#Occurrence, #Virulence Factors, #Antimicrobial #Resistance, and Genotyping of #Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from #Chicken Products and Humans (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases

Occurrence, Virulence Factors, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Chicken Products and Humans  [      ]

To cite this article: El Bayomi Rasha M., Ahmed Heba A., Awadallah Maysa A. I., Mohsen Rasha A., Abd El-Ghafar Abeer E., and Abdelrahman Mahmoud A.. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. January 2016, ahead of print. doi:10.1089/vbz.2015.1891.

Online Ahead of Print: January 25, 2016

Author information: Rasha M. El Bayomi,1 Heba A. Ahmed,2 Maysa A. I. Awadallah,2 Rasha A. Mohsen,3 Abeer E. Abd El-Ghafar,3 and Mahmoud A. Abdelrahman3

1Department of Food Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt. 2Department of Zoonoses, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt. 3Department of Microbiology, Animal Health Research Institute, Mansoura Branch, Mansoura, Egypt.

Address correspondence to: Dr. Heba A. Ahmed, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Alzeraa Street, Zagazig 44511, Egypt, E-mail: heba_ahmed@zu.edu.eg



Staphylococcus aureus in food is a consequence of inadequate hygienic handling and processing, posing a potential risk to public health. The current study aimed to characterize virulence factors, as well as antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolated from retail chicken products and hand swabs from vendors in Egypt. In addition, genetic relatedness of the isolates from chicken and humans was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using protein A as a target. A total of 110 samples were collected from chicken products (n = 80) and vendors (n = 30). Overall, 30 (37.5%) chicken products samples were positive for S. aureus, whereas hand swabs from meat handlers revealed that 18 (60%) were positive. Ten MRSA strains were characterized by the presence of the mecA gene, comprising seven isolates from chicken and three from humans. Virulence-associated factors were evaluated by PCR, revealing that 31.3% of S. aureus isolates harbored the Panton–Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene, whereas 10.4% were positive for the sea and sed genes each, and only two isolates were positive for γ-hemolysin–associated gene. Genotyping using spa PCR-RFLP showed identical restriction banding patterns of MRSA isolates of human and chicken meat origin, indicating the genetic relatedness of the isolates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize PVL-positive MRSA from chicken products and to utilize spa-RFLP for evaluating the genetic relatedness between MRSA of human and chicken origin in Egypt.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Food Safety; Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Egypt; MRSA; Staphylococcus Aureus.


#Colistin-resistant #Escherichia coli harbouring #mcr1 isolated from #food #animals in #Hanoi, #Vietnam (The Lancet Infect Dis., summary)

[Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Colistin-resistant Escherichia coli harbouring mcr-1 isolated from food animals in Hanoi, Vietnam [      ]

Surbhi Malhotra-Kumar, Basil Britto Xavier, Anupam J Das, Christine Lammens, Ha Thi Thu Hoang, Ngoc Thi Pham, Herman Goossens

Published Online: 07 January 2016 / Publication stage: In Press Corrected Proof / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(16)00014-1

© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.



In The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Yi-Yun Liu and colleagues1 reported, for the first time, plasmid-mediated colistin resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from animals, food, and patients in China. We screened 24 extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL, blaCTX-M) harbouring E coli isolated during 2014–15 from rectal swabs taken from chickens on two farms (n=11) in the Van Lam district of the Hung Yen province, and from a pig farm (seven) and a pig slaughterhouse (four) located in the Hoai Duc region of the Hanoi province, Vietnam.


Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Colistins; E. Coli; Food Safety; Vietnam.


#Antibiotic #Susceptibility #Profiles of #Dairy #Leuconostoc, Analysis of the #Genetic #Basis of Atypical #Resistances and Transfer of #Genes In Vitro and in a #Food Matrix (Plos One, abstract)

[Source: PLoS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Open Access / Peer-reviewed / Research Article

Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiles of Dairy Leuconostoc, Analysis of the Genetic Basis of Atypical Resistances and Transfer of Genes In Vitro and in a Food Matrix [   R   ]

Ana Belén Flórez,  Ilenia Campedelli,  Susana Delgado,  Ángel Alegría,  Elisa Salvetti,  Giovanna E. Felis,  Baltasar Mayo,  Sandra Torriani

Published: January 4, 2016 / DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0145203



