#Changes in #regional #heatwave characteristics as a #function of increasing #global #temperature (Sci Rep., abstract)

[Source: Scientific Reports, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Changes in regional heatwave characteristics as a function of increasing global temperature

S. E. Perkins-Kirkpatrick & P. B. Gibson

Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 12256(2017) / doi:10.1038/s41598-017-12520-2

Received: 20 April 2017 – Accepted: 06 September 2017  – Published online: 25 September 2017

 

Abstract

The Paris Agreement calls for global warming to be limited to 1.5–2 °C. For the first time, this study investigates how different regional heatwave characteristics (intensity, frequency and duration) are projected to change relative to increasing global warming thresholds. Increases in heatwave days between 4–34 extra days per season are projected per °C of global warming. Some tropical regions could experience up to 120 extra heatwave days/season if 5 °C is reached. Increases in heatwave intensity are generally 0.5–1.5 °C above a given global warming threshold, however are higher over the Mediterranean and Central Asian regions. Between warming thresholds of 1.5 °C and 2.5 °C, the return intervals of intense heatwaves reduce by 2–3 fold. Heatwave duration is projected to increase by 2–10 days/°C, with larger changes over lower latitudes. Analysis of two climate model ensembles indicate that variation in the rate of heatwave changes is dependent on physical differences between different climate models, however internal climate variability bears considerable influence on the expected range of regional heatwave changes per warming threshold. The results of this study reiterate the potential for disastrous consequences associated with regional heatwaves if global mean warming is not limited to 2 degrees.

Keywords: Global Warming; Climate Changes; International Cooperation.

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Characteristics of the emerging #chicken-origin highly pathogenic #H7N9 viruses: a new #threat to #publichealth and poultry #industry (J Infect., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Infect. 2017 Sep 20. pii: S0163-4453(17)30293-1. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2017.09.005. [Epub ahead of print]

Characteristics of the emerging chicken-origin highly pathogenic H7N9 viruses: a new threat to public health and poultry industry.

Liu D1, Zhang Z1, He L1, Gao Z1, Li J1, Gu M2, Hu J3, Wang X1, Liu X3, Liu X4.

Author information: 1 Animal Infectious Disease Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University; Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China. 2 Animal Infectious Disease Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University; Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China; Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, China. 3 Animal Infectious Disease Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University; Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonosis, Yangzhou University, China. 4 Animal Infectious Disease Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University; Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonosis, Yangzhou University, China; Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, China. Electronic address: xfliu@yzu.edu.cn.

 

Abstract

Two H7N9 chicken isolates showed amino acids insertion and mutation in the cleavage site of the hemagglutinin similar as those from the reported human cases. Phylogenetically, they formed a separate cluster. Animal infection test confirmed their high pathogenicity in chickens and varied virulence in mice, indicating the new threat to public health and poultry industry.

Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: H7N9; cleavage site; poultry

PMID: 28941628 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinf.2017.09.005

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N9; Human; Poultry; China.

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#Evolution and spatio-temporal #dynamics of #Enterovirus A71 subgenogroups in #Vietnam (J Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Evolution and spatio-temporal dynamics of Enterovirus A71 subgenogroups in Vietnam

Nguyen Thi Thanh, Celeste Donato, Vu Thi Huyen Trang, Nguyen Trung Kien, Phạm Mai Thuy Trang, Tran Quoc Khanh, Dang Thi Nguyet, Hoang Quoc Cuong, Phan Trong Lan, Vu Thi Que Huong, H Rogier van Doorn, Vijaykrishna Dhanasekaran

#Corresponding author: Vijaykrishna Dhanasekaran vijay.dhanasekaran@monash.edu Department of Microbiology 19 Innovation Drive Monash University Clayton 3800 Phone: +613 9905 5415 Fax: +613 9902 9222

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, jix500, https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jix500

Published: 23 September 2017 – Received: 28 February 2017

Citation: Nguyen Thi Thanh Thao, Celeste Donato, Vu Thi Huyen Trang, Nguyen Trung Kien, Phạm Mai Thuy Trang, Tran Quoc Khanh, Dang Thi Nguyet, October Sessions, Hoang Quoc Cuong, Phan Trong Lan, Vu Thi Que Huong, H Rogier van Doorn, Vijaykrishna Dhanasekaran; Evolution and spatio-temporal dynamics of Enterovirus A71 subgenogroups in Vietnam, The Journal of Infectious Diseases, , jix500, https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jix500

© 2017 Oxford University Press

 

Abstract

Background

Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is the major cause of severe hand, foot and mouth disease and viral encephalitis in children across the Asia-Pacific region, including in Vietnam which has experienced a high burden of disease in recent years. Multiple subgenogroups (C1, C4, C5 and B5) concurrently circulate in the region with a large variation in epidemic severity. The relative differences in their evolution and epidemiology were examined within Vietnam and globally.

