#Respiratory #health in #Iceland (The Lancet Resp Med., summary)

[Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, full page: (LINK). Summary.]

Country in Focus

Respiratory health in Iceland

Bryant Furlow

Article has an altmetric score of 2 / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(16)30037-6

© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

 

Summary

The defiance of Icelandic people in the face of international demands for austerity measures after the collapse of its banks might have helped to benefit respiratory health in unexpected ways, but health threats are emerging.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Emerging Diseases; Iceland.

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Neglected #Tropical #Diseases in the #Anthropocene: The Cases of #Zika, #Ebola, and Other #Infections (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., extract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Extract.]

Open Access / Editorial

Neglected Tropical Diseases in the Anthropocene: The Cases of Zika, Ebola, and Other Infections

Peter J. Hotez

PLOS / Published: April 8, 2016 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004648

Citation: Hotez PJ (2016) Neglected Tropical Diseases in the Anthropocene: The Cases of Zika, Ebola, and Other Infections. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10(4): e0004648. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004648

Editor: Scott C. Weaver, University of Texas Medical Branch, UNITED STATES

Published: April 8, 2016

Copyright: © 2016 Peter J. Hotez. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Funding: The author received no specific funding for this work.

Competing interests: The author has declared that no competing interests exist.

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While we advance through a geological epoch that increasingly reflects human intervention on a massive scale, we might expect to see the continued expansion of epidemic neglected tropical diseases, as we have recently seen for Zika and Ebola virus infections.

Emerging evidence indicates that the Holocene, our most recent geological epoch that began at the end of the last ice age almost 12,000 years ago, has undergone some fundamental changes because of human activity. Since the origins of agriculture and deforestation and later accelerating with the industrial revolution, followed by rapid 20th century population growth extending into the nuclear age, our planet has undergone a fundamental and seemingly irreversible geological shift [1]. According to many (but not all) prominent Earth scientists, humans have profoundly altered the planet, thereby ushering in a new and so-called Anthropocene epoch (Fig 1).

(…)

Keywords: Research; Zika Virus; Ebola; Emerging Diseases.

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#Neuroinfection & #neuroimmunology: new #opportunities, new #challenges (SD, extract)

[Source: Science Direct, full page: (LINK). Extract, edited.]

Radiology of Infectious Diseases / Available online 4 April 2016 / In Press, Accepted Manuscript / Open Access / Commentary

Neuroinfection & neuroimmunology: new opportunities, new challenges

Bo Gao a, Chi S. Zee b

a Department of Radiology, Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital, Yantai, Shandong 264000, China; b Department of Radiology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA

Received 3 December 2015, Revised 24 February 2016, Accepted 25 March 2016, Available online 4 April 2016

doi:10.1016/j.jrid.2016.03.008

Open Access funded by Beijing You’an Hospital affiliated to Capital Medical University /  Under a Creative Commons license

Keywords: Neuroinfection; neuroimmunology; neuroimaging

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Neuroinfection & neuroimmunology is a growing subspecialty of the nervous system. Despite remarkable diagnostic and therapeutic advancements during the past 30 years through the prevention of infectious diseases by vaccine and the development of safe, effective antimicrobial agents, neurologic infections remain to be major causes of permanent neurologic disability worldwide[1]. In this issue of Radiology of Infectious Diseases, the articles succinctly cover a range of radiologic topics of infectious or immunological diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), focusing on some areas of controversy and current hot topics. The goal is to summarize the ongoing challenges in CNS infectious or immunological diseases and suggest potential areas for further exploration.

Viruses may invade any part of the CNS and cause both acute and chronic neurologic diseases. Viruses constitute the most common infectious cause of encephalitis, aseptic meningitis, and myelitis. Unique disorders appear episodically in human populations and cause life-threatening systemic or neurological diseases [2].

Over 100 viral pathogens can affect the CNS, with varied clinical manifestations. Historical examples of such disorders include von Economo encephalitis, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (human immunodeficiency virus infection) and severe acute respiratory syndrome. In addition to the more commonly reviewed syndromes of  eningitis, encephalitis, and myelitis, less frequent but characteristic syndromes are important to be recognized. Recently, some novel avian influenza A(H1N1), A(H7N9), A(H5N1), A(H5N6) viruses or even recently reported Zika virus (ZIKV) , for their fatal attack to CNS,have drawn great attentions all over the world[3-5].

(…)

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Neurology; Emerging Infectious Diseases; Zika Virus.

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#Emerging #infectious #disease and #fasttrack #publication: when public health gets priority over the formality of scholarly publishing (Mem Inst O Cruz, extract)

[Source: Memoria do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, full page: (LINK). Extract.]