In spite of a global concern on the transfer of antibiotic resistances (AR) via the food chain, limited information exists on this issue in species of Leuconostoc and Weissella, adjunct cultures used as aroma producers in fermented foods. In this work, the minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for 16 antibiotics in 34 strains of dairy origin, belonging to Leuconostoc mesenteroides (18), Leuconostoc citreum (11), Leuconostoc lactis (2), Weissella hellenica (2), and Leuconostoc carnosum (1). Atypical resistances were found for kanamycin (17 strains), tetracycline and chloramphenicol (two strains each), and erythromycin, clindamycin, virginiamycin, ciprofloxacin, and rifampicin (one strain each). Surprisingly, L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides LbE16, showed resistance to four antibiotics, kanamycin, streptomycin, tetracycline and virginiamycin. PCR analysis identified tet(S) as responsible for tetracycline resistance in LbE16, but no gene was detected in a second tetracycline-resistant strain, L. mesenteroides subsp. cremoris LbT16. In Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum LbE15, erythromycin and clindamycin resistant, an erm(B) gene was amplified. Hybridization experiments proved erm(B) and tet(S) to be associated to a plasmid of ≈35 kbp and to the chromosome of LbE15 and LbE16, respectively. The complete genome sequence of LbE15 and LbE16 was used to get further insights on the makeup and genetic organization of AR genes. Genome analysis confirmed the presence and location of erm(B) and tet(S), but genes providing tetracycline resistance in LbT16 were again not identified. In the genome of the multi-resistant strain LbE16, genes that might be involved in aminoglycoside (aadE, aphA-3, sat4) and virginiamycin [vat(E)] resistance were further found. The erm(B) gene but not tet(S) was transferred from Leuconostoc to Enterococcus faecalis both under laboratory conditions and in cheese. This study contributes to the characterization of AR in the Leuconostoc-Weissella group, provides evidence of the genetic basis of atypical resistances, and demonstrates the inter-species transfer of erythromycin resistance.


Citation: Flórez AB, Campedelli I, Delgado S, Alegría Á, Salvetti E, Felis GE, et al. (2016) Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiles of Dairy Leuconostoc, Analysis of the Genetic Basis of Atypical Resistances and Transfer of Genes In Vitro and in a Food Matrix. PLoS ONE 11(1): e0145203. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0145203

Editor: Riccardo Manganelli, University of Padova, Medical School, ITALY

Received: September 25, 2015; Accepted: November 30, 2015; Published: January 4, 2016

Copyright: © 2016 Flórez et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: This research was partially supported by a Spain-Italy bilateral collaboration program (Ref. Ministerio de Educatiòn y Ciencia IT2009-0080, and Ministerio dell’Istruzione, dell’Univesità e della Ricerca IT105MD12L), aiming at the research mobility, to ST and BM. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Food Safety; Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance.


#Poultry #food #products- a #source of #avian #influenza #virus #transmission to #humans? (Clin Microbiol Infect., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Clin Microbiol Infect. 2015 Dec 11. pii: S1198-743X(15)01021-6. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2015.11.015. [Epub ahead of print]

Poultry food products- a source of avian influenza virus transmission to humans? [      ]

Harder TC1, Buda S2, Hengel H3, Beer M4, Mettenleiter TC4.

Author information: 1The Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Suedufer 10, Greifswald Insel-Riems 17493, Germany. Electronic address: timm.harder@fli.bund.de. 2Robert-Koch-Institut, Nordufer 20, 13353 Berlin, Germany. 3Institute of Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University Medical Center, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Strasse 11, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany. 4The Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Suedufer 10, Greifswald Insel-Riems 17493, Germany.



Global human mobility and intercontinental connectivity, expansion of livestock production and encroachment of wildlife habitats by invasive agricultural land use contribute to shape the complexity of influenza epidemiology. The OneHealth approach integrates these and further elements into considerations to improve disease control and prevention. Food of animal origin for human consumption is another integral aspect; if produced from infected livestock such items may act as vehicles of spread of animal pathogens, and, in case of zoonotic agents, as a potential human health hazard. Notifiable zoonotic avian influenza viruses (AIV) have become entrenched in poultry populations in several Asian and Northern African countries since 2003. Highly pathogenic (HP) AIV (e.g., H5N1) cause extensive poultry mortality and severe economic losses. HPAIV and low pathogenic AIV (e.g., H7N9) with zoonotic propensities pose risks for human health. More than 1.500 human cases of AIV infection have been reported mainly from regions with endemically infected poultry. Intense human exposure to AIV infected poultry, e.g. during rearing, slaughtering or processing of poultry, is a major risk factor of acquiring AIV infection. In contrast, human infections through consumption of AIV contaminated food have not been substantiated. Heating poultry products according to kitchen standards (core temperatures ≥70°C, ≥10 seconds) rapidly inactivates AI viral infectivity and renders fully cooked products safe. Nevertheless, concerted efforts must ensure that poultry products potentially contaminated with zoonotic AIV do not reach the food chain. Stringent and sustained OneHealth measures are required to better control and eventually eradicate, HPAIV from endemic regions.

Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

KEYWORDS: OneHealth; avian; food safety; heat treatment; influenza; transspecies transmission

PMID: 26686812 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Food Safety; Poultry; Human; Research; Abstracts.


Tainted #rice #wine kills 19, leaves 172 ill in #Cambodia, says #health #ministry (SCMP, Dec. 13 ‘15)

[Source: South China Morning Post, full page: (LINK).]

Tainted rice wine kills 19, leaves 172 ill in Cambodia, says health ministry [   !   ]

(ChinaPost.com.tw) – Rice wine brewed with a toxic level of alcohol has killed at least 19 people and left 172 more in hospital in northeast Cambodia, the health ministry said Sunday.


Keywords: Cambodia; Food Safety; Undiagnosed Illness.


#Paris, Breakthrough #climate #agreement recognizes #food #security as a #priority (#FAO, Dec. 12 ‘15)

[Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, full page: (LINK).]

Breakthrough climate agreement recognizes food security as a priority [  INTL / ENVR   ]

FAO Director-General Jose Graziano da Silva welcomed the successful conclusion of the Paris Climate Summit saying that “for the first time ever, food security features in a global climate change accord.” The Paris Agreement recognizes “the fundamental priority of safeguarding food security and ending hunger, and the particular vulnerabilities of food production systems to the impacts of climate change”.


Keywords: FAO; Updates; Worldwide; Climate Change; International Cooperation; Food Safety.


#Outbreaks of Acute #Gastroenteritis Transmitted by Person-to-Person #Contact, #Environmental #Contamination, and Unknown Modes of #Transmission — #USA, 2009–2013 (MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, full page: (LINK). Abstract.]

Outbreaks of Acute Gastroenteritis Transmitted by Person-to-Person Contact, Environmental Contamination, and Unknown Modes of Transmission — United States, 2009–2013 [      ]

Surveillance Summaries / December 11, 2015 / 64(SS12);1-16

Mary E. Wikswo, MPH1, Anita Kambhampati, MPH1, Kayoko Shioda, DVM1, Kelly A. Walsh, MPH2, Anna Bowen, MD2, Aron J. Hall, DVM1

1Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, CDC; 2Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, CDC

Corresponding author: Mary Wikswo, Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, CDC. Telephone: 404-639-0881; E-mail: ezq1@cdc.gov.




Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a major cause of illness in the United States, with an estimated 179 million episodes annually. AGE outbreaks propagated through direct person-to-person contact, contaminated environmental surfaces, and unknown modes of transmission were not systematically captured at the national level before 2009 and thus were not well characterized.

Reporting Period:


Description of System:

The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) is a voluntary national reporting system that supports reporting of all waterborne and foodborne disease outbreaks and all AGE outbreaks resulting from transmission by contact with contaminated environmental sources, infected persons or animals, or unknown modes. Local, state, and territorial public health agencies within the 50 U.S. states, the District of Columbia (DC), five U.S. territories, and three Freely Associated States report outbreaks to CDC via NORS using a standard online data entry system.


A total of 10,756 AGE outbreaks occurred during 2009–2013, for which the primary mode of transmission occurred through person-to-person contact, environmental contamination, and unknown modes of transmission. NORS received reports from public health agencies in 50 U.S. states, DC, and Puerto Rico. These outbreaks resulted in 356,532 reported illnesses, 5,394 hospitalizations, and 459 deaths. The median outbreak reporting rate for all sites in a given year increased from 2.7 outbreaks per million population in 2009 to 11.8 outbreaks in 2013. The etiology was unknown in 31% (N = 3,326) of outbreaks. Of the 7,430 outbreaks with a suspected or confirmed etiology reported, norovirus was the most common, reported in 6,223 (84%) of these outbreaks. Other reported suspected or confirmed etiologies included Shigella (n = 332) and Salmonella (n = 320). Outbreaks were more frequent during the winter, with 5,716 (53%) outbreaks occurring during December–February, and 70% of the 7,001 outbreaks with a reported setting of exposure occurred in long-term–care facilities (n = 4,894). In contrast, 59% (n = 143) of shigellosis outbreaks, 36% (n = 30) of salmonellosis outbreaks, and 32% (n = 84) of other or multiple etiology outbreaks were identified in child care facilities.


NORS is the first U.S. surveillance system that provides national data on AGE outbreaks spread through person-to-person contact, environmental contamination, and unknown modes of transmission. The increase in reporting rates during 2009–2013 indicates that reporting to NORS improved notably in the 5 years since its inception. Norovirus is the most commonly reported cause of these outbreaks and, on the basis of epidemiologic data, might account for a substantial proportion of outbreaks without a reported etiology. During 2009–2013, norovirus accounted for most deaths and health care visits in AGE outbreaks spread through person-to-person contact, environmental contamination, and unknown modes of transmission.

