Characterisation of #Zika virus #infection in primary #human #astrocytes (BMC Neurosci., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Neurosci. 2018 Feb 20;19(1):5. doi: 10.1186/s12868-018-0407-2.

Characterisation of Zika virus infection in primary human astrocytes.

Stefanik M1, Formanova P1, Bily T2,3, Vancova M2,3, Eyer L1,2, Palus M1,2, Salat J1, Braconi CT4, Zanotto PMA4, Gould EA5, Ruzek D6,7.

Author information: 1 Department of Virology, Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, 62100, Brno, Czech Republic. 2 Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Branisovska 31, 37005, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic. 3 Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branisovska 31, 37005, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic. 4 Laboratory of Molecular Evolution and Bioinformatics, Department of Microbiology, Institute of Microbiology Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, 05508-000, Brazil. 5 EHESP French School of Public Health, IRD French Institute of Research for Development, EPV UMR_D 190 Emergence des Pathologies Virales, Aix Marseille Université, Marseille, France. 6 Department of Virology, Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, 62100, Brno, Czech Republic. ruzekd@paru.cas.cz. 7 Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Branisovska 31, 37005, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic. ruzekd@paru.cas.cz.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak has linked ZIKV with microcephaly and other central nervous system pathologies in humans. Astrocytes are among the first cells to respond to ZIKV infection in the brain and are also targets for virus infection. In this study, we investigated the interaction between ZIKV and primary human brain cortical astrocytes (HBCA).

RESULTS:

HBCAs were highly sensitive to representatives of both Asian and African ZIKV lineages and produced high viral yields. The infection was associated with limited immune cytokine/chemokine response activation; the highest increase of expression, following infection, was seen in CXCL-10 (IP-10), interleukin-6, 8, 12, and CCL5 (RANTES). Ultrastructural changes in the ZIKV-infected HBCA were characterized by electron tomography (ET). ET reconstructions elucidated high-resolution 3D images of the proliferating and extensively rearranged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) containing viral particles and virus-induced vesicles, tightly juxtaposed to collapsed ER cisternae.

CONCLUSIONS:

The results confirm that human astrocytes are sensitive to ZIKV infection and could be a source of proinflammatory cytokines in the ZIKV-infected brain tissue.

KEYWORDS: Astrocyte; Electron tomography; Flavivirus; Immune response; Luminex; Zika virus

PMID: 29463209 DOI: 10.1186/s12868-018-0407-2

Keywords: Zika Virus; Neuroinvasion.

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Potential #occurrence of #Zika from #subtropical to temperate #Argentina considering the basic reproduction number (R0) (Rev Panam Salud Publica, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2018 Feb 19;41:e120.

Potential occurrence of Zika from subtropical to temperate Argentina considering the basic reproduction number (R0).

Orellano P1, Vezzani D2, Quaranta N3, Cionco R3, Reynoso J4, Salomon O5.

Author information: 1 CONICET, Universidad Tecnológica Nacional, Argentina, Send correspondence to Pablo Orellano, porellano@frsn.utn.edu.ar. 2 CONICET, Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. 3 CIC, Universidad Tecnológica Nacional, Argentina. 4 Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos “San Felipe”, Argentina. 5 CONICET, Instituto Nacional de Medicina Tropical, Argentina.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To assess the potential occurrence of Zika transmission throughout Argentina by the mosquito Aedes aegypti considering the basic reproduction number (R0).

METHODS:

A model originally developed for dengue was adapted for Zika. R0 was estimated as a function of seven parameters, three of them were considered temperature-dependent. Seasonal Zika occurrence was evaluated in 9 locations representing different climatic suitability for the vector. Data of diary temperatures were extracted and included in the model. A threshold of R0 = 1 was fixed for Zika occurrence. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate the uncertainty around the results.

RESULTS:

Zika transmission has the potential to occur in all studied locations at least in some moment of the year. In the northern region, transmission might be possible throughout the whole year or with an interruption in winter. The maximum R0 was estimated in 6.9, which means an average of 7 secondary cases from a primary case. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that during winter the transmission can only be excluded in the southern fringe of geographic distribution of the vector and in part of central Argentina.

CONCLUSION:

Zika virus has the potential to be transmitted in Argentina throughout the current geographic range of the mosquito vector. Although the transmission would be mainly seasonal, the possibility of winter transmission cannot be excluded in northern and central Argentina, meaning that there is a potential endemic maintenance of the disease.

PMID: 29466517

Keywords: Zika Virus; Mosquitoes; Argentina.

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Prolonged #Zika virus #viremia in a #patient with #GBS in #Trinidad and Tobago (Rev Panam Salud Publica, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2018 Feb 19;41:e136.

Prolonged Zika virus viremia in a patient with Guillain-Barré syndrome in Trinidad and Tobago.

Gonzalez-Escobar G1, Valadere AM1, Adams R1, Polson-Edwards K1, Hinds AQJ1, Misir A2, Hospedales CJ1.

Author information: 1 Caribbean Public Health Agency (CARPHA), Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. Send correspondence to Gabriel Gonzalez-Escobar at escobaga@carpha.org. 2 Ministry of Health, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.

