#Dengue #Virus #Antibodies Enhance #Zika #Virus #Infection (BioRxIV, abstract)

[Source: BioRxIV, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

New Results

Dengue Virus Antibodies Enhance Zika Virus Infection

Lauren M Paul, Eric R Carlin, Meagan M Jenkins, Amanda L Tan, Carolyn M Barcellona, Cindo O Nicholson, Lydie Trautmann, Scott F Michael, Sharon Isern

doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/050112




For decades, human infections with Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus, were sporadic, associated with mild disease, and went underreported since symptoms were similar to other acute febrile diseases endemic in the same regions. Recent reports of severe disease associated with ZIKV, including Guillain-Barre syndrome and severe fetal abnormalities, have greatly heightened awareness. Given its recent history of rapid spread in immune naive populations, it is anticipated that ZIKV will continue to spread in the Americas and globally in regions where competent Aedes mosquito vectors are found. Globally, dengue virus (DENV) is the most common mosquito-transmitted human flavivirus and is both well-established and the source of outbreaks in areas of recent ZIKV introduction. DENV and ZIKV are closely related, resulting in substantial antigenic overlap. Through a mechanism known as antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), anti-DENV antibodies can enhance the infectivity of DENV for certain classes of immune cells, causing increased viral production that correlates with severe disease outcomes. Similarly, ZIKV has been shown to undergo ADE in response to antibodies generated by other flaviviruses. However, response to DENV antibodies has not yet been investigated.

Methodology / Principal Findings

We tested the neutralizing and enhancing potential of well-characterized broadly neutralizing human anti-DENV monoclonal antibodies (HMAbs) and human DENV immune sera against ZIKV using neutralization and ADE assays. We show that anti-DENV HMAbs, cross-react, do not neutralize, and greatly enhance ZIKV infection in vitro. DENV immune sera had varying degrees of neutralization against ZIKV and similarly enhanced ZIKV infection.

Conclusions / Significance

Our results suggest that pre-existing DENV immunity will enhance ZIKV infection in vivo and may increase disease severity. A clear understanding of the interplay between ZIKV and DENV will be critical in informing public health responses in regions where these viruses co-circulate and will be particularly valuable for ZIKV and DENV vaccine design and implementation strategies.

Copyright: The copyright holder for this preprint is the author/funder. It is made available under a CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Zika Virus; Dengue Fever; Antibody-Dependent Enhancement.


#Zika #Virus #Outbreak in #Haiti in 2014: #Molecular and #Clinical #Data (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]


Zika Virus Outbreak in Haiti in 2014: Molecular and Clinical Data

John Lednicky, Valery Madsen Beau De Rochars, Maha El Badry, Julia Loeb, Taina Telisma, Sonese Chavannes, Gina Anilis, Eleonora Cella, Massimo Ciccozzi, Mohammed Rashid, Bernard Okech, Marco Salemi, J. Glenn Morris Jr.

Published: April 25, 2016 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004687




Zika virus (ZIKV), first isolated in Uganda in 1947, is currently spreading rapidly through South America and the Caribbean. In Brazil, infection has been linked with microcephaly and other serious complications, leading to declaration of a public health emergency of international concern; however, there currently are only limited data on the virus (and its possible sources and manifestations) in the Caribbean.


From May, 2014-February, 2015, in conjunction with studies of chikungunya (CHIKV) and dengue (DENV) virus infections, blood samples were collected from children in the Gressier/Leogane region of Haiti who presented to a school clinic with undifferentiated febrile illness. Samples were initially screened by RT-PCR for CHIKV and DENV, with samples negative in these assays further screened by viral culture.


Of 177 samples screened, three were positive for ZIKV, confirmed by viral sequencing; DENV-1 was also identified in culture from one of the three positive case patients. Patients were from two different schools and 3 different towns, with all three cases occurring within a single week, consistent with the occurrence of an outbreak in the region. Phylogenetic analysis of known full genome viral sequences demonstrated a close relationship with ZIKV from Brazil; additional analysis of the NS5 gene, for which more sequences are currently available, showed the Haitian strains clustering within a monophyletic clade distinct from Brazilian, Puerto Rican and Guatemalan sequences, with all part of a larger clade including isolates from Easter Island. Phylogeography also clarified that at least three major African sub-lineages exist, and confirmed that the South American epidemic is most likely to have originated from an initial ZIKV introduction from French Polynesia into Easter Island, and then to the remainder of the Americas.


