#Epidemic #history and #iatrogenic #transmission of #bloodborne #viruses in mid-20th century #Kinshasa (J Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Epidemic history and iatrogenic transmission of blood-borne viruses in mid-20th century Kinshasa  [      ]

Catherine Hogan 1,*, James Iles 2,*, Eric H. Frost 1,*, Geneviève Giroux 1, Olivier Cassar 3,4, Antoine Gessain 3,4, Marie-Josée Dion 1, Vicky Ilunga 5, Andrew Rambaut 6, André-Édouard Yengo-ki-Ngimbi 7, Frieda Behets 5,8, Oliver G. Pybus 2 and Jacques Pépin 1

Author Affiliations: 1Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Canada 2University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom 3Institut Pasteur, Paris, France 4Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 3569, Paris, France 5Programme ESP/UNC-DRC, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo 6University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom 7Université de Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo 8University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA

Corresponding authors: For evolutionary epidemiology: Professor Oliver Pybus, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PS, United Kingdom. oliver.pybus@zoo.ox.ac.uk, Phone/Fax: 44 (0)1865 271274, For epidemiology: Professor Jacques Pépin, Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Université de Sherbrooke, 3001 12th Avenue North, Sherbrooke, Qc, J1J 4L4, Canada. jacques.pepin@usherbrooke.ca, Phone 1-819-346-1110 ext 74234, Fax 1-819-821-7101

* Contributed equally to this work




The HIV-1 pandemic was ignited in Léopoldville (Kinshasa), Belgian Congo. Factors that jumpstarted its early expansion remain unclear. Non-lethal Hepatitis C and human T-cell lymphotropic viruses can be used to investigate past iatrogenic transmission.


We undertook a cross-sectional study of elderly inhabitants of Kinshasa, with serological assays, amplification and sequencing. Risk factors were assessed through logistic regression. Phylogenetic methods reconstructed the genetic history of HCV.


217/839 (25.9%) participants were HCV-seropositive; 26 (3.1%) were HTLV-1-seropositive. Amplification products were obtained from 118 HCV-seropositives; subtypes 4k (n=47) and 4r (n=38) were most common. Independent risk factors for HCV subtype 4r were intramuscular tuberculosis therapy, intravenous injections at Hospital A, intravenous injections before 1960 and injections at a colonial-era venereology clinic. Intravenous injections at Hospital B and antimalarials were associated with HCV subtype 4k. Risk factors for HTLV-1 included intravenous injections at Hospitals C or D, and transfusions. Evolutionary analysis of viral sequences revealed independent exponential amplification of HCV subtypes 4r and 4k from the 1950s onwards.


Iatrogenic transmission of HCV and HTLV-1 occurred in mid-20th century Kinshasa, at the same time and place HIV-1 emerged. Iatrogenic routes may have contributed to the early establishment of the pandemic.


© The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Congo DR; HIV; HTLV-1; Hepatitis C.


In the Democratic Republic of #Congo, a rush to contain #measles (#UNICEF, December 11 2015)

[Source: UNICEF, full page: (LINK).]

In the Democratic Republic of Congo, a rush to contain measles [      ]

KATANGA, Democratic Republic of Congo, December 2015 – A measles outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo’s southeast province of Katanga, with more than 47,000 suspected cases by the end of November, has killed more than 500 people. It is the worst epidemic since 2011, when around 134,000 cases of measles were recorded.


Keywords: UNICEF; Congo DR; Measles.


#Congo DR, Tshopo: 5 #décès dus à la #diarrhée à Belika (Radio Okapi, Nov. 25 ‘15)

[Source: Radio Okapi, full page: (LINK).]

Tshopo: 5 décès dus à la diarrhée à Belika [      ]

Cinq personnes sont décédées de la diarrhée accompagnée de vomissement sur les trente-deux cas enregistrés, depuis octobre dernier, dans la localité Belika, au Point kilométrique 211, en territoire de Bafwasende (Tshopo). Le médecin directeur de l’hôpital général de Bafwasende, docteur Pilili attribue la recrudescence de cette diarrhée au manque d’eau potable dans cette localité.


Keywords: Congo Dem. Rep., Acute Watery Diarrhea.