Emerging Novel #Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) – Current #Scenario, #Evolutionary #Perspective Based on #Genome Analysis and Recent Developments (Vet Q., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vet Q, 1-12 2020 Feb 8 [Online ahead of print]

Emerging Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) – Current Scenario, Evolutionary Perspective Based on Genome Analysis and Recent Developments

Yashpal Singh Malik 1, Shubhankar Sircar 1, Sudipta Bhat 1, Khan Sharun 2, Kuldeep Dhama 3, Maryam Dadar 4, Ruchi Tiwari 5, Wanpen Chaicumpa 6

Affiliations: 1 Division of Biological Standardization, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar 243 122, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India; 2 Division of Surgery, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar 243 122, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India; 3 Division of Pathology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar 243 122, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India; 4 Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj 31975/148, Iran; 5 Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Sciences, Deen Dayal Upadhayay Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavidyalay Evum Go-Anusandhan Sansthan (DUVASU), Mathura 281 001, India; 6 Center of Research Excellence on Therapeutic Proteins and Antibody Engineering, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700, Thailand.

PMID: 32036774 DOI: 10.1080/01652176.2020.1727993

 

Abstract

Coronaviruses are the well-known cause of severe respiratory, enteric and systemic infections in a wide range of hosts including man, mammals, fish, and avian. The scientific interest on coronaviruses increased after the emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) outbreaks in 2002-2003 followed by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV). This decade’s first CoV, named 2019-nCoV, emerged from Wuhan, China, and declared as “Public Health Emergency of International Concern” on January 30th, 2020 by the World Health Organization (WHO). As on February 4, 2020, 425 deaths reported in China only and one death outside China (Philippines). In a short span of time, the virus spread has been noted in 24 countries. The zoonotic transmission (animal-to-human) is suspected as the route of disease origin. The genetic analyses predict bats as the most probable source of 2019-nCoV though further investigations needed to confirm the origin of the novel virus. The ongoing nCoV outbreak highlights the hidden wild animal reservoir of the deadly viruses and possible threat of spillover zoonoses as well. The successful virus isolation attempts have made doors open for developing better diagnostics and effective vaccines helping in combating the spread of the virus to newer areas.

Keywords: 2019-nCoV; Coronavirus; Middle East Respiratory Syndrome CoV; Public Health Emergency; Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoV; genetic analyses; reservoir host; therapeutics; vaccines; zoonoses.

Keywords: 2019-nCoV; Bats; Wildlife.

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#Quadratic #growth during the 2019 novel #coronavirus #epidemic (Arxiv, abstract)

[Source: Arxiv, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Quadratic growth during the 2019 novel coronavirus epidemic

Axel Brandenburg, Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden

February 11, 2020, Revision: 1.16 , brandenb@nordita.org

 

Abstract

The number of infections and the number of fatalities in the 2019 novel coronavirus epidemics follows a remarkably regular trend. Since the end of January, the ratio of fatalities per infection is about 2% and remarkably stable. Here we show that, since January 20, the number of fatalities increases quadratically and not exponentially. At present, no departure from this behavior can be seen, allowing tentative predictions to be made for the next 1–2 months.

Keywords: 2019-nCoV; COVID-19.

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The Novel #Coronavirus, 2019‐nCoV, is Highly #Contagious and More #Infectious Than Initially Estimated (Arxiv, abstract)

[Source: Arxiv, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

The Novel Coronavirus, 2019‐nCoV, is Highly Contagious and More Infectious Than Initially Estimated

Authors: Steven Sanche1,2,†, Yen Ting Lin3,†, Chonggang Xu4, Ethan Romero‐Severson1, Nicolas W. Hengartner1, Ruian Ke1,*

Affiliations: 1 T‐6 Theoretical Biology and Biophysics, Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM87544, USA. 2 T‐CNLS Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM87544, USA. 3 CCS‐3 Information Sciences Group, Computer, Computational and Statistical Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA

4EES‐14 Earth Systems Observations Group, Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA

†S.S. and Y.T.L. contributed equally to the work.