ZIKV epidemics in South America, as well as in Africa, show complex dissemination patterns. The virus appears to have been circulating in Haiti prior to the first reported cases in Brazil. Factors contributing to transmission and the possible linkage of this early Haitian outbreak with microcephaly remain to be determined.

Author Summary

Zika virus is currently spreading rapidly through the Americas, including the Caribbean, where it has emerged as a major public health problem due to the linkage with birth defects, including microcephaly. We report the isolation of Zika virus from 3 children in rural Haiti in December, 2014, as part of a study of acute undifferentiated febrile illness that was being conducted by our research group; from one of these children, we also isolated dengue virus serotype 1. On analysis of nucleotide sequence data from these and Zika strains from other locales, the South American/Haitian sequences cluster within the Asian clade and clearly branch out from a sequence circulating in Easter Island, which originated, in turn, from French Polynesia. On further analysis of one specific gene sequence for which more data were available, there appeared to be slight separation of Haitian strains and the strains from Brazil, Suriname, Puerto Rico and Guatemala, with molecular clock analysis suggesting that Zika virus was present in Haiti as early as mid-2013. These findings raise questions about the origin of Zika virus in the Caribbean, and subsequent patterns of circulation of the virus within the Americas.


Citation: Lednicky J, Beau De Rochars VM, El Badry M, Loeb J, Telisma T, Chavannes S, et al. (2016) Zika Virus Outbreak in Haiti in 2014: Molecular and Clinical Data. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10(4): e0004687. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004687

Editor: Richard Reithinger, RTI International, UNITED STATES

Received: March 2, 2016; Accepted: April 13, 2016; Published: April 25, 2016

Copyright: © 2016 Lednicky et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: Sequence data is available in GenBank (accession number KU509998).

Funding: The authors received no funding outside of the University of Florida for the work described. Funding was from an internal University of Florida pilot grant fund. Funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Zika Virus; Haiti.


The #Epidemiology and #Transmissibility of #Zika #Virus in Girardot and San Andres Island, #Colombia (BioRxIV, abstract)

[Source: BioRxIV, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

New Results

The Epidemiology and Transmissibility of Zika Virus in Girardot and San Andres Island, Colombia

Diana Patricia Rojas, Natalie E. Dean, Yang Yang, Eben Kenah, Juliana Quintero, Simon Tomasi, Erika L. Ramirez, Yendy Kelly, Carolina Castro, Gabriel Carrasquilla, M. Elizabeth Halloran, Ira M. Longini

doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/049957




Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus in the same genus as dengue virus and yellow fever virus. ZIKV transmission was first detected in Colombia in September 2015. The virus has spread rapidly across the country in areas infested with the vector Aedes aegypti. As of March 2016, Colombia has reported over 50,000 cases of Zika virus disease (ZVD).


We analyzed surveillance data of ZVD cases reported to the local health authorities of San Andres, Colombia, and Girardot, Colombia, between September 2015 and January 2016. Standardized case definitions used in both areas were determined by the Ministry of Health and Colombian National Institute of Health at the beginning of the ZIKV epidemic. ZVD was laboratory- confirmed by a finding of Zika virus RNA in the serum of acute cases. We report epidemiological summaries of the two outbreaks. We also use daily incidence data to estimate the basic reproductive number R0 in each population.


We identified 928 and 1,936 laboratory or clinically confirmed cases in San Andres and Girardot, respectively. The overall attack rate for reported ZVD detected by healthcare local surveillance was 12.13 cases per 1,000 residents of San Andres and 18.43 cases per 1,000 residents of Girardot. Attack rates were significantly higher in females in both municipalities. Cases occurred in all age groups but the most affected group was 20 to 49 year olds. The estimated R0 for the Zika outbreak in San Andres was 1.41 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.74), and in Girardot was 4.61 (95% CI 4.11 to 5.16).


Transmission of ZIKV is ongoing and spreading throughout the Americas rapidly. The observed rapid spread is supported by the relatively high basic reproductive numbers calculated from these two outbreaks in Colombia.

Copyright: The copyright holder for this preprint is the author/funder. It is made available under a CC-BY-ND 4.0 International license.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Zika Virus; Colombia.


#Zika #virus #infection during #pregnancy and #microcephaly occurrence: a review of literature and #Brazilian data (Braz J Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Braz J Infect Dis. 2016 Apr 15. pii: S1413-8670(16)30049-6. doi: 10.1016/j.bjid.2016.02.006. [Epub ahead of print]

Zika virus infection during pregnancy and microcephaly occurrence: a review of literature and Brazilian data.

de Carvalho NS1, de Carvalho BF2, Fugaça CA2, Dóris B2, Biscaia ES2.

