in novel vector control strategies to manipulate mosquito life history and vector competence to curb virus transmission. Earlier studies have found that Wolbachia is commonly detected in Ae. albopictus but rarely detected in Ae. aegypti. In this study, we used a two-step PCR assay to detect Wolbachia in wild-collected samples of Ae. aegypti. The PCR products were sequenced to validate amplicons and identify Wolbachia strains. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed and used for detecting Wolbachia in selected mosquito specimens as well. We found Wolbachiain 85/148 (57.4%) wild Ae. aegypti specimens from various cities in New Mexico, and in 2/46 (4.3%) from St. Augustine, Florida. Wolbachiawas not detected in 94 samples of Ae. aegypti from Deer Park, Harris County, Texas. Wolbachia detected in Ae. aegypti from both New Mexico and Florida was the wAlbB strain of Wolbachia pipientis. A Wolbachia-positive colony of Ae. aegypti was established from pupae collected in Las Cruces, New Mexico, in 2018. The infected females of this strain transmitted Wolbachia to their progeny when crossed with males of Rockefeller strain of Ae. aegypti, which does not carry Wolbachia. In contrast, none of the progeny of Las Cruces males mated to Rockefeller females were infected with Wolbachia.

KEYWORDS: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Florida; New Mexico; Texas; Wolbachia; wAlbB

PMID: 31161026 PMCID: PMC6540660 DOI: 10.1002/ece3.5198

Keywords: Arbovirus; Mosquitoes; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; New Mexico; Florida; USA.