Methods

A total of 752 VP1 gene sequences were analysed (413 generated in this study combined with 339 obtained from GenBank), collected from patients in 36 provinces in Vietnam during 2003–2013 along with epidemiological metadata. Globally representative VP1 gene datasets of subgenogroups were used to co-estimate time-resolved phylogenies and relative genetic diversity to infer virus origins and regional transmission network.

Results

Despite frequent virus migration between countries, the highest genetic diversity of individual subgenogroups was maintained independently for several years in specific Asian countries representing genogroup-specific sources of EV-A71 diversity.

Conclusion

This study highlights a persistent transmission network of EV-A71, with specific Asian countries seeding other countries in the region and beyond, emphasising the need for improved EV-A71 surveillance and detailed genetic and antigenic characterisation.

Enterovirus A71, Vietnam, Hand Foot and Mouth Disease, Phylogenetics

Topic: metadata – enterovirus – epidemiology – hand-foot-and-mouth disease – asia – child – cost of illness – viral encephalitis – genes – phylogeny – vietnam – genetics – viruses – persistence – epidemic – surveillance, medical – asian – absolute risk reduction – genbank – datasets

Issue Section: Major Article

© The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

Keywords: EV-71; HFMD; Asian Region; Vietnam.

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Rapid determination of #ebolavirus #infectivity in #clinical #samples using a novel reporter cell line (J Infect Dis., abstract)

Source: Journal of Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Accepted Manuscript

Rapid determination of ebolavirus infectivity in clinical samples using a novel reporter cell line

Markus H Kainulainen, Stuart T Nichol, César G Albariño, Christina F Spiropoulou

#Correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed to: Christina Spiropoulou ccs8@cdc.gov Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 Clifton Road G14 / SB-153 30333 Atlanta, GA, USA

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, jix486, https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jix486

Published: 23 September 2017 – Received: 07 June 2017

Citation: Markus H Kainulainen, Stuart T Nichol, César G Albariño, Christina F Spiropoulou; Rapid determination of ebolavirus infectivity in clinical samples using a novel reporter cell line, The Journal of Infectious Diseases, , jix486, https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jix486

© 2017 Oxford University Press

 

Abstract

Modern ebolavirus diagnostics rely primarily on qRT-PCR, a sensitive method to detect viral genetic material in the acute phase of the disease. However, qRT-PCR does not confirm presence of infectious virus, presenting limitations in patient and outbreak management. Attempts to isolate infectious virus rely on in vivo or basic cell culture approaches, which prohibit rapid results and screening. Here we present a novel reporter cell line capable of detecting live ebolaviruses. These cells permit sensitive large-scale screening and titration of infectious virus in experimental and clinical samples, independent of ebolavirus species and variant.

Ebola, virus isolation, infectivity, reporter cell line

Topic: polymerase chain reaction – cell culture techniques – ebola virus – cell line – disease outbreaks – diagnosis – genetics – viruses – pathogenicity – titration method

Issue Section:  Brief Report

Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

Keywords: Ebola; Diagnostic Tests.

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#Risk of #GBS following quadrivalent #human #papillomavirus #vaccine in the Vaccine Safety #Datalink (Vaccine, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vaccine. 2017 Sep 18. pii: S0264-410X(17)31225-2. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.09.009. [Epub ahead of print]

Risk of Guillain-Barré Syndrome following quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in the Vaccine Safety Datalink.

Gee J1, Sukumaran L2, Weintraub E2; Vaccine Safety Datalink Team2.

Author information: 1 National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States. Electronic address: dzg2@cdc.gov. 2 National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Describe the Vaccine Safety Datalink’s (VSD) Guillain Barré Syndrome (GBS) surveillance following quadrivalent HPV vaccine (4vHPV) from 2006 through 2015.

METHODS:

Among 4vHPV vaccinated persons aged 9-26, ICD-9 coded GBS was identified in VSD’s electronic data. Medical records were reviewed and adjudicated to confirm GBS. We calculated incidence rates of confirmed GBS within 1-42days following 4vHPV with a one-sided 95% confidence interval.

RESULTS:

Following 2,773,185 4vHPV doses, we confirmed 1 case of GBS in a male and no cases among females. The incidence rate of medical record confirmed GBS within 42days following 4vHPV vaccine was 0.36 cases per million 4vHPV doses administered (1-sided 95% CI 1.71), which was less than the background rate.

CONCLUSION:

We found no evidence of an increased risk of GBS following 4vHPV. With an upper 95% confidence limit, we estimate that, if an increased risk exists, we would expect at most 1.08 additional cases of GBS per million people vaccinated with 4vHPV.

Published by Elsevier Ltd.

KEYWORDS: Guillain Barré Syndrome; Human papillomavirus vaccine; Vaccine Safety

PMID: 28935469 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.09.009

Keywords: Drugs Safety; Vaccines; GBS; HPV.

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A #Human Bi-specific #Antibody against #Zika Virus with High #Therapeutic Potential (Cell, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Cell. 2017 Sep 21;171(1):229-241.e15. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2017.09.002.