Author information: 1Departamento de Tocoginecologia, Setor de Infecções em Ginecologia e Obstetrícia, Hospital de Clinicas, Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR), Curitiba, PR, Brazil. Electronic address: newtonsdc@gmail.com. 2Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, Curitiba, PR, Brazil.



In November of 2015, the Ministry of Health of Brazil published an announcement confirming the relationship between Zika virus and the microcephaly outbreak in the Northeast, suggesting that infected pregnant women might have transmitted the virus to their fetuses. The objectives of this study were to conduct a literature review about Zika virus infection and microcephaly, evaluate national and international epidemiological data, as well as the current recommendations for the health teams. Zika virus is an arbovirus, whose main vector is the Aedes sp. The main symptoms of the infection are maculopapular rash, fever, non-purulent conjunctivitis, and arthralgia. Transmission of this pathogen occurs mainly by mosquito bite, but there are also reports via the placenta. Microcephaly is defined as a measure of occipto-frontal circumference being more than two standard deviations below the mean for age and gender. The presence of microcephaly demands evaluation of the patient, in order to diagnose the etiology. Health authorities issued protocols, reports and notes concerning the management of microcephaly caused by Zika virus, but there is still controversy about managing the cases. The Ministry of Health advises notifying any suspected or confirmed cases of children with microcephaly related to the pathogen, which is confirmed by a positive specific laboratory test for the virus. The first choice for imaging exam in children with this malformation is transfontanellar ultrasound. The most effective way to control this outbreak of microcephaly probably caused by this virus is to combat the vector. Since there is still uncertainty about the period of vulnerability of transmission via placenta, the use of repellents is crucial throughout pregnancy. More investigations studying the consequences of this viral infection on the body of newborns and in their development are required.

Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

KEYWORDS: Aedes mosquitoes; Arbovirus; Congenital malformation; Microcephaly; Pregnancy; Zika virus

PMID: 27102780 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Zika Virus; Microcephaly.


The mitotic spindle: linking #teratogenic #effects of #Zika virus with #human #genetics? (Mol Cytogenet., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Mol Cytogenet. 2016 Apr 19;9:32. doi: 10.1186/s13039-016-0240-1. eCollection 2016.

The mitotic spindle: linking teratogenic effects of Zika virus with human genetics?

Bullerdiek J1, Dotzauer A2, Bauer I3.

Author information: 1Centre for Human Genetics, University of Bremen, Leobener Str. ZHG, D-28359 Bremen, Germany ; Institute of Medical Genetics, University Rostock Medical Center, Ernst-Heydemann-Strasse 8, D-18057 Rostock, Germany. 2Laboratory of Virus Research, University of Bremen, Leobener Straße/UFT, 28359, D-28359 Bremen, Germany. 3Institute of Medical Genetics, University Rostock Medical Center, Ernst-Heydemann-Strasse 8, D-18057 Rostock, Germany.




Recently, an association between Zika virus infection and microcephaly/ocular findings was found to be reasonable e.g. because of the demonstration that the virus was found in the brain of a fetus after presumed maternal infection. Although there is no proof yet for a causal relationship, for an appropriate risk calculation efforts are urgently needed to either establish or disprove this assumption.


On the basis of inherited syndromes combining microcephaly with ocular findings similar to those associated with Zika infections, we have hypothesized that the impairment of the proper function of the mitotic apparatus is a possible mechanism by which Zika can exert teratogenic effects.


A bundle of well-known cytogenetic and molecular-cytogenetic methods (e.g. formation of micronuclei, chromosomal lagging, immunofluorescence of centrosomes) to evaluate proper function, maintenance, and establishment of the mitotic spindle poles can be applied on infected cells. Also, the viral proteins can be tested for their possible interaction with proteins encoded by genes involved in inherited syndromes with microcephaly and ocular findings resembling those in presumed cases of intrauterine ZIKV infection.


Once proved, this hypothesis allows for a targeted approach into mechanisms of possible relevance as e.g. if different strains of the virus are implicated in the teratogenic effects to the same or a different extent.

KEYWORDS: Chorioretinopathy; Genetics; Mechanisms; Microcephaly; Phenocopy; Syndromes; Zika virus

PMID: 27099632 [PubMed]

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Zika Virus; Microcephaly.


