#Epidemiological #data #accessibility in #Brazil (The Lancet ID, summary)

[Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Summary.]


Epidemiological data accessibility in Brazil

Flávio Codeço Coelho, Cláudia Torres Codeço, Oswaldo Gonçalves Cruz, Sabrina Camargo, Pierre-Alexandre Bliman

Published Online: 07 April 2016 / Article has an altmetric score of 12 / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(16)30007-X

© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.



Concerns about data sharing and transparency during epidemiological emergencies are not new.1, 2, 3, 4 Dye and colleagues5 have announced an initiative called Zika Open through which the manuscripts and respective data submitted to Bulletin of the World Health Organization would be publlished as open access from the date of submission onwards, under a Creative Commons License (CC BY IGO 3.0). This is an important initiative. Here we report challenges faced, particularly in Brazil, for timely, lawful access to governmental collected disease-notification data that are essential to understand the current Zika virus epidemic, and any future public health emergency.


Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Zika Virus; Global Health.


#Deciphering emerging #Zika and #dengue viral #epidemics: Implications for global #maternal–child health burden (SD, abstract)

[Source: Science Direct, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Journal of Infection and Public Health / Available online 2 April 2016 / In Press, Corrected Proof / Review

Deciphering emerging Zika and dengue viral epidemics: Implications for global maternal–child health burden

Ernest Tambo a, b, #, Pascal D. Chuisseu a, Jeanne Y. Ngogang a, c, Emad I.M. Khater d

a Biochemisry and Pharmaceutical Sciences Department, Higher Institute of Health Sciences, Université des Montagnes, Bangangté, Cameroon; b Africa Intelligence and Surveillance, Communication and Response (Africa DISCoR) Foundation, Yaoundé, Cameroon; c Service de Biochimie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU), Yaoundé, Cameroon; d Public Health Pests Laboratory, Jeddah Governate, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Received 18 February 2016, Accepted 20 February 2016, Available online 2 April 2016




Since its discovery in 1947 in Uganda and control and eradication efforts have aimed at its vectors (Aedes mosquitoes) in Latin America in the 1950s, an absolute neglect of Zika programs and interventions has been documented in Aedes endemic and epidemic-prone countries. The current unprecedented Zika viral epidemics and rapid spread in the Western hemisphere pose a substantial global threat, with associated anxiety and consequences. The lack of safe and effective drugs and vaccines against Zika or dengue epidemics further buttresses the realization from the West Africa Ebola outbreak that most emerging disease-prone countries are still poorly prepared for an emergency response. This paper examines knowledge gaps in both emerging and neglected arthropod-borne flavivirus infectious diseases associated with poverty and their implications for fostering local, national and regional emerging disease preparedness, effective and robust surveillance–response systems, sustained control and eventual elimination. Strengthening the regional and Global Health Flavivirus Surveillance-Response Network (GHFV-SRN) with other models of socio-economic, climatic, environmental and ecological mitigation and adaptation strategies will be necessary to improve evidence-based national and global maternal–child health agenda and action plans.

Keywords: Zika virus; Epidemics; Health; Preparedness; Surveillance; Maternal–child

Corresponding author at: Biochemisry and Pharmaceutical Sciences Department, Higher Institute of Health Sciences, Université des Montagnes, Bangangté, Cameroon. Tel.: +237 672282749.

# Corresponding author.

Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Global Health; Dengue Fever; Zika Virus.


Neglected #Dimensions of #Global #Security – The Global #Health #Risk #Framework #Commission (JAMA, extract)

[Source: The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), full page: (LINK). Extract.]

