#Lack of #chicken #adaptation of newly emergent #Eurasian #H5N8 and reassortant #H5N2 HPAI #viruses in the #US is consistent with restricted #poultry #outbreaks … (Virology, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Virology. 2016 Apr 22;494:190-197. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2016.04.019. [Epub ahead of print]

Lack of chicken adaptation of newly emergent Eurasian H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses in the U.S. is consistent with restricted poultry outbreaks in the Pacific flyway during 2014-2015.

Bertran K1, Swayne DE2, Pantin-Jackwood MJ3, Kapczynski DR4, Spackman E5, Suarez DL6.

Author information: 1Exotic and Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Research Unit, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, U.S. National Poultry Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 934 College Station Rd, 30605 Athens, GA, USA. Electronic address: kateri.bertran@ars.usda.gov. 2Exotic and Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Research Unit, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, U.S. National Poultry Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 934 College Station Rd, 30605 Athens, GA, USA. Electronic address: david.swayne@ars.usda.gov. 3Exotic and Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Research Unit, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, U.S. National Poultry Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 934 College Station Rd, 30605 Athens, GA, USA. Electronic address: mary.pantin-jackwood@ars.usda.gov. 4Exotic and Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Research Unit, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, U.S. National Poultry Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 934 College Station Rd, 30605 Athens, GA, USA. Electronic address: darrell.kapczynski@ars.usda.gov. 5Exotic and Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Research Unit, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, U.S. National Poultry Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 934 College Station Rd, 30605 Athens, GA, USA. Electronic address: erica.spackman@ars.usda.gov. 6Exotic and Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Research Unit, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, U.S. National Poultry Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 934 College Station Rd, 30605 Athens, GA, USA. Electronic address: david.suarez@ars.usda.gov.



In 2014-2015, the U.S. experienced an unprecedented outbreak of Eurasian clade H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, initially affecting mainly wild birds and few backyard and commercial poultry premises. To better model the outbreak, the pathogenesis and transmission dynamics of representative Eurasian H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 clade HPAI viruses detected early in the North American outbreak were investigated in chickens. High mean chicken infectious doses and lack of seroconversion in survivors indicated the viruses were poorly chicken adapted. Pathobiological features were consistent with HPAI virus infection, although the delayed appearance of lesions, longer mean death times, and reduced replication in endothelial cells differed from features of most other Eurasian H5N1 HPAI viruses. Although these initial U.S. H5 HPAI viruses had reduced adaptation and transmissibility in chickens, multi-generational passage in poultry could generate poultry adapted viruses with higher infectivity and transmissibility.

Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza; Clade; Highly pathogenic avian influenza; Infectivity; Pathobiology; Poultry; Transmission; Wild waterfowl

PMID: 27110710 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; H5N2; H5N8; Reassortant Strains; Avian Influenza; Poultry; USA.


On the Seasonal #Occurrence and #Abundance of the #Zika #Virus #Vector #Mosquito #Aedes Aegypti in the Contiguous #USA (PLoS Curr., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

PLoS Curr. 2016 Mar 16;8. pii: ecurrents.outbreaks.50dfc7f46798675fc63e7d7da563da76.

On the Seasonal Occurrence and Abundance of the Zika Virus Vector Mosquito Aedes Aegypti in the Contiguous United States.

Monaghan AJ, Morin CW, Steinhoff DF, Wilhelmi O, Hayden M, Quattrochi DA, Reiskind M, Lloyd AL, Smith K, Schmidt CA, Scalf PE, Ernst K.




An ongoing Zika virus pandemic in Latin America and the Caribbean has raised concerns that travel-related introduction of Zika virus could initiate local transmission in the United States (U.S.) by its primary vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti.


We employed meteorologically driven models for 2006-2015 to simulate the potential seasonal abundance of adult Aedes aegypti for fifty cities within or near the margins of its known U.S. range. Mosquito abundance results were analyzed alongside travel and socioeconomic factors that are proxies of viral introduction and vulnerability to human-vector contact.