*Correspondences should be addressed to: Ruian Ke, Email: rke@lanl.gov, Phone: 1‐505‐667‐7135, Mail: Mail Stop K710,, T‐6 Theoretical Biology and Biophysics,  Los Alamos National Laboratory,  NM87544, USA.

Short title: The 2019 novel coronavirus is highly infectious

Word counts:

Abstract: 124

Main text including references and figure captions: 3,945

 

Abstract

The novel coronavirus (2019‐nCoV) is a recently emerged human pathogen that has spread widely since January 2020. Initially, the basic reproductive number, R0, was estimated to be 2.2 to 2.7. Here we provide a new estimate of this quantity. We collected extensive individual case reports and estimated key epidemiology parameters, including the incubation period. Integrating these estimates and high‐resolution real‐time human travel and infection data with mathematical models, we estimated that the number of infected individuals during early epidemic double every 2.4 days, and the R0 value is likely to be between 4.7 and 6.6. We further show that quarantine and contact tracing of symptomatic individuals alone may not be effective and early, strong control measures are needed to stop transmission of the virus.

One‐sentence summary

By collecting and analyzing spatiotemporal data, we estimated the transmission potential for 2019‐nCoV

Keywords: 2019-nCoV; COVID-19.

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An interim #review of the #epidemiological characteristics of 2019 novel #coronavirus (Epidemiol Health., abstract)

[Source: Epidemiology and Health, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Open Access / BRIEF COMMUNICATION / Volume: 42, Article ID: e2020006, 4 pages / DOI:  https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020006

An interim review of the epidemiological characteristics of 2019 novel coronavirus

Sukhyun Ryu1, Byung Chul Chun2; Korean Society of Epidemiology 2019-nCoV Task Force Team*

1 Department of Preventive Medicine, Konyang University College of Medicine, Daejeon, Korea; 2 Department of Preventive Medicine, Korea, University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

Correspondence: Byung Chul Chun, Department of Preventive Medicine, Korea, University College of Medicine, 73 Inchon-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02841, Korea E-mail: chun@korea.ac.kr

*A full list of the members of the Korean Society of Epidemiology 2019-nCoV Task Force Team is provided in the acknowledgments.

Received: Feb 3, 2020 / Accepted: Feb 6, 2020 / Published: Feb 6, 2020

This article is available from: http://e-epih.org/

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

2020, Korean Society of Epidemiology

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) from Wuhan, China is currently recognized as a public health emergency of global concern.

METHODS:

We reviewed the currently available literature to provide up-to-date guidance on control measures to be implemented by public health authorities.

RESULTS:

Some of the epidemiological characteristics of 2019-nCoV have been identified. However, there remain considerable uncertainties, which should be considered when providing guidance to public health authorities on control measures.

CONCLUSIONS:

Additional studies incorporating more detailed information from confirmed cases would be valuable.

KEY WORDS: Coronavirus, Epidemiology, Characteristics, Public health

Keywords: 2019-nCoV; Covid-19.

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The first 2019 novel #coronavirus case in #Nepal (Lancet Infect Dis., summary)

[Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

The first 2019 novel coronavirus case in Nepal

Anup Bastola, Ranjit Sah, Alfonso J Rodriguez-Morales, Bibek Kumar Lal, Runa Jha, Hemant Chanda Ojha, Bikesh Shrestha, Daniel K W Chu, Leo L M Poon, Anthony Costello, Kouichi Morita, Basu Dev Pandey

Published: February 10, 2020 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30067-0

___

In January, 2020, the outbreak of the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in China spread progressively to other countries,1,2 with WHO declaring it a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.3 Among the affected countries beyond China (where 12 307 cases and 259 deaths were reported as of Feb 1, 2020) are others in Asia, including Nepal.4 On Jan 13, 2020, a 32-year-old man, a Nepalese student at Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, China, with no history of comorbidities, returned to Nepal. He presented at the outpatient department of Sukraraj Tropical and Infectious Disease Hospital, Kathmandu, with a cough. He had become ill on Jan 3, 6 days before he flew to Nepal.

