The #Pattern of Highly Pathogenic #Avian #Influenza #H5N1 #Outbreaks in South #Asia (Trop Med Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Trop Med Infect Dis. 2019 Nov 27;4(4). pii: E138. doi: 10.3390/tropicalmed4040138.

The Pattern of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Outbreaks in South Asia.

Chowdhury S1, Hossain ME1, Ghosh PK1, Ghosh S1, Hossain MB1, Beard C2, Rahman M1, Rahman MZ1.

Author information: 1 International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), Dhaka 1213, Bangladesh. 2 Department of Epidemiology, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.



Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 has caused severe illnesses in poultry and in humans. More than 15,000 outbreaks in domestic birds from 2005 to 2018 and 861 human cases from 2003 to 2019 were reported across the world to OIE (Office International des Epizooties) and WHO (World Health Organization), respectively. We reviewed and summarized the spatial and temporal distribution of HPAI outbreaks in South Asia. During January 2006 to June 2019, a total of 1063 H5N1 outbreaks in birds and 12 human cases for H5N1 infection were reported to OIE and WHO, respectively. H5N1 outbreaks were detected more in the winter season than the summer season (RR 5.11, 95% CI: 4.28-6.1). Commercial poultry were three times more likely to be infected with H5N1 than backyard poultry (RR 3.47, 95% CI: 2.99-4.01). The highest number of H5N1 outbreaks was reported in 2008, and the smallest numbers were reported in 2014 and 2015. Multiple subtypes of avian influenza viruses and multiple clades of H5N1 virus were detected. Early detection and reporting of HPAI viruses are needed to control and eliminate HPAI in South Asia.

KEYWORDS: H5N1; Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses; South Asia; human; poultry

PMID: 31783701 DOI: 10.3390/tropicalmed4040138

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; Poultry; Asian Region.


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Giuseppe Michieli

I am an Italian blogger, active since 2005 with main focus on emerging infectious diseases such as avian influenza, SARS, antibiotics resistance, and many other global Health issues. Other fields of interest are: climate change, global warming, geological and biological sciences. My activity consists mainly in collection and analysis of news, public services updates, confronting sources and making decision about what are the 'signals' of an impending crisis (an outbreak, for example). When a signal is detected, I follow traces during the entire course of an event. I started in 2005 my blog ''A TIME'S MEMORY'', now with more than 40,000 posts and 3 millions of web interactions. Subsequently I added an Italian Language blog, then discontinued because of very low traffic and interest. I contributed for seven years to a public forum ( in the midst of the Ebola epidemic in West Africa in 2014, I left the site to continue alone my data tracking job.