Meteorological conditions are largely unsuitable for Aedes aegypti over the U.S. during winter months (December-March), except in southern Florida and south Texas where comparatively warm conditions can sustain low-to-moderate potential mosquito abundance. Meteorological conditions are suitable for Aedes aegypti across all fifty cities during peak summer months (July-September), though the mosquito has not been documented in all cities. Simulations indicate the highest mosquito abundance occurs in the Southeast and south Texas where locally acquired cases of Aedes-transmitted viruses have been reported previously. Cities in southern Florida and south Texas are at the nexus of high seasonal suitability for Aedes aegypti and strong potential for travel-related virus introduction. Higher poverty rates in cities along the U.S.-Mexico border may correlate with factors that increase human exposure to Aedes aegypti. Discussion: Our results can inform baseline risk for local Zika virus transmission in the U.S. and the optimal timing of vector control activities, and underscore the need for enhanced surveillance for Aedes mosquitoes and Aedes-transmitted viruses.

PMID: 27066299 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Zika Virus; Aedes Aegypti; USA.


#Surveillance for #Eurasian-origin and #intercontinental #reassortant highly pathogenic #influenza A #viruses in #Alaska, spring and summer 2015 (BMC, abstract)

[Source: BioMedCentral, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Short report / Open Access

Surveillance for Eurasian-origin and intercontinental reassortant highly pathogenic influenza A viruses in Alaska, spring and summer 2015

Andrew M. Ramey, John M. Pearce, Andrew B. Reeves, Rebecca L. Poulson, Jennifer Dobson,  Brian Lefferts, Kyle Spragens and David E. Stallknecht

Virology Journal / 201613:55 / DOI: 10.1186/s12985-016-0511-9

© Ramey et al. 2016

Received: 21 December 2015 – Accepted: 21 March 2016 – Published: 31 March 2016




Eurasian-origin and intercontinental reassortant highly pathogenic (HP) influenza A viruses (IAVs) were first detected in North America in wild, captive, and domestic birds during November–December 2014. Detections of HP viruses in wild birds in the contiguous United States and southern Canadian provinces continued into winter and spring of 2015 raising concerns that migratory birds could potentially disperse viruses to more northerly breeding areas where they could be maintained to eventually seed future poultry outbreaks.


We sampled 1,129 wild birds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, one of the largest breeding areas for waterfowl in North America, during spring and summer of 2015 to test for Eurasian lineage and intercontinental reassortant HP H5 IAVs and potential progeny viruses. We did not detect HP IAVs in our sample collection from western Alaska; however, we isolated five low pathogenic (LP) viruses. Four isolates were of the H6N1 (n = 2), H6N2, and H9N2 combined subtypes whereas the fifth isolate was a mixed infection that included H3 and N7 gene segments. Genetic characterization of these five LP IAVs isolated from cackling (Branta hutchinsii; n = 2) and greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons; n = 3), revealed three viral gene segments sharing high nucleotide identity with HP H5 viruses recently detected in North America. Additionally, one of the five isolates was comprised of multiple Eurasian lineage gene segments.


Our results did not provide direct evidence for circulation of HP IAVs in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta region of Alaska during spring and summer of 2015. Prevalence and genetic characteristics of LP IAVs during the sampling period are concordant with previous findings of relatively low viral prevalence in geese during spring, non-detection of IAVs in geese during summer, and evidence for intercontinental exchange of viruses in western Alaska.

Keywords: Alaska – H5N1 – H5N2 – H5N8 – Highly pathogenic – Influenza – Migratory bird – Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Avian Influenza; USA; Alaska; Wild Birds; H6N1; H6N2; H9N2; Reassortant Strains.