Viewpoint | March 24, 2016

Neglected Dimensions of Global Security – The Global Health Risk Framework Commission


Lawrence O. Gostin, JD1; Carmen C. Mundaca-Shah, MD, DrPH2; Patrick W. Kelley, MD, DrPH2

JAMA. Published online March 24, 2016. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.1964


The world has experienced global health crises ranging from novel influenzas (H5N1 and H1N1) and coronaviruses (SARS and MERS) to the Ebola and Zika viruses. In each case, governments and international organizations seemed unable to react quickly and decisively. Health crises have unmasked critical vulnerabilities—weak health systems, failures of leadership, and political overreaction and underreaction. The Global Health Risk Framework Commission, for which the National Academy of Medicine served as the secretariat, recently set out a comprehensive strategy to safeguard human and economic security from pandemic threats (eTable in the Supplement).1


Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Global Health.


#Emergency #response in a #global #health #crisis: epidemiology, ethics, and #Ebola application (Ann Epidemiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Ann Epidemiol. 2016 Mar 3. pii: S1047-2797(16)30041-2. doi: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2016.02.004. [Epub ahead of print]

Emergency response in a global health crisis: epidemiology, ethics, and Ebola application.

Salerno J1, Hlaing WM2, Weiser T3, Striley C4, Schwartz L5, Angulo FJ6, Neslund VS7.

Author information: 1Department of Oncology, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada. Electronic address: salernoj@mcmaster.ca. 2Division of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Miami, Miami, FL. 3Portland Area Indian Health Service, Portland, OR. 4Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health and Health Professions and College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville. 5Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada. 6Division of Global Health Protection, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. 7CDC Foundation, Atlanta, GA.




The link between ethics and epidemiology can go unnoticed in contemporary gatherings of professional epidemiologists or trainees at conferences and workshops, as well as in teaching. Our goal is to provide readers with information about the activities of the College and to provide a broad perspective on a recent major issue in epidemiology.


The Ethics Committee of the American College of Epidemiology (ACE) presented a plenary session at the 2015 Annual Meeting in Atlanta, GA, on the complexities of ethics and epidemiology in the context of the 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease outbreak and response in West Africa. This article presents a summary and further discussion of that plenary session.


Three main topic areas were presented: clinical trials and ethics in public health emergencies, public health practice, and collaborative work. A number of key ethical concepts were highlighted and discussed in relation to Ebola and the ACE Ethics Guidelines.


The Ebola virus disease outbreak is an example of a public health humanitarian crisis from which we hope to better understand the role of professional epidemiologists in public health practice and research and recognize ethical challenges epidemiologists faced.

Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Disaster planning; Ebola; Epidemiology; Ethics; Global health; Hemorrhagic fever

PMID: 26996399 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Ebola; Global Health.


#Partnerships, Not Parachutists, for #Zika #Research (NEJM, summary)

[Source: The New England Journal of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Summary.]


Partnerships, Not Parachutists, for Zika Research [      ]

David L. Heymann, M.D., Joanne Liu, M.D., and Louis Lillywhite, M.B., B.Ch.

March 9, 2016 / DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp1602278


When the director-general of the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that the recently reported clusters of microcephaly and other neurologic disorders represent a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), she called for increased research into their cause, including the question of whether the Zika virus is the source of the problem.1 The declaration provides an opportunity to step up the pace of research in order to find the answer to some important questions more quickly. It could not only facilitate the accumulation of knowledge about the relationship between the Zika virus and microcephaly, but also accelerate the study of newer technologies for mosquito control, which could have far-reaching effects on global health security beyond controlling Zika infections.


Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Zika Virus; Global Health.


#Zika #virus #outbreak and the case for #building effective and sustainable rapid #diagnostics laboratory capacity globally (SD, extract)

[Source: Science Direct, full PDF file: (LINK). Extract, edited.]

Accepted Manuscript Title: Zika virus outbreak and the case for building effective and sustainable rapid diagnostics laboratory capacity globally [      ]

Author: Alimuddin Zumla, Ian Goodfellow, Francis Kasolo, Francine Ntoumi, Philippe Buchy, Matthew Bates, Esam I Azhar, Matthew Cotten, Eskild Petersen

PII: S1201-9712(16)30986-9 / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2016.02.1007

Reference: IJID 2553

To appear in: International Journal of Infectious Diseases

Received date: 29-2-2016 Accepted date: 29-2-2016

Please cite this article as: Zumla A, Goodfellow I, Kasolo F, Ntoumi F, Buchy P, Bates M, Azhar EI, Cotten M, Petersen E, Zika virus outbreak and the case for building effective and sustainable rapid diagnostics laboratory capacity globally, International Journal of Infectious Diseases (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2016.02.1007

Keywords: Zika virus, Emerging pathogens, laboratory, diagnostics, surveillance, public health

Correspondence: Eskild Petersen, University of Aarhus, Denmark and The Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman. Email: eskildp@dadlnet.dk.


