#Human #Cutaneous #Anthrax, the East #Anatolian #Region of #Turkey 2008–2014 (Vector-Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases

Human Cutaneous Anthrax, the East Anatolian Region of Turkey 2008–2014 [      ]

To cite this article: Parlak Emine and Parlak Mehmet. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. -Not available-, ahead of print. doi:10.1089/vbz.2015.1835.

Online Ahead of Print: December 31, 2015

Author information: Emine Parlak and Mehmet Parlak, Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Atatürk University Faculty of Medicine, Erzurum, Turkey.

Address correspondence to: Emine Parlak, Atatürk University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Atatürk University, School of Medicine, Erzurum, 25400, Turkey – E-mail: eparlak1@yahoo.com



Anthrax is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by Bacillus anthracis. While anthrax is rare in developed countries, it is endemic in Turkey. The names of the different forms of the disease refer to the manner of entry of the spores into the body—cutaneous, gastrointestinal, inhalation, and injection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics, epidemiological history, treatment, and outcomes of patients with anthrax. Eighty-two cases of anthrax hospitalized at Atatürk University Faculty of Medicine Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology in 2008–2014 were examined retrospectively. Gender, age, occupation, year, history, clinical characteristics, character of lesions, length of hospitalization, and outcomes were recorded. Thirty (36.6%) patients were female and 52 (63.4%) patients were male; ages were 18–69 and mean age was 43.77 ± 13.05. The mean incubation period was 4.79 ± 3.76 days. Cases were largely identified in August (41.5%) and September (25.6%). Sixty-nine (84.1%) of the 82 patients had been given antibiotics before presentation. Lesions were most common on the fingers and arms. The most common occupational groups were housewives (36.6%) and people working in animal husbandry (31.7%). All patients had histories of contact with diseased animals and animal products. Penicillin-group antibiotics (78%) were most commonly used in treatment. One patient (1.2%) died from anthrax meningitis. The mean length of hospitalization was 8.30 ± 5.36 days. Anthrax is an endemic disease of economic and social significance for the region. Effective public health control measures, risk group education, vaccination of animals, and decontamination procedures will reduce the number of cases.

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Anthrax; Turkey; Human.


#Zimbabwe: #Anthrax Infects 36 – #Report (All Africa News, Dec. 21 ‘15)

[Source: All Africa News, full page: (LINK).]

Zimbabwe: Anthrax Infects 36 in Zimbabwe – Report [      ]

[News24Wire] Farmers in a dry district of southern Zimbabwe have been told to vaccinate their cattle after 36 people fell ill with anthrax, state media reported at the weekend.


Keywords: Zimbabwe; Human; Anthrax.


#Clinical #Framework and #Medical #Countermeasure Use During an #Anthrax Mass-Casualty #Incident (@CDCgov / MMWR, summary)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Clinical Framework and Medical Countermeasure Use During an Anthrax Mass-Casualty Incident [      ]

Recommendations and Reports /  December 4, 2015 / 64(RR04);1-28 / CDC Recommendations

Prepared by William A. Bower, MD1, Katherine Hendricks, MD1, Satish Pillai, MD2, Julie Guarnizo2, Dana Meaney-Delman, MD3

1Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases; 2Division of Preparedness and Emerging Infections, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases; 3Office of the Director, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases

Corresponding author: William A. Bower, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, CDC. Telephone: 404-639-0376; E-mail: wab4@cdc.gov.



In 2014, CDC published updated guidelines for the prevention and treatment of anthrax (Hendricks KA, Wright ME, Shadomy SV, et al. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention expert panel meetings on prevention and treatment of anthrax in adults. Emerg Infect Dis 2014;20[2]. Available at http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/20/2/13-0687_article.htm). These guidelines provided recommended best practices for the diagnosis and treatment of persons with naturally occurring or bioterrorism-related anthrax in conventional medical settings. An aerosolized release of Bacillus anthracis spores over densely populated areas could become a mass-casualty incident. To prepare for this possibility, the U.S. government has stockpiled equipment and therapeutics (known as medical countermeasures [MCMs]) for anthrax prevention and treatment. However, previously developed, publicly available clinical recommendations have not addressed the use of MCMs or clinical management during an anthrax mass-casualty incident, when the number of patients is likely to exceed the ability of the health care infrastructure to provide conventional standards of care and supplies of MCMs might be inadequate to meet the demand required. To address this gap, in 2013, CDC conducted a series of systematic reviews of the scientific literature on anthrax to identify evidence that could help clinicians and public health authorities set guidelines for intravenous antimicrobial and antitoxin use, diagnosis of anthrax meningitis, and management of common anthrax-specific complications in the setting of a mass-casualty incident. Evidence from these reviews was presented to professionals with expertise in anthrax, critical care, and disaster medicine during a series of workgroup meetings that were held from August 2013 through March 2014. In March 2014, a meeting was held at which 102 subject matter experts discussed the evidence and adapted the existing best practices guidance to a clinical use framework for the judicious, efficient, and rational use of stockpiled MCMs for the treatment of anthrax during a mass-casualty incident, which is described in this report. This report addresses elements of hospital-based acute care, specifically antitoxins and intravenous antimicrobial use, and the diagnosis and management of common anthrax-specific complications during a mass-casualty incident. The recommendations in this report should be implemented only after predefined triggers have been met for shifting from conventional to contingency or crisis standards of care, such as when the magnitude of cases might lead to impending shortages of intravenous antimicrobials, antitoxins, critical care resources (e.g., chest tubes and chest drainage systems), or diagnostic capability. This guidance does not address primary triage decisions, anthrax postexposure prophylaxis, hospital bed or workforce surge capacity, or the logistics of dispensing MCMs. Clinicians, hospital administrators, state and local health officials, and planners can use these recommendations to assist in the development of crisis protocols that will ensure national preparedness for an anthrax mass-casualty incident.


Keywords: US CDC; USA; Updates; Mass Casualty Events; Anthrax.