#Surveillance for Highly Pathogenic #Avian #Influenza #Virus in #WildBirds during #Outbreaks in Domestic #Poultry, #Minnesota, 2015 (@CDC_EIDjournal, abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Disease Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 22, Number 7—July 2016 / Dispatch

Surveillance for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in Wild Birds during Outbreaks in Domestic Poultry, Minnesota, 2015

Christopher S. Jennelle, Michelle Carstensen, Erik C. Hildebrand, Louis Cornicelli, Paul Wolf, Daniel A. Grear, Hon S. Ip, Kaci K. Vandalen, and Larissa A. Minicucci

Author affiliations: Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Forest Lake, Minnesota, USA (C.S. Jennelle, M. Carstensen, E.C. Hildebrand, L. Cornicelli); United States Department of Agriculture–Wildlife Services, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA (P. Wolf); US Geological Survey–National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin, USA (D.A. Grear, H.S. Ip); US Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA (K.K. Vandalen); University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine, St. Paul (L.A. Minicucci)



In 2015, a major outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection devastated poultry facilities in Minnesota, USA. To clarify the role of wild birds, we tested 3,139 waterfowl fecal samples and 104 sick and dead birds during March 9–June 4, 2015. HPAIV was isolated from a Cooper’s hawk but not from waterfowl.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Avian Influenza; USA; Minnesota; Wild Birds.


#Firearm #legislation and firearm #mortality in the #USA: a cross-sectional, state-level study (The Lancet, #abstract)

[Source: The Lancet, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]


Firearm legislation and firearm mortality in the USA: a cross-sectional, state-level study [  SOC  ]

Bindu Kalesan, Matthew E Mobily, Olivia Keiser, Jeffrey A Fagan, Sandro Galea

Publication stage: In Press Corrected Proof / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)01026-0

© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.




In an effort to reduce firearm mortality rates in the USA, US states have enacted a range of firearm laws to either strengthen or deregulate the existing main federal gun control law, the Brady Law. We set out to determine the independent association of different firearm laws with overall firearm mortality, homicide firearm mortality, and suicide firearm mortality across all US states. We also projected the potential reduction of firearm mortality if the three most strongly associated firearm laws were enacted at the federal level.


We constructed a cross-sectional, state-level dataset from Nov 1, 2014, to May 15, 2015, using counts of firearm-related deaths in each US state for the years 2008–10 (stratified by intent [homicide and suicide]) from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System, data about 25 firearm state laws implemented in 2009, and state-specific characteristics such as firearm ownership for 2013, firearm export rates, and non-firearm homicide rates for 2009, and unemployment rates for 2010. Our primary outcome measure was overall firearm-related mortality per 100 000 people in the USA in 2010. We used Poisson regression with robust variances to derive incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% CIs.


31 672 firearm-related deaths occurred in 2010 in the USA (10·1 per 100 000 people; mean state-specific count 631·5 [SD 629·1]). Of 25 firearm laws, nine were associated with reduced firearm mortality, nine were associated with increased firearm mortality, and seven had an inconclusive association. After adjustment for relevant covariates, the three state laws most strongly associated with reduced overall firearm mortality were universal background checks for firearm purchase (multivariable IRR 0·39 [95% CI 0·23–0·67]; p=0·001), ammunition background checks (0·18 [0·09–0·36]; p<0·0001), and identification requirement for firearms (0·16 [0·09–0·29]; p<0·0001). Projected federal-level implementation of universal background checks for firearm purchase could reduce national firearm mortality from 10·35 to 4·46 deaths per 100 000 people, background checks for ammunition purchase could reduce it to 1·99 per 100 000, and firearm identification to 1·81 per 100 000.


Very few of the existing state-specific firearm laws are associated with reduced firearm mortality, and this evidence underscores the importance of focusing on relevant and effective firearms legislation. Implementation of universal background checks for the purchase of firearms or ammunition, and firearm identification nationally could substantially reduce firearm mortality in the USA.



Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Society; USA.


Severe #Infections with #Adenovirus 7d in 2 #Adults in #Family, #Illinois, #USA, 2014 (@CDC_EIDjournal, abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 22, Number 4—April 2016  / Dispatch

Severe Infections with Adenovirus 7d in 2 Adults in Family, Illinois, USA, 2014  [      ]

Adriana E. Kajon  and Michael G. Ison 1

Author affiliations: Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA (A.E. Kajon); Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA (M.G. Ison)


Human adenovirus 7d, a genomic variant with no reported circulation in the United States, was isolated from 2 adults with severe respiratory infections in Illinois. Molecular typing identified a close relationship with strains of the same genome type isolated from cases of respiratory disease in several provinces of China since 2009.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; USA; Illinois; Adenovirus 7.


