#Fukushima #report declassified: Worse than we were told (RT, Dec. 11 ‘15)

[Source: RT, full page: (LINK).]

Fukushima report declassified: Worse than we were told  [  ENVR  ]

Published time: 11 Dec, 2015 19:48

Fukushima nuclear power plant is still experiencing major contamination issues nearly five years after the earthquake, tsunami, and subsequent meltdown.  A new declassified report from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, written on March 18, 2011 just days after the disaster, sheds light on just how bad it was.

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Keywords: Japan; Nuclear Events; Environmental Pollution; Environmental Disasters.

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#Michigan, Suspect #deer confirmed #positive for chronic wasting disease [#CWD] (DNR, December 11 2015, edited)

[Source: Michigan Department of Natural Resources, full page: (LINK).]

Suspect deer confirmed positive for chronic wasting disease [      ]

Contact: Chad Stewart, 517-641-4903, ext. 263  / Agency: Natural Resources / Dec. 11, 2015

Deer was harvested in Dewitt Township; Eaton County hunters urged to voluntarily check deer and stop baiting and feeding of deer

As of Thursday, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources reports a total of 3,695 deer in Michigan this year have been tested for chronic wasting disease (CWD). Four deer have been confirmed positive for the disease, with the fourth positive just recently found.

During the firearm deer season, a hunter from Dewitt Township (Clinton County) in the Core CWD Area brought a 1 1/2-year-old buck into the DNR’s Rose Lake deer check station. The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Veterinary Services Laboratory in Ames, Iowa, confirmed the deer as CWD positive.

Because the deer was harvested within 10 miles of the Eaton County border, the DNR strongly encourages all hunters within Eaton County to voluntarily stop baiting and feeding, continue hunting and, most importantly, bring harvested deer into a DNR check station.

“Deer hunters in DMU 333 have been a great help by bringing in their deer to be tested. We couldn’t be more thankful or impressed with their dedication to the resource,” said Chad Stewart, DNR deer specialist. “We continue to need their help and are also asking Eaton County hunters to join our efforts. In addition, we have begun conversations with DeWitt Township, and they, too, are becoming great partners in this fight against CWD.”

There will be no mandatory regulation changes from now through the end of the deer season, as the DNR conducts CWD surveillance and decides what additional steps might be needed for the 2016 season.

CWD is a fatal neurological disease that affects white-tailed deer, mule deer, elk and moose. It is caused by the transmission of infectious, self-multiplying proteins (prions) contained in saliva and other body fluids of infected animals. Susceptible animals can acquire CWD by direct exposure to these fluids, or from environments contaminated with these fluids or the carcass of a diseased animal.

Some chronically CWD-infected animals will display abnormal behaviors, progressive weight loss and physical debilitation; however, deer can be infected without showing internal or external symptoms for many years. There is no cure; once a deer is infected with CWD, it will die.

To date, there is no evidence that chronic wasting disease presents any risk to non-cervids, including humans, either through contact with an infected animal or from handling venison. However, as a precaution, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and the World Health Organization recommend that infected animals not be consumed as food by either humans or domestic animals.

The DNR provides weekly CWD updates at mi.gov/cwd. Announcements of additional CWD-positive deer also will be posted online.

The Michigan Department of Natural Resources is committed to the conservation, protection, management, use and enjoyment of the state’s natural and cultural resources for current and future generations. For more information, go to www.michigan.gov/dnr.

Keywords: USA; Updates; Michigan; Deer; Chronic Wasting Disease; Prions.

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#USDA Issues Final #Environmental #Impact #Statement to Help Reduce Potential #Risks during an #Animal #Health #Emergency (USDA, December 11 2015, edited)

[Source: US Department of Agriculture, full page: (LINK).]

USDA Issues Final Environmental Impact Statement to Help Reduce Potential Risks during an Animal Health Emergency [      ]

Published: Dec 11, 2015

WASHINGTON, Dec. 11, 2015— The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is issuing a final environmental impact statement (EIS) for carcass management alternatives that could be implemented during an animal health emergency.

Livestock carcasses in large numbers can present a potential environmental risk. The agency must effectively manage carcasses in a mass animal health emergency to reduce potential risks to humans, livestock, and the surrounding environment.

In the EIS, the agency evaluated three alternatives, including:

  • Taking no action, under which APHIS would manage carcasses in a mass animal health emergency in accordance with the existing regulations in 9CFR53.4, using either unlined burial or open-air burning.
  • Using standard procedures, which would consider four additional carcass-management options – landfill, rendering, fixed incineration, and composting – in addition to those listed in the no action alternative.
  • Adaptive management, chosen as the preferred alternative, which allows for all high-capacity, widely-available carcass management options – including unlined burial, open-air burning, landfill, rendering, incineration, composting, and other nonstandard options – to be considered and potentially used during a mass animal health emergency.  This chosen alternative is expected to provide greater flexibility for using the best available resources in such an event.

