#Nomenclature #updates resulting from the #evolution of #avian #influenza A(#H5) virus clades 2.1.3.2a, 2.2.1, and 2.3.4 during 2013-2014 (Influenza Other Respir Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2015 Sep;9(5):271-6. doi: 10.1111/irv.12324.

Nomenclature updates resulting from the evolution of avian influenza A(H5) virus clades 2.1.3.2a, 2.2.1, and 2.3.4 during 2013-2014. [      ][      ]

Smith GJ1, Donis RO2; World Health Organization/World Organisation for Animal Health/Food and Agriculture Organization (WHO/OIE/FAO) H5 Evolution Working Group.

Author information: 1Program of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore city, Singapore. 2Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

 

Abstract

AIM:

The A/goose/Guangdong/1/96-like hemagglutinin (HA) genes of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5) viruses have continued to rapidly evolve since the most recent update to the H5 clade nomenclature by the WHO/OIE/FAO H5N1 Evolution Working Group. New clades diverging beyond established boundaries need to be identified and designated accordingly.

METHOD:

Hemagglutinin sequences deposited in publicly accessible databases up to December 31, 2014, were analyzed by phylogenetic and average pairwise distance methods to identify new clades that merit nomenclature changes.

RESULTS:

Three new clade designations were recommended based on division of clade 2·1·3·2a (Indonesia), 2·2·1 (Egypt), and 2·3·4 (widespread detection in Asia, Europe, and North America) that includes newly emergent HPAI virus subtypes H5N2, H5N3, H5N5, H5N6, and H5N8.

CONCLUSION:

Continued global surveillance for HPAI A(H5) viruses in all host species and timely reporting of sequence data will be critical to quickly identify new clades and assess their potential impact on human and animal health.

© 2015 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

KEYWORDS: H5 subtype; clade nomenclature; hemagglutinin; highly pathogenic avian influenza; molecular epidemiology; phylogenetics; viral evolution

PMID: 25966311 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID: PMC4548997 Free PMC Article

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Avian Influenza; H5N1; H5N2; H5N3; H5N8.

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Serial passage in #ducks of a LP #avian #influenza virus isolated from a #chicken reveals a high mutation rate in the HA that is likely due to selection in the host (Arch Virol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Arch Virol. 2015 Oct;160(10):2455-70. doi: 10.1007/s00705-015-2504-1. Epub 2015 Jul 16.

Serial passage in ducks of a low-pathogenic avian influenza virus isolated from a chicken reveals a high mutation rate in the hemagglutinin that is likely due to selection in the host. [      ]

Ridenour C 1,2, Williams SM 1, Jones L 2, Tompkins SM 2, Tripp RA 2, Mundt E 3.

Author information: 1Department of Population Health, Poultry Diagnostic and Research Center, University of Georgia, Athens, 30603, GA, USA. 2Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, 30603, GA, USA. 3Department of Population Health, Poultry Diagnostic and Research Center, University of Georgia, Athens, 30603, GA, USA. mundtegbert@gmail.com.

 

Abstract

A comparative study of the ability of three low-pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) isolates to be transmitted from duck to duck was performed. Pekin ducks were inoculated with two LPAIV isolates from chickens (A/Ck/PA/13609/93 [H5N2], H5N2-Ck; A/Ck/TX/167280-4/02 [H5N3], H5N3-Ck) and one isolate from a wild bird (A/Mute Swan/ MI/451072/06 [H5N1], H5N1-WB). During the establishment of the passage model, only two viruses (H5N1, H5N2) were able to be transmitted from duck to duck. Transmission of these isolates was dependent on the inoculation dose and route of infection. Analysis of swab samples taken from ducks revealed that the wild-bird isolate, H5N1-WB, was primarily shed via the cloacal route. The chicken isolate, H5N2-Ck, was isolated from cloacal as well as oro-pharyngeal swabs. Analysis of the amino acid sequences of the viral surface glycoproteins showed that the hemagglutinin (HA) of the H5N2-Ck isolate was under a stronger evolutionary pressure than the HA of the H5N1-WB isolate, as indicated by the presence of a larger number of amino acid changes observed during passage. The neuraminidase (NA) of both viruses showed either no (in the case of H5N1-WB) or very few amino acid changes.

PMID: 26179620 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Avian Influenza; Poultry; H5N1; H5N2; H5N3.

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#France, 15 nouveaux #foyers de #grippe #aviaire découverts dans le sud-ouest (Le Parisien, Dec. 16 ‘15)

[Source: Le Parisien, full page: (LINK).]

15 nouveaux foyers de grippe aviaire découverts dans le sud-ouest [      ]

Quinze nouveaux foyers de grippe aviaire ont été détectés depuis le début de la semaine dans quatre départements du sud-ouest de la France, portant le nombre total de cas confirmés à 30, a indiqué mercredi…

(…)

Keywords: France; Avian Influenza; Poultry; H5N1; H5N2; H5N3; H5N9.

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