Potential negative #effects of the #free use of #chloroquine to manage #COVID19 in #Colombia (J Med Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Medical Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Potential negative effects of the free use of chloroquine to manage COVID‐19 in Colombia

Aníbal A. Teherán,  Gabriel Camero,  Carolina Hernández,  Luis Perez‐Garcia,  Renato Gúzman,  Alberto Paniz‐Mondolfi,  Juan David Ramírez

First published: 26 May 2020 | DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26059

This article has been accepted for publication and undergone full peer review but has not been through the copyediting, typesetting, pagination and proofreading process, which may lead to differences between this version and the Version of Record. Please cite this article as doi: 10.1002/jmv.26059

 

Abstract

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic has challenged healthcare systems around the world. Unfortunately, failure has ensued: high‐income countries have succumbed to the global emergency despite highly prepared human and technological assets. There is no current consensus on pharmacological management of COVID‐19, but chloroquine phosphate (CQ) has emerged as a possible therapeutical candidate. However, no conclusive evidence has been published on the efficacy of CQ against SARS‐CoV‐2 infection. The Colombian government has approved the use of CQ for COVID‐19, a measure that could negatively impact a large number of patients who depend on this drug for the treatment of other life‐threatening diseases such as malaria and rheumatic autoimmune diseases. Careful consideration should be taken by Colombian authorities regarding the use of CQ in context of the ongoing pandemic.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Colombia; Politics; Chloroquine.

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#Assessment of the #Qualitative #Fit #Test and Quantitative Single-Pass #Filtration Efficiency of Disposable #N95 #Masks Following Gamma #Irradiation (JAMA Netw Open, summary)

[Source: JAMA Network Open, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Assessment of the Qualitative Fit Test and Quantitative Single-Pass Filtration Efficiency of Disposable N95 Masks Following Gamma Irradiation

Avilash Cramer, MS1; Enze Tian, BS2; Mitchell Galanek, BS3; et al. Edward Lamere, PhD3; Ju Li, PhD3; Rajiv Gupta, MD, PhD4; Mike Short, PhD3

Author Affiliations: 1 Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Boston, Massachusetts; 2 Department of Building Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; 3 Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge; 4 Division of Neuroradiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston

JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(5):e209961. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.9961

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Introduction

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has led to a dramatic shortage of masks and other personal protective equipment in hospitals around the globe. One component of personal protective equipment, the disposable N95 face mask, is in particular demand.1,2 To alleviate a shortage of N95 masks, many methods to resterilize them have been proposed and studied.3 Any method for resterilizing masks must not degrade the filtration efficiency of the mask.

(…)

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Facemasks.

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#Adverse #Consequences of #Rushing a #SARS-CoV-2 #Vaccine – Implications for Public Trust (JAMA, summary)

[Source: JAMA, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Adverse Consequences of Rushing a SARS-CoV-2 VaccineImplications for Public Trust

Brit Trogen, MD, MS1; David Oshinsky, PhD1; Arthur Caplan, PhD1

Author Affiliations: 1 NYU Langone Health, New York, New York

JAMA. Published online May 26, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.8917

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As the SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) pandemic persists across the US and the world, the spotlight on vaccine science has never been more intense. Researchers across the globe are working rapidly to produce a potential vaccine, and 7 candidates are already in clinical trials.1 Operation Warp Speed, the vaccine development project announced by President Trump, has advocated for a vaccine to be made available in the US by the beginning of 2021.1 But for scientists and physicians, the term “warp speed” should trigger concern. Good science requires rigor, discipline, and deliberate caution. Any medical therapy approved for public use in the absence of extensive safeguards has the potential to cause harm, not only for COVID-19 prevention efforts and vaccine recipients, but also for public trust in vaccination efforts worldwide.

(…)

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Society; Politics; USA.

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#Prevalence of #SARS-CoV-2 Among Patients Admitted for #Childbirth in Southern #Connecticut (JAMA, summary)

[Source: JAMA, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 Among Patients Admitted for Childbirth in Southern Connecticut

Katherine H. Campbell, MD, MPH1; Jean M. Tornatore, MD2; Kirsten E. Lawrence, MD1; et alJessica L. Illuzzi, MD1; L. Scott Sussman, MD3; Heather S. Lipkind, MD1; Christian M. Pettker, MD1

Author Affiliations: 1 Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences,  Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut; 2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Bridgeport Hospital, Bridgeport, Connecticut; 3 Clinical Redesign, Yale New Haven Health, New Haven, Connecticut

JAMA. Published online May 26, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.8904

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Developing an approach to care for pregnancy and childbirth during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis is a priority to (1) provide safe care to pregnant women and newborns; and (2) protect health care workers from infection. A study conducted in New York City reported a 13.5% prevalence of asymptomatic infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in women presenting for childbirth.1 On March 30, 2020, an initially asymptomatic woman admitted to the Yale New Haven Health system developed cough and fever soon after childbirth; testing confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. This event prompted the development of a SARS-CoV-2 screening and testing program of patients presenting for childbirth; we report the prevalence detected in the first weeks of the program.

(…)

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; USA; Connecticut; Pregnancy.

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The Turkish Salon, Villa Hügel, Hietzing, Vienna, Rudolf von Alt (1877)

Annotazione 2020-05-26 182521

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The Turkish Salon, Villa Hügel, Hietzing, Vienna
Rudolf von Alt
Date: 1877
Style: Romanticism
Genre: interior
Media: watercolor, paper

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Permissions: Public Domain.