The EIS finds that carcasses resulting from an animal health emergency can be disposed of safely using a variety of available methods.  The EIS is not specific to any one animal disease.  The findings of the EIS will be used to support animal health emergency planning and decision-making.

The final EIS is available at: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/stakeholders/downloads/2015/eis_carcass_management.pdf

The notice of availability for the final EIS is expected to be published in the Federal Register on Friday, December 18.

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Keywords: USA; USDA; Updates; Infectious Diseases.

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Evaluation of the #Safety and #Immunogenicity of a Candidate #Pandemic Live Attenuated #Influenza #Vaccine (pLAIV) Against #Influenza A(#H7N9) (J Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Evaluation of the Safety and Immunogenicity of a Candidate Pandemic Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine (pLAIV) Against Influenza A(H7N9) [      ]

Mahdee Sobhanie 1, Yumiko Matsuoka 2, Sinthujan Jegaskanda 2,4, Theresa Fitzgerald 1, Raburn Mallory 3, Zhongying Chen 3, Catherine Luke 2, John Treanor 1 and Kanta Subbarao 2

Author Affiliations: 1Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, New York 2Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda 3Medimmune, Gaithersburg, Maryland4Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Victoria, Australia

Correspondence: J. Treanor, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rm 3–6208, Rochester, NY 14642 (john_treanor@urmc.rochester.edu).

 

Abstract

Background.

We evaluated a candidate A/Anhui/2013(H7N9) pandemic live attenuated influenza vaccine (pLAIV) in healthy adults, and assessed the ability of 1 or 2 doses to induce immune memory.

Methods.

Healthy subjects in 2 age groups (18–49 years and 50–70 years) with undetectable hemagglutination-inhibiting (HAI) antibody to H7N9 were enrolled. Younger subjects received either 1 or 2 intranasal doses of 107.0 fluorescent focus units of A/Anhui/1/2013 pLAIV, while older subjects received a single dose. All subjects received a single 30-µg dose of unadjuvanted, antigenically matched A/Shanghai2/2013(H7N9) pandemic inactivated influenza vaccine (pIIV) 12 weeks after their first dose of pLAIV.

Results.

Both vaccines were well tolerated. Serum HAI antibody responses were detected in 0 of 32 younger subjects and 1 of 17 older subjects after 1 dose of pLAIV and in 2 of 16 younger subjects after a second dose. Strong serum antibody responses were detected after a single subsequent dose of pIIV that was broadly reactive against H7 influenza viruses.

Conclusions.

An A(H7N9) pLAIV candidate was safe in both age groups. Priming with pLAIV resulted in responses to subsequent pIIV that exceeded those seen in naive subjects in previous reports. The A(H7N9) pLAIV induces strong immune memory that can be demonstrated by exposure to subsequent antigenic challenge.

Clinical Trial Registration.NCT01995695 and NCT02274545.

Key words: pandemic influenza – live vaccine – immune memory

Received August 28, 2015. Accepted October 30, 2015.

© The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; H7N9; Avian Influenza; Vaccines; Pandemic Preparedness.

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#Efficacy of #favipiravir (T-705) in #rabies post-exposure #prophylaxis (J Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Efficacy of favipiravir (T-705) in rabies post-exposure prophylaxis [      ]

Kentaro Yamada 1, Kazuko Noguchi 2,3, Takashi Komeno 4, Yousuke Furuta 4 and Akira Nishizono 2

Author Affiliations: 1Research Promotion Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, 1-1 Idaigaoka, Hasama-machi, Yufu city, Oita, 879-5593, Japan 2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, 1-1 Idaigaoka, Hasama-machi, Yufu city, Oita, 879-5593, Japan 3Department of Food Science and Technology, Minami Kyushu University, 5-1-2 Kirishima, Miyazaki city, Miyazaki, 880-0031, Japan 4Research Laboratories, Toyama Chemical Co., Ltd., 2-4-1 Shimookui, Toyama city, Toyama, 930-8508, Japan

Correspondence: Akira Nishizono, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, 1-1 Idaigaoka, Hasama-machi, Yufu city, Oita 879-5593, Japan; E-mail: a24zono@oita-u.ac.jp; Tel: +81-97-586-5710; Fax: +81-97-586-5719

 

Abstract

Rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by the rabies virus (RABV), and no antiviral drugs for RABV are currently available. We report for the first time the efficacy of favipiravir (T-705) against RABV in vitro and in vivo. T-705 produced a significant 3–4 log10 reduction in the multiplication of street and fixed RABV strains in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro-2a cells, with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of 32.4 µM and 44.3 µM, respectively. T-705 significantly improved the morbidity and mortality in RABV-infected mice when orally administered at a dose of 300 mg/kg/day for 7 days, beginning 1 h after inoculation. The administration significantly reduced the virus positive rate in the brain. Furthermore, we found that T-705 was not to be outdone by equine rabies immunoglobulin in the post-exposure prophylaxis. Collectively, our results suggest that T-705 is active against the RABV and may serve as a potential alternative to rabies immunoglobulin in rabies post-exposure prophylaxis.