 

Abstract

An emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus, Zika virus (ZIKV) is a significant public health concern because of the syndromes associated with the infection. In addition, ZIKV is considered a major problem due to large-scale spread of the disease and the possible clinical complications for the central nervous system, especially Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly. Since the introduction of ZIKV in the Caribbean, molecular detection of the viral RNA has been utilized as a more specific and sensitive approach to demonstrating acute infection. However, it is generally accepted that the virus has a short viremic period, generally less than 5 days. Serologic testing has the inconvenience of strong cross-reactivity among flaviviruses, such as dengue and yellow fever. As part of the laboratory surveillance activities for Zika and other arboviruses at the Caribbean Public Health Agency, in 2016 a sample from a male who was clinically diagnosed with GBS tested positive for Zika virus by real-time polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). The serum sample had been taken on day 21 after the onset of symptoms. The case had initially been characterized as a typical ZIKV infection (mild fever with a generalized maculopapular rash). Later, weakness of limbs and other peripheral neurological symptoms appeared. Enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) showed that the sample was negative for IgM antibodies against Zika, Chikungunya, and dengue viruses. The plaque reduction neutralization test was positive for ZIKV. This indicated parallel development of viremia and immune response against ZIKV. Recent reports have demonstrated a longer duration of the viremia in ZIKV infections. However, our report is the first one that links the infection with extended viremia and the development in parallel of a GBS case.

PMID: 29466521

Keywords: Zika Virus; GBS; Trinidad and Tobago.

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#Lassa fever–induced sensorineural #hearing loss: A neglected public health and #social burden (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS / REVIEW

Lassa fever–induced sensorineural hearing loss: A neglected public health and social burden

Elizabeth J. Mateer, Cheng Huang, Nathan Y. Shehu, Slobodan Paessler

Published: February 22, 2018 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006187

 

Abstract

Although an association between Lassa fever (LF) and sudden-onset sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) was confirmed clinically in 1990, the prevalence of LF-induced SNHL in endemic countries is still underestimated. LF, a viral hemorrhagic fever disease caused by Lassa virus (LASV), is endemic in West Africa, causing an estimated 500,000 cases and 5,000 deaths per year. Sudden-onset SNHL, one complication of LF, occurs in approximately one-third of survivors and constitutes a neglected public health and social burden. In the endemic countries, where access to hearing aids is limited, SNHL results in a decline of the quality of life for those affected. In addition, hearing loss costs Nigeria approximately 43 million dollars per year. The epidemiology of LF-induced SNHL has not been characterized well. The complication of LF induced by SNHL is also an important consideration for vaccine development and treatments. However, research into the mechanism has been hindered by the lack of autopsy samples and relevant small animal models. Recently, the first animal model that mimics the symptoms of SNHL associated with LF was developed. Preliminary data from the new animal model as well as the clinical case studies support the mechanism of immune-mediated injury that causes SNHL in LF patients. This article summarizes clinical findings of hearing loss in LF patients highlighting the association between LASV infection and SNHL as well as the potential mechanism(s) for LF-induced SNHL. Further research is necessary to identify the mechanism and the epidemiology of LF-induced SNHL.

____

Citation: Mateer EJ, Huang C, Shehu NY, Paessler S (2018) Lassa fever–induced sensorineural hearing loss: A neglected public health and social burden. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 12(2): e0006187. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006187

Editor: Maia A. Rabaa, Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, VIET NAM

Published: February 22, 2018

Copyright: © 2018 Mateer et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Funding: The authors’ research is supported by Public Health Service grant R01AI093445 and R01AI131586 awarded to S. P. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Lassa Fever; Neurology.

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Multiple #Introductions of #Influenza A(#H5N8) Virus into #Poultry, #Egypt, 2017 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 24, Number 5—May 2018 / Research Letter

Multiple Introductions of Influenza A(H5N8) Virus into Poultry, Egypt, 2017

Ahmen H. Salaheldin, Hatem Salah Abd El-Hamid, Ahmed R. Elbestawy, Jutta Veits, Hafez M. Hafez, Thomas C. Mettenleiter, and Elsayed M. Abd El-Whab

Author affiliations: Alexandria University, Al Buhayrah, Egypt (A.H. Salaheldin); Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Insel Riems-Greifswald, Germany (A.H. Salaheldin, J. Veits, T.C. Mettenleiter, E.M. Abd El-Whab); Freie-Universität-Berlin, Berlin, Germany (A.H. Salaheldin, H.M. Hafez); Damanhour University, Damanhour, Egypt (H.S. Abd El-Hamid, A.R. Elbestawy)

 

Abstract

After high mortality rates among commercial poultry were reported in Egypt in 2017, we genetically characterized 4 distinct influenza A(H5N8) viruses isolated from poultry. Full-genome analysis indicated separate introductions of H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4 reassortants from Europe and Asia into Egypt, which poses a serious threat for poultry and humans.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N8; Poultry; Egypt.