Source: WikiArt, full page: https://www.wikiart.org/en/rudolf-von-alt/the-turkish-salon-villa-h%C3%BCgel-hietzing-vienna-1877

 

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Live #Poultry #Market #Closure and #Avian #Influenza A (#H7N9) Infection in #Cities of #China, 2013-2017: An Ecological Study (BMC Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Infect Dis. 2020 May 24;20(1):369. doi: 10.1186/s12879-020-05091-7.

Live Poultry Market Closure and Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Infection in Cities of China, 2013-2017: An Ecological Study

Ying Chen 1 2, Jian Cheng 2, Zhiwei Xu 2, Wenbiao Hu 2, Jiahai Lu 3

Affiliations: 1 School of Public Health, Key Laboratory of Tropical Diseases Control of Ministry of Education, One Health Center of Excellence for Research &Training, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. 2 School of Public Health and Social Work, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia. 3 School of Public Health, Key Laboratory of Tropical Diseases Control of Ministry of Education, One Health Center of Excellence for Research &Training, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. lujiahai@mail.sysu.edu.cn.

PMID: 32448137 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-020-05091-7

 

Abstract

Background:

Previous studies have proven that the closure of live poultry markets (LPMs) was an effective intervention to reduce human risk of avian influenza A (H7N9) infection, but evidence is limited on the impact of scale and duration of LPMs closure on the transmission of H7N9.

Method:

Five cities (i.e., Shanghai, Suzhou, Shenzhen, Guangzhou and Hangzhou) with the largest number of H7N9 cases in mainland China from 2013 to 2017 were selected in this study. Data on laboratory-confirmed H7N9 human cases in those five cities were obtained from the Chinese National Influenza Centre. The detailed information of LPMs closure (i.e., area and duration) was obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture. We used a generalized linear model with a Poisson link to estimate the effect of LPMs closure, reported as relative risk reduction (RRR). We used classification and regression trees (CARTs) model to select and quantify the dominant factor of H7N9 infection.

Results:

All five cities implemented the LPMs closure, and the risk of H7N9 infection decreased significantly after LPMs closure with RRR ranging from 0.80 to 0.93. Respectively, a long-term LPMs closure for 10-13 weeks elicited a sustained and highly significant risk reduction of H7N9 infection (RRR = 0.98). Short-time LPMs closure with 2 weeks in every epidemic did not reduce the risk of H7N9 infection (p > 0.05). Partially closed LPMs in some suburbs contributed only 35% for reduction rate (RRR = 0.35). Shenzhen implemented partial closure for first 3 epidemics (p > 0.05) and all closure in the latest 2 epidemic waves (RRR = 0.64).

Conclusion:

Our findings suggest that LPMs all closure in whole city can be a highly effective measure comparing with partial closure (i.e. only urban closure, suburb and rural remain open). Extend the duration of closure and consider permanently closing the LPMs will help improve the control effect. The effect of LPMs closure seems greater than that of meteorology on H7N9 transmission.

Keywords: Avian influenza A (H7N9); CARTs; Effect evaluation; Live poultry market closure.

Keywords: H7N9; Avian Influenza; Poultry; China; Poultry markets.

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#Mammalian #Pathogenicity and #Transmissibility of Low Pathogenic #Avian #Influenza #H7N1 and #H7N3 Viruses Isolated From North #America in 2018 (Emerg Microbes Infect., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Emerg Microbes Infect. 2020 Dec;9(1):1037-1045. doi: 10.1080/22221751.2020.1764396.

Mammalian Pathogenicity and Transmissibility of Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza H7N1 and H7N3 Viruses Isolated From North America in 2018

Jessica A Belser 1, Xiangjie Sun 1, Nicole Brock 1, Joanna A Pulit-Penaloza 1, Joyce Jones 1, Natosha Zanders 1, C Todd Davis 1, Terrence M Tumpey 1, Taronna R Maines 1

Affiliation: 1 Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

PMID: 32449503 DOI: 10.1080/22221751.2020.1764396

 

Abstract

Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H7 subtype viruses are infrequently, but persistently, associated with outbreaks in poultry in North America. These LPAI outbreaks provide opportunities for the virus to develop enhanced virulence and transmissibility in mammals and have previously resulted in both occasional acquisition of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) phenotype in birds and sporadic cases of human infection. Two notable LPAI H7 subtype viruses caused outbreaks in 2018 in North America: LPAI H7N1 virus in chickens and turkeys, representing the first confirmed H7N1 infection in poultry farms in the United States, and LPAI H7N3 virus in turkeys, a virus subtype often associated with LPAI-to-HPAI phenotypes. Here, we investigated the replication capacity of representative viruses from these outbreaks in human respiratory tract cells and mammalian pathogenicity and transmissibility in the mouse and ferret models. We found that the LPAI H7 viruses replicated to high titre in human cells, reaching mean peak titres generally comparable to HPAI H7 viruses. Replication was efficient in both mammalian species, causing mild infection, with virus primarily limited to respiratory tract tissues. The H7 viruses demonstrated a capacity to transmit to naïve ferrets in a direct contact setting. These data support the need to perform routine risk assessments of LPAI H7 subtype viruses, even in the absence of confirmed human infection.

Keywords: Ferret; LPAI; avian; influenza; mouse; transmission.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N1; H7N3; Reassortant strain; USA; Poultry; Animal models.

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