First #detection of #Zika #virus in #neotropical #primates in #Brazil: a possible new reservoir (BioRxIV, abstract)

[Source: BioRxIV, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

New Results

First detection of Zika virus in neotropical primates in Brazil: a possible new reservoir.

Silvana Favoretto, Danielle Araujo, Danielle Oliveira, Nayle Duarte, Flavio Mesquita, Paolo Zanotto, Edison Durigon

doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/049395



Samples from sera and oral swabs from fifteen marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) and nine capuchin-monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) captured in Ceara State in Brazil were tested for Zika virus. Samples were positive by Real time PCR and sequencing of the amplified product from a capuchin monkey showed 100% similarity to other ZIKV from South America. This is the first report on ZIKV detection among Neotropical primates.

Copyright: The copyright holder for this preprint is the author/funder. All rights reserved. No reuse allowed without permission.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Zika Virus; Brazil.


High specificity of a novel #Zika #virus #ELISA in European #patients after exposure to different #flaviviruses (@eurosurveillanc, abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Eurosurveillance, Volume 21, Issue 16, 21 April 2016 / Rapid communication

High specificity of a novel Zika virus ELISA in European patients after exposure to different flaviviruses

D Huzly 1 , I Hanselmann 1 , J Schmidt-Chanasit 2 3 , M Panning 1

Author affiliations: 1. Institute for Virology, Medical Center – University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany; 2. Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, WHO Collaborating Centre for Arbovirus and Haemorrhagic Fever Reference and Research, National Reference Centre for Tropical Infectious Diseases, Hamburg, Germany; 3. German Centre for Infection Research (DZIF), partner site Hamburg-Luebeck-Borstel, Hamburg, Germany

Correspondence: Marcus Panning (marcus.panning@uniklinik-freiburg.de)

Citation style for this article: Huzly D, Hanselmann I, Schmidt-Chanasit J, Panning M. High specificity of a novel Zika virus ELISA in European patients after exposure to different flaviviruses. Euro Surveill. 2016;21(16):pii=30203. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.16.30203

Received:30 March 2016; Accepted:21 April 2016



The current Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas caused an increase in diagnostic requests in European countries. Here we demonstrate high specificity of the Euroimmun anti-ZIKV IgG and IgM ELISA tests using putative cross-reacting sera of European patients with antibodies against tick-borne encephalitis virus, dengue virus, yellow fever virus and hepatitis C virus. This test may aid in counselling European travellers returning from regions where ZIKV is endemic.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Zika Virus; Diagnostic Tests.


The #global #spread of #Zika virus: is public and #media #concern justified in regions currently unaffected? (Infect Dis Poverty, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Infect Dis Poverty. 2016 Apr 19;5(1):37. doi: 10.1186/s40249-016-0132-y.

The global spread of Zika virus: is public and media concern justified in regions currently unaffected?

Gyawali N1, Bradbury RS1, Taylor-Robinson AW2.

Author information: 1Infectious Diseases Research Group, School of Medical & Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, 4702, QLD, Australia. 2Infectious Diseases Research Group, School of Medical & Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, 4702, QLD, Australia. a.taylor-robinson@cqu.edu.au.




Zika virus, an Aedes mosquito-borne flavivirus, is fast becoming a worldwide public health concern following its suspected association with over 4000 recent cases of microcephaly among newborn infants in Brazil.


Prior to its emergence in Latin America in 2015-2016, Zika was known to exist at a relatively low prevalence in parts of Africa, Asia and the Pacific islands. An extension of its apparent global dispersion may be enabled by climate conditions suitable to support the population growth of A. aegypti and A. albopictus mosquitoes over an expanding geographical range. In addition, increased globalisation continues to pose a risk for the spread of infection. Further, suspicions of alternative modes of virus transmission (sexual and vertical), if proven, provide a platform for outbreaks in mosquito non-endemic regions as well. Since a vaccine or anti-viral therapy is not yet available, current means of disease prevention involve protection from mosquito bites, excluding pregnant females from travelling to Zika-endemic territories, and practicing safe sex in those countries. Importantly, in countries where Zika is reported as endemic, caution is advised in planning to conceive a baby until such time as the apparent association between infection with the virus and microcephaly is either confirmed or refuted. The question arises as to what advice is appropriate to give in more economically developed countries distant to the current epidemic and in which Zika has not yet been reported. Despite understandable concern among the general public that has been fuelled by the media, in regions where Zika is not present, such as North America, Europe and Australia, at this time any outbreak (initiated by an infected traveler returning from an endemic area) would very probably be contained locally. Since Aedes spp. has very limited spatial dispersal, overlapping high population densities of mosquitoes and humans would be needed to sustain a focus of infection. However, as A. aegypti is distinctly anthropophilic, future control strategies for Zika should be considered in tandem with the continuing threat to human wellbeing that is presented by dengue, yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis, all of which are transmitted by the same vector species.