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#Influenza #vaccine #effectiveness in preventing hospitalisation of individuals 60 yrs of age & over with laboratory-confirmed influenza, Valencia Region, #Spain, influenza season 2016/17 (Euro Surveill., abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Research article / Open Access

Influenza vaccine effectiveness in preventing hospitalisation of individuals 60 years of age and over with laboratory-confirmed influenza, Valencia Region, Spain, influenza season 2016/17

Ainara Mira-Iglesias1, F Xavier López-Labrador1,2, Beatriz Guglieri-López1, Miguel Tortajada-Girbés3, Víctor Baselga-Moreno1, Laura Cano1,Juan Mollar-Maseres4, Mario Carballido-Fernández5,6, Germán Schwarz-Chavarri7, Javier Díez-Domingo1, Joan Puig-Barberà1,8,Valencia Hospital Network for the Study of Influenza and Respiratory Viruses Disease1

Affiliations: 1 Fundación para el Fomento de la Investigación Sanitaria y Biomédica de la Comunitat Valenciana (FISABIO-Public Health), Valencia, Spain; 2 Consorcio de Investigación Biomédica de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; 3 Hospital Doctor Peset, Valencia, Spain; 4 Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Valencia, Spain; 5 Hospital General Universitario de Castellón, Castellón, Spain; 6 Universidad CEU Cardenal Herrera, Castellón, Spain; 7 Hospital General de Alicante, Alicante, Spain8 Centro de Salud Pública de Castellón, Castellón, Spain

Correspondence:  Joan Puig-Barbera

Citation style for this article: Mira-Iglesias Ainara, López-Labrador F Xavier, Guglieri-López Beatriz, Tortajada-Girbés Miguel, Baselga-Moreno Víctor, Cano Laura,Mollar-Maseres Juan, Carballido-Fernández Mario, Schwarz-Chavarri Germán, Díez-Domingo Javier, Puig-Barberà Joan,Valencia Hospital Network for the Study of Influenza and Respiratory Viruses Disease. Influenza vaccine effectiveness in preventing hospitalisation of individuals 60 years of age and over with laboratory-confirmed influenza, Valencia Region, Spain, influenza season 2016/17. Euro Surveill. 2018;23(8):pii=17-00318. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2018.23.8.17-00318

 

Abstract

Introduction

Seasonal influenza vaccination is widely recommended for people with risk factors, especially for people who are elderly. However, influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) varies year after year because of the variable antigenic composition of the circulating viruses and the vaccine composition.

Methods:

We summarise the results of IVE and the impact of previous vaccination among subjects 60 years of age and over in a multicentre prospective study in the Valencia Hospital Surveillance Network for the Study of Influenza and Respiratory Viruses Disease (VAHNSI) in Spain. We applied the test-negative design taking laboratory-confirmed influenza as outcome and vaccination status as exposure. Information about potential confounders was obtained from clinical registries or directly from patients.

Results:

Adjusted IVE was 19% (95% confidence interval (CI): −15 to 43). For patients vaccinated in the current season but not in the two previous seasons, effectiveness was 49% (95% CI: −20 to 78) and for patients vaccinated in the current and any of two previous seasons, effectiveness was 29% (95% CI: −3 to 52). For those patients not vaccinated in the current season but vaccinated in any of the two previous seasons, effectiveness was 53% (95% CI: 8 to 76).

Conclusions:

Our data show a low vaccine effectiveness for the 2016/17 influenza season.

©  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; Vaccines; Spain.

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Interim estimate of #influenza #vaccine #effectiveness in hospitalised #children, #HK, 2017/18 (Euro Surveill., abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Rapid communication / Open Access

Interim estimate of influenza vaccine effectiveness in hospitalised children, Hong Kong, 2017/18

Susan S Chiu1,2, Mike Y W Kwan2,3, Shuo Feng4, Joshua S C Wong3, Chi-Wai Leung3, Eunice L Y Chan1,J S Malik Peiris4,5, Benjamin J Cowling4

Affiliations: 1 Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital and Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China; 2 These authors contributed equally to this article; 3 Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Princess Margaret Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China; 4 World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Control, School of Public Health, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China; 5 Center of Influenza Research, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China

Correspondence:  Benjamin J Cowling

Citation style for this article: Chiu Susan S, Kwan Mike Y W, Feng Shuo, Wong Joshua S C, Leung Chi-Wai, Chan Eunice L Y, Peiris J S Malik, Cowling Benjamin J. Interim estimate of influenza vaccine effectiveness in hospitalised children, Hong Kong, 2017/18. Euro Surveill. 2018;23(8):pii=18-00062. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2018.23.8.18-00062

Received: 09 Feb 2018;   Accepted: 20 Feb 2018

 

Abstract

We conducted a hospital-based test-negative study in Hong Kong to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) for the winter of 2017/18. The interim analysis included data on 1,078 children admitted between 4 December 2017 and 31 January 2018 with febrile acute respiratory illness and tested for influenza. We estimated influenza VE at 66% (95% confidence interval (CI): 43–79) overall, and 65% (95% CI: 40–80) against influenza B, the dominant virus type (predominantly B/Yamagata).

©  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; Influenza B; Vaccines; HK.

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