© The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial reproduction and distribution of the work, in any medium, provided the original work is not altered or transformed in any way, and that the work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, contact journals.permissions@oup.com.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Rabies; Antivirals; Favipiravir.

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Moderate #thermal #strain in #healthcare #workers wearing #PPE during #treatment and care activities in the context of the 2014 #Ebola virus disease #outbreak (J Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Moderate thermal strain in healthcare workers wearing personal protective equipment during treatment and care activities in the context of the 2014 Ebola virus disease outbreak  [      ]

Laurent Grélot 1, Fassou Koulibaly 2, Nancy Maugey 3, Frédéric Janvier 4, Vincent Foissaud 5, Marc Aletti 5, Hélène Savini 6, Jean Cotte 4, Henry Dampierre 7, Hervé Granier 8, Thierry Carmoi 9 and Emmanuel Sagui 10

Author Affiliations: 1Aix-Marseille University, 13385 Marseille Cedex, France  2Guinean Military Health Services, CMCA BQG, Conakry, Guinea 3FREMM Aquitaine BCRM Brest, 29240 Brest Cedex 9, France 4French Military Teaching Hospital Saint Anne, 83000 Toulon, France 5French Military Teaching Hospital Percy, 92141 Clamart Cedex, France 6French Military Teaching Hospital Laveran, CS 50004, 13384 Marseille Cedex 13, France 7French Forces Health Services, Fort Neuf de Vincennes, Cours des Maréchaux, 75614 Paris Cedex 12, France 8French Military Teaching Hospital Clermont Tonnerre, Rue du Colonel Fontferrier, 29240 Brest, France 9French Military Teaching Hospital Val de Grâce, Paris, France; Val de Grâce Military Academy, pl Laveran, 75005 Paris, France 10French Military Teaching Hospital Laveran, CS 50004, 13384 Marseille, France; Aix Marseille University, LNC UMR 7291, CNRS FR 3C FR 3512, Marseille, France; Val de Grâce Military Academy, pl Laveran, 75005 Paris, France

Corresponding author: Emmanuel Sagui, French Military Teaching Hospital Laveran, CS 50004, 13384 Marseille Cedex 13, France. Fax: +33 (0) 4 91 61 73 05, Tel.: +33 (0) 4 91 61 75 57, Email: emlsmg@gmail.com

 

Abstract

The extent of thermal strain while wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) during care activities for Ebola virus disease patients has not yet been characterized. From January to March 2015, 25 French health care workers (HCWs) in Conakry volunteered to be monitored while wearing PPE using an ingestible thermal sensor. The average working ambient temperature and relative humidity were 29.6±2.0°C and 65.4±10.3%, respectively. The mean time wearing PPE was 65.7±13.5 min. The mean core body temperature (Tco) increased by 0.46±0.20°C. Four HCWs reached or exceeded a Tco >=38.5°C. HCWs wearing PPE for approximately 1 h exhibited moderate but safe thermal strain.

© The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Ebola; PPE.

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#Efficacy of #Favipiravir Alone and in Combination With #Ribavirin in a Lethal, Immunocompetent Mouse Model of #Lassa Fever (J Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Efficacy of Favipiravir Alone and in Combination With Ribavirin in a Lethal, Immunocompetent Mouse Model of Lassa Fever [      ]

Lisa Oestereich 1,2, Toni Rieger 1,2, Anja Lüdtke 1,2,3, Paula Ruibal 1,2,3, Stephanie Wurr 1,2, Elisa Pallasch 1,2, Sabrina Bockholt 1,2, Susanne Krasemann 4, César Muñoz-Fontela 1,2,3,a and Stephan Günther 1,2,a

Author Affiliations: 1Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine 2German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Hamburg 3Heinrich Pette Institute, Leibniz Institute for Experimental Virology 4Institute for Neuropathology, University Medical Center Hamburg–Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany

Correspondence: S. Günther, Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Bernhard-Nocht-Str. 74, 20359 Hamburg, Germany (guenther@bni.uni-hamburg.de).

a C. M.-F. and S. G. contributed equally to this work.

 

Abstract

We studied the therapeutic potential of favipiravir (T-705) for Lassa fever, both alone and in combination with ribavirin. Favipiravir suppressed Lassa virus replication in cell culture by 5 log10 units. In a novel lethal mouse model, it lowered the viremia level and the virus load in organs and normalized levels of cell-damage markers. Treatment with 300 mg/kg per day, commenced 4 days after infection, when the viremia level had reached 4 log10 virus particles/mL, rescued 100% of Lassa virus–infected mice. We found a synergistic interaction between favipiravir and ribavirin in vitro and an increased survival rate and extended survival time when combining suboptimal doses in vivo.

Key words: Lassa fever – favipiravir – ribavirin  – mouse model – drug interaction

Received August 1, 2015. Accepted October 26, 2015.

© The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial reproduction and distribution of the work, in any medium, provided the original work is not altered or transformed in any way, and that the work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, contact journals.permissions@oup.com.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Lassa Fever; Favipiravir; Ribavirin; Antivirals.

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