(…)

We declare no competing interests.

Keywords: 2019-nCoV; Nepal.

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#Persistence of #Coronaviruses on Inanimate #Surfaces and Its #Inactivation With Biocidal Agents (J Hosp Infect., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

 J Hosp Infect 2020 Feb 6 [Online ahead of print]

Persistence of Coronaviruses on Inanimate Surfaces and Its Inactivation With Biocidal Agents

Günter Kampf 1, Daniel Todt 2, Stephanie Pfaender 2, Eike Steinmann 2

Affiliations: 1 University Medicine Greifswald, Institute for Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Walter-Rathenau-Straße 49 A, 17475 Greifswald, Germany. Electronic address: guenter.kampf@uni-greifswald.de. 2 Department of Molecular and Medical Virology, Ruhr University Bochum, Universitätsstrasse 50, 44801 Bochum, Germany.

PMID: 32035997 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhin.2020.01.022

 

Abstract

Currently, the emergence of a novel human coronavirus, temporary named 2019-nCoV, has become a global health concern causing severe respiratory tract infections in humans. Human-to-human transmissions have been described with incubation times between 2-10 days, facilitating its spread via droplets, contaminated hands or surfaces. We therefore reviewed the literature on all available information about the persistence of human and veterinary coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces as well as inactivation strategies with biocidal agents used for chemical disinfection, e.g. in healthcare facilities. The analysis of 22 studies reveals that human coronaviruses such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) coronavirus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus or endemic human coronaviruses (HCoV) can persist on inanimate surfaces like metal, glass or plastic for up to 9 days, but can be efficiently inactivated by surface disinfection procedures with 62-71% ethanol, 0.5% hydrogen peroxide or 0.1% sodium hypochlorite within 1 minute. Other biocidal agents such as 0.05-0.2% benzalkonium chloride or 0.02% chlorhexidine digluconate are less effective. As no specific therapies are available for 2019-nCoV, early containment and prevention of further spread will be crucial to stop the ongoing outbreak and to control this novel infectious thread.

Keywords: biocidal agents; chemical inactivation; coronavirus; disinfection; inanimate surfaces; persistence.

Copyright © 2020 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Conflict of interest statement Declaration of Competing Interest None.

Keywords: 2019-nCoV; Disinfectants.

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#Epidemiologic Characteristics of Early Cases With 2019 Novel #Coronavirus (#2019nCoV) Disease in Republic of #Korea (Epidemiol Infect., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Epidemiol Health, e2020007 2020 Feb 9 [Online ahead of print]

Epidemiologic Characteristics of Early Cases With 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Disease in Republic of Korea

Moran Ki 1, Task Force For -nCoV 2

Affiliations: 1 Department of Cancer Control and Population Health, Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Korea. 2 The Korean Society for Preventive Medicine & Korean Society of Epidemiology.

PMID: 32035431 DOI: 10.4178/epih.e2020007

 

Abstract

Since the first case of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in South Korea was confirmed on January 20, 2020, there have been 24 confirmed cases of 2019-nCoV. The majority of these cases (58.3%; n=14) were male, with a median age of 42 years (range, 21-62 years). Of the confirmed cases, 15 were index cases (63%), six were first-generation patients (24%), and three were second-generation patients (12.5%). All the first- and second-generation patients were family members or close acquaintances of index cases. All the index cases entered the South Korea from January 19 to 24, 2020. The average incubation period was 3.6 days (median, 4 days) and the reproduction number (R0) was calculated as 0.5. Two of the confirmed cases were asymptomatic. As of February 8, 22 patients with 2019-nCoV are hospitalized in South Korea, and 2 have been discharged from the hospital. The epidemiological indicators will be revised as new information becomes available in the future. Sharing epidemiological information among researchers around the world is essential for efficient preparations and responses to new infectious diseases.

Keywords: Epidemiology; Isolation; Outbreak; Quarantine; Republic of Korea; novel Coronavirus.

Keywords: 2019-nCoV; S. Korea.

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