Characterization of #phenotypic and #genotypic traits of #carbapenem-resistant #Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates recovered from a tertiary care #hospital in #Taif, #Saudi Arabia (Infect Drug Resist., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Infect Drug Resist. 2019 Oct 3;12:3113-3124. doi: 10.2147/IDR.S206691. eCollection 2019.

Characterization of phenotypic and genotypic traits of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates recovered from a tertiary care hospital in Taif, Saudi Arabia.

El-Badawy MF1,2, Abdelwahab SF1,3, Alghamdi SA4, Shohayeb MM1,5.

Author information: 1 Division of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Taif University, Taif 21974, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. 2 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr University for Science and Technology, 6th of October City 12568, Egypt. 3 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Minia University, Minia 61511, Egypt. 4 Medical Genetics, Clinical Laboratory Department, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taif University, Taif 21974, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. 5 Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Delta University for Science and Technology, Gamasa 35712, Egypt.




Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is a common nosocomial pathogen, which developed multi-drug-resistance to different classes of antibiotics including carbapenems. This study examined ten common carbapenemase genes among 32 carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii clinical isolates recovered from Taif, Saudi Arabia.


Isolates were phenotypically identified to the genus level by Vitek®2 and API 20NE®. The species level was confirmed by the amplification of bla OXA-51. The susceptibility for 21 different antibiotics was performed by Vitek 2 and modified Kirby-Bauer method. Isolates were genetically screened for 10 carbapenemases. Phylogenetic relatedness between isolates was determined by ERIC-PCR.


Genotypically identified A. baumannii represented 100% of the total phenotypically identified Acinetobacter spp. All the carbapenem-resistant isolates were sensitive to polymyxin B and colistin. Among the other antibiotics, ampicillin/sulbactam and tigecycline were the most effective agents. 90.8% of the isolates were resistant to all ten investigated β-lactams. bla OXA-51, bla IPM, bla NDM and bla OXA-23 were detected in 100%, 87.5%, 62.5% and 59.4% of isolates, respectively. Also, bla VIM and bla OXA-40 were less prevalent and were detected in 9.3% and 3.1% of the isolates, respectively. In addition, bla KPC, bla OXA-48, bla OXA-58, bla OXA-181 were not detected in any isolate. The A. baumannii isolates were categorised into ten genotypes on the basis of the detected carbapenemase genes and ERIC-PCR revealed a remarkable clonal diversity among these isolates.


Class A and class D carbapenemase genes were the most commonly detected among carbapenem resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) clinical isolates.

© 2019 El-Badawy et al.

KEYWORDS: A. baumannii; ERIC-PCR; blaOXA-51; carbapenemases; carbapenems

PMID: 31632100 PMCID: PMC6781848 DOI: 10.2147/IDR.S206691

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Carbapenem; Acinetobacter baumannii; Nosocomial outbreaks; Saudi Arabia.


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Giuseppe Michieli

I am an Italian blogger, active since 2005 with main focus on emerging infectious diseases such as avian influenza, SARS, antibiotics resistance, and many other global Health issues. Other fields of interest are: climate change, global warming, geological and biological sciences. My activity consists mainly in collection and analysis of news, public services updates, confronting sources and making decision about what are the 'signals' of an impending crisis (an outbreak, for example). When a signal is detected, I follow traces during the entire course of an event. I started in 2005 my blog ''A TIME'S MEMORY'', now with more than 40,000 posts and 3 millions of web interactions. Subsequently I added an Italian Language blog, then discontinued because of very low traffic and interest. I contributed for seven years to a public forum ( in the midst of the Ebola epidemic in West Africa in 2014, I left the site to continue alone my data tracking job.