New and re-emerging pathogens with epidemic potential have threatened global health security for the past century. As with the recent Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) epidemic, the Zika Virus (ZIKV) outbreak has yet again surprised and overwhelmed the international health community with an unexpected event for which it might have been better prepared. ZIKV was first identified in Uganda in 1947, was also found in Gabon in 2007 and may be endemic in much of tropical Africa without receiving much attention. The current ZIKV epidemic facing the Americas, was declared a “Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)” by the World Health Organization on 1st February 2016. Preceding the declaration of a Global Public Health Emergency by 4 days was the release of the United Nations report “Protecting Humanity from Future Health Crises. Report of the Highlevel Panel on the Global Response to Health Crises (UN 26 Jan 2016)”. The report recommends that countries be able to “If deemed necessary, diagnostic teams must be deployed to investigate unusual cases. These teams must also have access to laboratory capacities to test samples and to provide rapid test results.” This is simply not realistic for the major part of the UN member countries.


Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Zika Virus; Global health.


#Challenges presented by #MERS #coronavirus, and #SARS coronavirus to #global #health (SD, abstract)

[Source: Science Direct, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences / Available online 21 February 2016 / In Press, Accepted Manuscript / Open Access / Review

Challenges presented by MERS corona virus, and SARS corona virus to global health [      ]

Ali Al-Hazmi

Department of Family & Community Medicine, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia

Received 19 December 2015, Revised 13 February 2016, Accepted 13 February 2016, Available online 21 February 2016


Open Access funded by King Saud University  / Under a Creative Commons license



Numerous viral infections have arisen and affected global healthcare facilities. Millions of people are at severe risk of acquiring several evolving viral infections through several factors. In the present article we have described about risk factors, chance of infection, and prevention methods of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV), Human coronaviruses (CoVs) frequently cause a normal cold which is mild and self-restricting. Zoonotic transmission of CoVs such as the newly discovered MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, may be associated with severe lower respiratory tract infection. The present review provides the recent clinical and pathological information on MERS and SARS. The task is to transform these discoveries about of MERS and SARS pathogenesis and to develop intervention methods that will eventually allow the effective control of this recently arising severe viral infections. Global health sector has learnt many lessons through recent outbreak of MERS and SARS, but the need of identifying new antiviral treatment was not learned. In the present article we have reviewed the literature on the several facets like transmission, precautions and effectiveness of treatments used in patients with MERS-CoV and SARS infections.

Keywords: MERS; SARS; Corona virus; Respiratory infections; viral infections

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; MERS-CoV; SARS; Global health.


Beyond #Ebola (Science, summary)

[Source: Science, full page: (LINK). Summary.]

Perspective / Infectious Diseases

Beyond Ebola [      ]

Janet Currie 1, Bryan Grenfell 1, Jeremy Farrar 2

Author Affiliations: 1Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA. 2Wellcome Trust, 215 Euston Road, London NW1 2BE, UK.

E-mail: jcurrie@princeton.edu

Science 19 Feb 2016: Vol. 351, Issue 6275, pp. 815-816 / DOI: 10.1126/science.aad8521



On 14 January 2016, Liberia was declared Ebola-free. A new case was identified shortly after the announcement, but it is nevertheless clear that the West African epidemic has moved on to a more hopeful phase. What lessons can be drawn from the Ebola crisis to help the international community to prepare for and respond to the next global epidemic? This question is particularly pertinent given the recent declaration of the Zika virus as a public health emergency.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Ebola; Public Health.