Public Health Action:

Recommendations for prevention and control of AGE outbreaks transmitted through person-to-person contact, environmental contamination, and unknown modes of transmission depend primarily on appropriate hand hygiene, environmental disinfection, and isolation of ill persons. NORS surveillance data can help identify priority targets for the development of future control strategies, including hygiene interventions and vaccines, and help monitor the frequency and severity of AGE outbreaks in the United States. Ongoing study of these AGE outbreaks can provide a better understanding of certain pathogens and their modes of transmission. For example, certain reported outbreak etiologies (e.g., Salmonella) are considered primarily foodborne pathogens but can be transmitted through multiple routes. Similarly, further examination of outbreaks of unknown etiology could help identify barriers to making an etiologic determination, to analyze clinical and epidemiologic clues suggestive of a probable etiology, and to discover new and emerging etiologic agents. Outbreak reporting to NORS has improved substantially since its inception, and further outreach efforts and system improvements might facilitate additional increases in the number and completeness of reports to NORS.

Keywords: USA; US CDC; Updates; Research; Abstracts; Gastroenteritis; Food Safety.


A #Review of the #Role of #Food and the Food #System in the #Transmission and #Spread of #Ebolavirus (Plos Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015 Dec 3;9(12):e0004160. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004160. eCollection 2015.

A Review of the Role of Food and the Food System in the Transmission and Spread of Ebolavirus. [      ]

Mann E1, Streng S1, Bergeron J1, Kircher A1.

Author information: 1Food Protection and Defense Institute, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minnesota, United States of America.



The current outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) centered in West Africa is the largest in history, with nearly ten times more individuals contracting the disease than all previous outbreaks combined. The details of human-to-human and zoonotic ebolavirus transmission have justifiably received the largest share of research attention, and much information exists on these topics. However, although food processing-in the form of slaughtering and preparing wildlife for consumption (referred to as bushmeat)-has been implicated in EVD outbreaks, the full role of food in EVD spread is poorly understood and has been little studied. A literature search was undertaken to assess the current state of knowledge regarding how food can or may transmit ebolaviruses and how the food system contributes to EVD outbreak and spread. The literature reveals surprising preliminary evidence that food and the food system may be more implicated in ebolavirus transmission than expected and that further research is urgently needed.

PMID: 26633305 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Keywords: Research; Abstract; Ebola; Food Safety.


#HK, Secretary for #Food and #Health on #monitoring of #avian #influenza (Govt., Nov. 25 ‘15)

[Source: Government of Hong Kong PRC SAR, full page: (LINK).]

SFH on monitoring of avian influenza [      ][      ]

Following is the transcript of remarks made by the Secretary for Food and Health, Dr Ko Wing-man, after attending a public function today (November 25):

Reporter: (About stepping up the monitoring measures for avian influenza.)

Secretary for Food and Health:

With the arrival of winter and the drop of ambient temperature, it is expected that the activities of both seasonal influenza as well as avian influenza will increase. Therefore, we will correspondingly step up our measures in monitoring both the carcasses of birds found as well as our local live poultry farms.

Reporter: There is no plan to lift the ban on the importation of chickens from the Mainland?

Secretary for Food and Health:

I need to clarify that there is currently no ban on poultry imported from the Mainland. It is mainly because in the past winter season, we had a positive result in examining one of the batches of imported poultry. Following that, we closed the wholesale market for 21 days. The Mainland authority also correspondingly enhanced their control measures, leading to a decrease in the live poultry supply from the Mainland.

(Please also refer to the Chinese portion of the transcript.)

Keywords: HK PRC SAR; Food Safety; Avian Influenza; Poultry; China.


Extended-spectrum #cephalosporin #resistance genes in #Escherichia coli from #beef #cattle (Antimicrob Agents Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance genes in Escherichia coli from beef cattle [      ]

Ashley C. Cormier 1, Gabhan Chalmers 1, Tim A. McAllister 2, Shaun Cook 2, Rahat Zaheer 2, H. Morgan Scott 3, Calvin Booker 4, Ron Read 5 and Patrick Boerlin 1*

Author Affiliations: 1Department of Pathobiology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada 2Agriculture and Agrifood Canada, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada 3Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Texas A&M University, TX 4Feedlot Health Management Services, Okotoks, Alberta, Canada 5Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada.



Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) has rarely been detected in Enterobacteriaceae from beef cattle in Canada (1); in contrast, in the USA it has been repeatedly found in bacteria from cattle (see for instance 2; 3; 4; 5).…



*Corresponding author Patrick Boerlin Department of Pathobiology Ontario Veterinary College University of Guelph Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 Canada Email: pboerlin@uoguelph.ca Phone: 519-824-4120 ext.54647

Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Cephalosporins; Food Safety.