A Human Bi-specific Antibody against Zika Virus with High Therapeutic Potential.

Wang J1, Bardelli M2, Espinosa DA3, Pedotti M2, Ng TS1, Bianchi S4, Simonelli L2, Lim EXY1, Foglierini M2, Zatta F4, Jaconi S4, Beltramello M4, Cameroni E4, Fibriansah G1, Shi J5, Barca T3, Pagani I6, Rubio A6, Broccoli V7, Vicenzi E6, Graham V8, Pullan S8, Dowall S8, Hewson R8, Jurt S9, Zerbe O9, Stettler K4, Lanzavecchia A2, Sallusto F2, Cavalli A2, Harris E3, Lok SM10, Varani L11, Corti D12.

Author information: 1 Program in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke-National University of Singapore Medical School, Singapore 169857, Singapore; Centre for BioImaging Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117557, Singapore. 2 Insitute for Research in Biomedicine, Università della Svizzera italiana, Via Vincenzo Vela 6, 6500 Bellinzona, Switzerland. 3 Division of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, 185 Li Ka Shing Center, 1951 Oxford Street, Berkeley, California, 94720-3370, USA. 4 Humabs BioMed SA a subsidiary of Vir Biotechnology, Inc., Via Mirasole 1, 6500 Bellinzona, Switzerland. 5 Centre for BioImaging Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117557, Singapore; CryoEM unit, Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117557. 6 Viral Pathogens and Biosafety Unit, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 58, 20132 Milan, Italy. 7 Viral Pathogens and Biosafety Unit, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 58, 20132 Milan, Italy; CNR-Institute of Neuroscience, Via Vanvitelli 32, 20129, Milan, Italy. 8 National Infection Service, Public Health England, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire, UK. 9 Department of Chemistry, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. 10 Program in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke-National University of Singapore Medical School, Singapore 169857, Singapore; Centre for BioImaging Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117557, Singapore. Electronic address: sheemei.lok@duke-nus.edu.sg. 11 Insitute for Research in Biomedicine, Università della Svizzera italiana, Via Vincenzo Vela 6, 6500 Bellinzona, Switzerland. Electronic address: luca.varani@irb.usi.ch. 12 Humabs BioMed SA a subsidiary of Vir Biotechnology, Inc., Via Mirasole 1, 6500 Bellinzona, Switzerland. Electronic address: davide.corti@humabs.ch.

 

Abstract

Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, causes devastating congenital birth defects. We isolated a human monoclonal antibody (mAb), ZKA190, that potently cross-neutralizes multi-lineage ZIKV strains. ZKA190 is highly effective in vivo in preventing morbidity and mortality of ZIKV-infected mice. NMR and cryo-electron microscopy show its binding to an exposed epitope on DIII of the E protein. ZKA190 Fab binds all 180 E protein copies, altering the virus quaternary arrangement and surface curvature. However, ZIKV escape mutants emerged in vitro and in vivo in the presence of ZKA190, as well as of other neutralizing mAbs. To counter this problem, we developed a bispecific antibody (FIT-1) comprising ZKA190 and a second mAb specific for DII of E protein. In addition to retaining high in vitro and in vivo potencies, FIT-1 robustly prevented viral escape, warranting its development as a ZIKV immunotherapy.

Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Zika; neutralizing antibody; serotherapy

PMID: 28938115 DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2017.09.002

Keywords: Zika Virus; Serotherapy; Monoclonal Antibodies.

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#Genome #Sequence of an #H9N2 #Avian #Influenza Virus Strain with #Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase Combination, Isolated from a #Quail in #Guangxi, Southern #China (Genome Announc., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Genome Announc. 2017 Sep 21;5(38). pii: e00965-17. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.00965-17.

Genome Sequence of an H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus Strain with Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase Combination, Isolated from a Quail in Guangxi, Southern China.

Xie L1, Xie Z1, Li D2, Luo S2, Zhang M2, Huang L2, Xie Z2, Huang J2, Zhang Y2, Zeng T2, Deng X2.

Author information: 1 Guangxi Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Guangxi Veterinary Research Institute, Nanning, Guangxi, China xie3120371@126.com xiezhixun@126.com. 2 Guangxi Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Guangxi Veterinary Research Institute, Nanning, Guangxi, China.

 

Abstract

We isolated a strain of H9N2 avian influenza virus from a quail in southern China in May 2015 and named it A/quail/Guangxi/198Q39/2015. All eight gene segments of the strain were sequenced. Sequence analysis indicated that the amino acid motif of the hemagglutinin cleavage site of this H9N2 virus was RSSR↓GLF, which is a typical characteristic of the low pathogenic avian influenza virus. This study will help in better understanding the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of avian influenza virus in wild birds.

Copyright © 2017 Xie et al.

PMID: 28935735 DOI: 10.1128/genomeA.00965-17

Keywords: Avian Influenza, H9N2; China; Guangxi; Poultry.

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