[Source: Journal of Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]
Yellow fever virus re-emergence and spread in Southeast Brazil, 2016-2019
Marta Giovanetti, Marcos Cesar Lima de Mendonça, Vagner Fonseca, Maria Angélica Mares-Guia, Allison Fabri, Joilson Xavier, Jaqueline Goes de Jesus, Tiago Gräf, Cintia Damasceno dos Santos Rodrigues, Carolina Cardoso dos Santos, Simone Alves Sampaio, Flavia Lowen Levy Chalhoub, Fernanda de Bruycker Nogueira, Julien Theze, Alessandro Pecego Martins Romano, Daniel Garkauskas Ramos, Andre Luiz de Abreu, Wanderson Kleber Oliveira, Rodrigo Fabiano do Carmo Said, Carlos F. Campelo de Alburque, Tulio de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Fernandes, Shirlei Ferreira Aguiar, Alexandre Chieppe, Patrícia Carvalho Sequeira, Nuno Rodrigues Faria, Rivaldo Venâncio Cunha, Luiz Carlos Junior Alcantara, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis
The recent re-emergence of yellow fever virus (YFV) in Brazil has raised serious concerns due to the virus’ rapid dissemination in the southeastern region. To better understand YFV genetic diversity and dynamics during the recent outbreak in southeastern Brazil we generated 18 complete and near-complete genomes from the peak of the epidemic curve from non-human primates (NHPs) and human infected cases across Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro states. Genomic sequencing of 18 YFV genomes revealed the estimated timing, source and likely routes of yellow fever virus transmission and dispersion during one of the largest outbreaks ever registered in Brazil. We showed that during the recent epidemic YFV was re-introduced from Minas Gerais to Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro states multiple times between 2016 to 2019. The analysis of data from portable sequencing could identify the corridor of spread of YFV. These findings reinforce that continued genomic surveillance strategies can provide information on virus genetic diversity and transmission dynamics that might assist in the understanding arbovirus epidemics.
Arbovirus infections in Brazil including yellow fever, dengue, zika and chikungunya result in considerable morbidity and mortality and are pressing public health concerns. However, our understanding of these outbreaks is hampered by limited availability genomic data. In this study, we investigated the genetic diversity and spatial distribution of YFV during the current outbreak by analyzing genomic data from areas in southeastern Brazil not covered by other previous studies. To gain insights into the routes of YFV introduction and dispersion, we tracked the virus by sequencing YFV genomes sampled from non-human primates and infected patients from the southeastern region. Our study provides an understanding of how YFV initiates transmission in new Brazilian regions and illustrates that genomics in field can augment traditional approaches to infectious disease surveillance and control.
Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Keywords: Arbovirus; Yellow fever; Brazil.