#Geography and #Timing of #Cases of Eastern Equine #Encephalitis [#EEE] in #NewYork #State from 1992 to 2012 (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases

Geography and Timing of Cases of Eastern Equine Encephalitis in New York State from 1992 to 2012  [      ]

To cite this article: Oliver JoAnne, Lukacik Gary, Kramer Laura D., Backenson P. Bryon, Sherwood James A., and Howard John J.. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. February 2016, ahead of print. doi:10.1089/vbz.2015.1864.

Online Ahead of Print: February 22, 2016




In New York State (NYS), Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) was first reported in a human in 1971, in horses in 1970, and in pheasants in 1952.

Material and Method:

Following work for the interval from 1970 to 1991, we identified cases in vertebrates from 1992 to 2012, through a passive surveillance system involving veterinarians in clinical practice, county health departments, and the Departments of Agriculture and Markets, Environmental Conservation, and Health, of the State of New York.


During an 11-year hiatus, from 1992 to 2002, no case in any vertebrate was observed. In a re-emergence, from 2003 to 2012, disease occurred in 12 counties, including 7 counties where disease had never been documented. Vertebrate cases included 4 cases in humans and 77 nonhuman occurrences; in 58 horses, Equus ferus caballus L.; 2 deer, Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann; 6 dogs, Canis familiaris; 10 birds; and 1 flock of pheasants, Phasianus colchicus L. These were the first reported cases in NYS in white-tailed deer, the domestic dog, and in five species of birds: American crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos Brehm; American goldfinch, Carduelis tristis L.; bald eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus L.; blue jay, Cyanocitta cristata (L.); and red-tailed hawk, Buteo jamaicensis Gmelin. One crow was dually infected with EEE virus and West Nile virus. The northern, southern, and southeastern borders of the state were newly affected.


The geographic area, time periods, and vertebrate species with risk of EEE disease expanded from 1992 to 2012.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; USA; New York; Eastern Equine Encephalitis.


#Clinical #Management of #Ebola Virus Disease in the #US and #Europe (N Engl J Med., abstract)

[Source: The New England Journal of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Original Article

Clinical Management of Ebola Virus Disease in the United States and Europe [      ]

Timothy M. Uyeki, M.D., M.P.H., M.P.P., Aneesh K. Mehta, M.D., Richard T. Davey, Jr., M.D., Allison M. Liddell, M.D., Timo Wolf, M.D., Pauline Vetter, M.D., D.T.M.&H., Stefan Schmiedel, M.D., Thomas Grünewald, M.D., Ph.D., Michael Jacobs, M.B., B.S., Ph.D., D.T.M.&H., Jose R. Arribas, M.D., Laura Evans, M.D., Angela L. Hewlett, M.D., Arne B. Brantsaeter, M.D., Ph.D., M.P.H., Giuseppe Ippolito, M.D., Christophe Rapp, M.D., Ph.D., Andy I.M. Hoepelman, M.D., Ph.D., and Julie Gutman, M.D. for the Working Group of the U.S.–European Clinical Network on Clinical Management of Ebola Virus Disease Patients in the U.S. and Europe

N Engl J Med 2016; 374:636-646 / February 18, 2016 / DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1504874




Available data on the characteristics of patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD) and clinical management of EVD in settings outside West Africa, as well as the complications observed in those patients, are limited.


We reviewed available clinical, laboratory, and virologic data from all patients with laboratory-confirmed Ebola virus infection who received care in U.S. and European hospitals from August 2014 through December 2015.