Emerging infectious disease and fast-track publication: when public health gets priority over the formality of scholarly publishing. [      ]

Editores: Claude Pirmez, Adeilton Brandão, Hooman Momen

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It has long been acknowledged within the scientific community that in the mid- term future the Earth will undergo important changes beyond those deduced from the past behaviour of known physical phenomena. For example, climate change due to rising temperatures is expected to influence several systems, like ocean levels, wind current and rain regimes. Global travel, urbanization, biomedical manipulation and intensive agricultural intensification are additional factors affecting natural systems which together in turn influence the diversity of plant, animals, and microorganisms in general. As a result, zoonoses represent 60,3% of emerging infectious diseases, more than 70% of which are caused by pathogens of wildlife origin 1. Whatever the action suffered by these subsystems (increase or reduction in species number), the fact is that currently we are unable to predict the exact outcomes of these changes.

(…)

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Emerging Infectious Diseases.

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Developing #Global #Norms for #Sharing #Data and #Results during #Public #Health #Emergencies (PLoS Med., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Open Access / Policy Forum

Developing Global Norms for Sharing Data and Results during Public Health Emergencies [      ]

Kayvon Modjarrad,  Vasee S. Moorthy,  Piers Millett,  Pierre-Stéphane Gsell,  Cathy Roth,  Marie-Paule Kieny

Published: January 5, 2016 / DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001935

Citation: Modjarrad K, Moorthy VS, Millett P, Gsell P-S, Roth C, Kieny M-P (2016) Developing Global Norms for Sharing Data and Results during Public Health Emergencies. PLoS Med 13(1): e1001935. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001935

Published: January 5, 2016

Copyright: © 2016 Modjarrad et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited

Funding: The Wellcome Trust contributed towards the cost of the consultation. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Provenance: Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed

 

Summary Points

  • Leading stakeholders from around the world convened at a WHO consultation in September 2015, where they affirmed that timely and transparent sharing of data and results during public health emergencies must become the global norm.
  • Representatives from major biomedical journals who attended the meeting agreed that public disclosure of information of relevance to public health emergencies should not be delayed by publication timelines and that early disclosure should not and will not prejudice later journal publication.
  • Researchers should be responsible for the accuracy of shared preliminary results, ensuring that they have been subjected to sufficient quality control before public dissemination.
  • Opting in to data sharing should be the default practice, and the onus should be placed on data generators and stewards at the local, national, and international level to explain any decision to opt out from sharing data and results during public health emergencies.
  • Incentives for sharing data should be created and tailored for each type of data generator and steward, while data management and analysis expertise is enhanced in under-resourced settings.

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Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Public Health; Global Health; Emerging Diseases.

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#IHR, #Ebola, and Emerging #Infectious #Diseases in Latin #America and the #Caribbean (Am J Public Health, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Am J Public Health. 2015 Dec 21:e1-e4. [Epub ahead of print]

International Health Regulations, Ebola, and Emerging Infectious Diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean. [      ]

Espinal M1, Aldighieri S1, St John R1, Becerra-Posada F1, Etienne C1.

Author information: 1Marcos Espinal, Sylvain Aldighieri, Ronald St. John, Francisco Becerra-Posada, and Carissa Etienne are with the Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC.

 

Abstract

The World Health Organization’s determination of the Ebola virus disease outbreak as a public health event of international concern prompted nonaffected countries to implement measures to prevent, detect, and manage the introduction of the virus in their territories. The outbreak provided an opportunity to assess the operational implementation of the International Health Regulations’ core capacities and health systems’ preparedness to handle a potential or confirmed case of Ebola virus disease. A public health framework implemented in Latin America and Caribbean countries encompassing preparatory self-assessments, in-country visits, and follow-up suggests that the region should increase efforts to consolidate and sustain progress on core capacities and health system preparedness to face public health events with national or international repercussions. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print December 21, 2015: e1-e4. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2015.302969).

PMID: 26691130 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; IHR(2005); Infectious Diseases; Emerging Diseases.

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Periodic #Global #OneHealth #Threats #Update (Science Direct, abstract)

[Source: Science Direct, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

One Health / Available online 4 December 2015 / In Press, Accepted Manuscript / Open Access

Periodic Global One Health Threats Update [      ]

Leslie A. Reperant a, John MacKenzie b, Albert D.M.E. Osterhaus a, c

a Artemis One Health Research Foundation, Utrecht, the Netherlands; b Curtin University, Bentley, Australia; c Research Centre for Emerging Infections and Zoonoses, University of Hannover Veterinary Medicine, Hannover, Germany

Received 13 October 2015, Revised 8 November 2015, Accepted 8 November 2015, Available online 4 December 2015

Under a Creative Commons license / doi:10.1016/j.onehlt.2015.11.001

 

Abstract

Emerging infectious diseases continue to impose unpredictable burdens on global health and economy. Infectious disease surveillance and pandemic preparedness are essential to mitigate the impact of future threats. Global surveillance networks provide unprecedented monitoring data on plant, animal and human infectious diseases. Using such sources, we report on current major One Health threats and update on their epidemiological status.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Emerging Diseases; Infectious Diseases; OneHealth.

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