The #Ebola #Outbreak of 2014-2015: From Coordinated Multilateral Action to Effective Disease #Containment, #Vaccine Development, and Beyond (J Glob Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Glob Infect Dis. 2015 Oct-Dec;7(4):127-138.

The Ebola Outbreak of 2014-2015: From Coordinated Multilateral Action to Effective Disease Containment, Vaccine Development, and Beyond. [      ]

Wojda TR 1, Valenza PL 2, Cornejo K 2, McGinley T 2, Galwankar SC 3, Kelkar D 3, Sharpe RP 1, Papadimos TJ 4, Stawicki SP 1.

Author information: 1Department of Surgery, St. Luke’s University Health Network, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania and Phillipsburg, New Jersey, USA. 2Department of Family Medicine, St. Luke’s University Health Network, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania and Phillipsburg, New Jersey, USA. 3Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Florida, Jacksonville, Florida, USA. 4Department of Anesthesiology, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio, USA.



The Ebola outbreak of 2014-2015 exacted a terrible toll on major countries of West Africa. Latest estimates from the World Health Organization indicate that over 11,000 lives were lost to the deadly virus since the first documented case was officially recorded. However, significant progress in the fight against Ebola was made thanks to a combination of globally-supported containment efforts, dissemination of key information to the public, the use of modern information technology resources to better track the spread of the outbreak, as well as more effective use of active surveillance, targeted travel restrictions, and quarantine procedures. This article will outline the progress made by the global public health community toward containing and eventually extinguishing this latest outbreak of Ebola. Economic consequences of the outbreak will be discussed. The authors will emphasize policies and procedures thought to be effective in containing the outbreak. In addition, we will outline selected episodes that threatened inter-continental spread of the disease. The emerging topic of post-Ebola syndrome will also be presented. Finally, we will touch on some of the diagnostic (e.g., point-of-care [POC] testing) and therapeutic (e.g., new vaccines and pharmaceuticals) developments in the fight against Ebola, and how these developments may help the global public health community fight future epidemics.

KEYWORDS: Diagnostic and therapeutic update; Ebola outbreak; West Africa; epidemiology; socioeconomic developments

PMID: 26752867 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Ebola; Public Health; Global Health.


Developing #Global #Norms for #Sharing #Data and #Results during #Public #Health #Emergencies (PLoS Med., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Open Access / Policy Forum

Developing Global Norms for Sharing Data and Results during Public Health Emergencies [      ]

Kayvon Modjarrad,  Vasee S. Moorthy,  Piers Millett,  Pierre-Stéphane Gsell,  Cathy Roth,  Marie-Paule Kieny

Published: January 5, 2016 / DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001935

Citation: Modjarrad K, Moorthy VS, Millett P, Gsell P-S, Roth C, Kieny M-P (2016) Developing Global Norms for Sharing Data and Results during Public Health Emergencies. PLoS Med 13(1): e1001935. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001935

Published: January 5, 2016

Copyright: © 2016 Modjarrad et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited

Funding: The Wellcome Trust contributed towards the cost of the consultation. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Provenance: Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed


Summary Points

  • Leading stakeholders from around the world convened at a WHO consultation in September 2015, where they affirmed that timely and transparent sharing of data and results during public health emergencies must become the global norm.
  • Representatives from major biomedical journals who attended the meeting agreed that public disclosure of information of relevance to public health emergencies should not be delayed by publication timelines and that early disclosure should not and will not prejudice later journal publication.
  • Researchers should be responsible for the accuracy of shared preliminary results, ensuring that they have been subjected to sufficient quality control before public dissemination.
  • Opting in to data sharing should be the default practice, and the onus should be placed on data generators and stewards at the local, national, and international level to explain any decision to opt out from sharing data and results during public health emergencies.
  • Incentives for sharing data should be created and tailored for each type of data generator and steward, while data management and analysis expertise is enhanced in under-resourced settings.


Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Public Health; Global Health; Emerging Diseases.