A total of 27 patients (median age, 36 years [range, 25 to 75]) with EVD received care; 19 patients (70%) were male, 9 of 26 patients (35%) had coexisting conditions, and 22 (81%) were health care personnel. Of the 27 patients, 24 (89%) were medically evacuated from West Africa or were exposed to and infected with Ebola virus in West Africa and had onset of illness and laboratory confirmation of Ebola virus infection in Europe or the United States, and 3 (11%) acquired EVD in the United States or Europe. At the onset of illness, the most common signs and symptoms were fatigue (20 patients [80%]) and fever or feverishness (17 patients [68%]). During the clinical course, the predominant findings included diarrhea, hypoalbuminemia, hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, and hypomagnesemia; 14 patients (52%) had hypoxemia, and 9 (33%) had oliguria, of whom 5 had anuria. Aminotransferase levels peaked at a median of 9 days after the onset of illness. Nearly all the patients received intravenous fluids and electrolyte supplementation; 9 (33%) received noninvasive or invasive mechanical ventilation; 5 (19%) received continuous renal-replacement therapy; 22 (81%) received empirical antibiotics; and 23 (85%) received investigational therapies (19 [70%] received at least two experimental interventions). Ebola viral RNA levels in blood peaked at a median of 7 days after the onset of illness, and the median time from the onset of symptoms to clearance of viremia was 17.5 days. A total of 5 patients died, including 3 who had respiratory and renal failure, for a mortality of 18.5%.


Among the patients with EVD who were cared for in the United States or Europe, close monitoring and aggressive supportive care that included intravenous fluid hydration, correction of electrolyte abnormalities, nutritional support, and critical care management for respiratory and renal failure were needed; 81.5% of these patients who received this care survived.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Ebola; USA; European Region.


#Carbapenem- and #Colistin-Resistant #Enterobacter cloacae, Delta, #Colorado, 2015 (Antimicrob Agents Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Carbapenem- and Colistin-Resistant Enterobacter cloacae, Delta, Colorado, 2015 [      ]

Andrew P. Norgan 1, Jarred M. Freese 2, Patricia M. Tuin 2, Scott A. Cunningham 3, Patricio R. Jeraldo 4 and Robin Patel 3,5*

Author Affiliations: 1Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Rochester, Minnesota, USA 2Delta County Memorial Hospital, Delta, Colorado, USA 3Division of Clinical Microbiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA 4Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA 5Division of Infectious Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA



Resistance to carbapenems in Enterobacteriaceae is a clinical problem of growing significance. Difficulty in treating multidrug resistant Gram-negative organisms with conventional antibiotics has led to the renewed and increasing use of polymyxins compounds, such as colistin. Herein, we report the isolation of carbapenem- and colistin-resistant Enterobacter cloacae from a polymicrobial lower extremity wound in an ambulatory patient. Whole genome sequencing demonstrated the presence of chromosomal blaIMI-1 and blaAmpC, as well as numerous efflux pump genes.



*Correspondence to: Robin Patel, M.D., Division of Clinical Microbiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St S.W., Rochester, MN 55905, USA, 507-538-0579 (phone), 507-284-4272 (fax), E-mail: patel.robin@mayo.edu

Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Carbapenem; Colistin; USA; Colorado.


#Lead #Contamination in #Flint — An Abject #Failure to Protect #Public #Health (N Engl J Med., extract)

[Source: The New England Journal of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Extract.]


Lead Contamination in Flint — An Abject Failure to Protect Public Health [  ENVR  ]

David C. Bellinger, Ph.D.

February 10, 2016 / DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp1601013


The dangers of lead exposure have been recognized for millennia. In the first century a.d., Dioscorides observed in his De Materia Medica that “lead makes the mind give way.” The first industrial hygiene act passed in the colonies, in 1723, prohibited the use of lead in the apparatus used to distill rum, because “the strong liquors and spirits that are distilld through leaden heads or pipes are judged on good grounds to be unwholsom and hurtful.” More recently, large amounts of lead were used to boost the octane rating of gasoline and improve the performance of paint. One would be challenged to design a better strategy for maximizing population exposure to a poison than to have it emitted by a ubiquitous mobile source and to line the surfaces of dwellings with it.


Disclosure forms provided by the author are available with the full text of this article at NEJM.org.

This article was published on February 10, 2016, at NEJM.org.

Source Information: From the Departments of Neurology and Psychiatry, Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, and the Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health — all in Boston.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Environmental Pollution; USA.