KEYWORDS: Aedes; Arbovirus; Diagnosis; Epidemic; Flavivirus; Mosquito; Transmission; Treatment; Vector control; Zika

PMID: 27093860 [PubMed – in process]

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Zika Virus.


#Emergency #contraception in a #public #health emergency: Exploring #pharmacy availability in #Brazil (Contraception, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Contraception. 2016 Apr 15. pii: S0010-7824(16)30031-2. doi: 10.1016/j.contraception.2016.04.006. [Epub ahead of print]

Emergency contraception in a public health emergency: Exploring pharmacy availability in Brazil.

Tavares MP1, Foster AM2.

Author information: 1Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada. 2Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; Institute of Population Health, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada. Electronic address: angel.foster@uottawa.ca.




Dedicated progestin-only emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) have been available with a prescription in Brazil since 1999. However, utilization of emergency contraception has been limited. We conducted a mystery client study at retail pharmacies in three regions to assess current availability.


Using a pre-determined client profile, we approached a random sample of chain and independent pharmacies in urban areas in the southeastern, northeastern, and central-west regions. We documented product availability, price, and the client-pharmacy representative interaction at each site. We analyzed these data with descriptive statistics and for content and themes.


We visited 122 pharmacies in early 2016. All but three pharmacies (97.5%) had ECPs in stock at the time of the interaction and offered our client the medication without a prescription. In general, pharmacy representatives did not ask questions or provide our client with information about emergency contraception. When prompted, over one third of the pharmacy representatives (37.7%) inaccurately reported that levonorgestrel ECPs could only be used immediately or within 12, 24, or 48 hours from the time of intercourse.


Despite the current regulatory status, our findings suggest that progestin-only ECPs are widely available without a prescription. Additional efforts to ensure women have up-to-date and medically accurate information about progestin-only ECPs appear warranted. Our findings suggest that more work needs to be done to align national regulatory policies with international standards and evidence-based practices. Implications The Zika virus epidemic has shined a spotlight on the importance of providing timely access to emergency contraception in Latin America. This public health emergency offers a window of opportunity to advance national policies and practices to ensure that Brazilian women have access to a full range of reproductive health services.

Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

KEYWORDS: EC; ECPs; Latin America; Zika virus; post-coital contraception

PMID: 27091724 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Zika Virus; Brazil.


#Mapping #global #environmental #suitability for #Zika virus (Elife, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Elife. 2016 Apr 19;5. pii: e15272. doi: 10.7554/eLife.15272. [Epub ahead of print]

Mapping global environmental suitability for Zika virus.

Messina JP1, Kraemer MU1, Brady OJ2, Pigott DM2, Shearer FM2, Weiss DJ1, Golding N3, Ruktanonchai CW4, Gething PW1, Cohn E5, Brownstein JS6, Khan K7, Tatem AJ4, Jaenisch T8, Murray CJ9, Marinho F10, Scott TW11, Hay SI2.

Author information: 1Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom. 2Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom. 3Department of BioSciences, University of Melbourne, Parkville, United Kingdom. 4WorldPop project, Department of Geography and Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom. 5Boston Children’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, United Kingdom. 6Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, United States. 7Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. 8Section Clinical Tropical Medicine, Department for Infectious Diseases, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany. 9Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, Seattle, United States. 10Secretariat of Health Surveillance, Ministry of Health Brazil, Brasilia, Brazil. 11Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of California Davis, Davis, United States.



Zika virus was discovered in Uganda in 1947 and is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, which also act as vectors for dengue and chikungunya viruses throughout much of the tropical world. In 2007, an outbreak in the Federated States of Micronesia sparked public health concern. In 2013, the virus began to spread across other parts of Oceania and in 2015, a large outbreak in Latin America began in Brazil. Possible associations with microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome observed in this outbreak have raised concerns about continued global spread of Zika virus, prompting its declaration as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization. We conducted species distribution modelling to map environmental suitability for Zika. We show a large portion of tropical and sub-tropical regions globally have suitable environmental conditions with over 2.17 billion people inhabiting these areas.

KEYWORDS: epidemiology; global health; human; infectious disease; microbiology; viruses

PMID: 27090089 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Zika Virus.