[Source: Science Direct, full page: (LINK). Extract, edited.]
Radiology of Infectious Diseases / Available online 4 April 2016 / In Press, Accepted Manuscript / Open Access / Commentary
Neuroinfection & neuroimmunology: new opportunities, new challenges
Bo Gao a, Chi S. Zee b
a Department of Radiology, Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital, Yantai, Shandong 264000, China; b Department of Radiology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
Received 3 December 2015, Revised 24 February 2016, Accepted 25 March 2016, Available online 4 April 2016
Open Access funded by Beijing You’an Hospital affiliated to Capital Medical University / Under a Creative Commons license
Keywords: Neuroinfection; neuroimmunology; neuroimaging
Neuroinfection & neuroimmunology is a growing subspecialty of the nervous system. Despite remarkable diagnostic and therapeutic advancements during the past 30 years through the prevention of infectious diseases by vaccine and the development of safe, effective antimicrobial agents, neurologic infections remain to be major causes of permanent neurologic disability worldwide. In this issue of Radiology of Infectious Diseases, the articles succinctly cover a range of radiologic topics of infectious or immunological diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), focusing on some areas of controversy and current hot topics. The goal is to summarize the ongoing challenges in CNS infectious or immunological diseases and suggest potential areas for further exploration.
Viruses may invade any part of the CNS and cause both acute and chronic neurologic diseases. Viruses constitute the most common infectious cause of encephalitis, aseptic meningitis, and myelitis. Unique disorders appear episodically in human populations and cause life-threatening systemic or neurological diseases .
Over 100 viral pathogens can affect the CNS, with varied clinical manifestations. Historical examples of such disorders include von Economo encephalitis, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (human immunodeficiency virus infection) and severe acute respiratory syndrome. In addition to the more commonly reviewed syndromes of eningitis, encephalitis, and myelitis, less frequent but characteristic syndromes are important to be recognized. Recently, some novel avian influenza A(H1N1), A(H7N9), A(H5N1), A(H5N6) viruses or even recently reported Zika virus (ZIKV) , for their fatal attack to CNS,have drawn great attentions all over the world[3-5].
Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Neurology; Emerging Infectious Diseases; Zika Virus.