[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]
Front Microbiol. 2019 Aug 2;10:1781. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.01781. eCollection 2019.
Recent Advances in the Vaccine Development Against Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus.
Yong CY1,2, Ong HK3, Yeap SK4, Ho KL3, Tan WS1,2.
Author information: 1 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia. 2 Laboratory of Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia. 3 Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia. 4 China ASEAN College of Marine Sciences, Xiamen University Malaysia, Sepang, Malaysia.
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a deadly viral respiratory disease caused by MERS-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection. To date, there is no specific treatment proven effective against this viral disease. In addition, no vaccine has been licensed to prevent MERS-CoV infection thus far. Therefore, our current review focuses on the most recent studies in search of an effective MERS vaccine. Overall, vaccine candidates against MERS-CoV are mainly based upon the viral spike (S) protein, due to its vital role in the viral infectivity, although several studies focused on other viral proteins such as the nucleocapsid (N) protein, envelope (E) protein, and non-structural protein 16 (NSP16) have also been reported. In general, the potential vaccine candidates can be classified into six types: viral vector-based vaccine, DNA vaccine, subunit vaccine, nanoparticle-based vaccine, inactivated-whole virus vaccine and live-attenuated vaccine, which are discussed in detail. Besides, the immune responses and potential antibody dependent enhancement of MERS-CoV infection are extensively reviewed. In addition, animal models used to study MERS-CoV and evaluate the vaccine candidates are discussed intensively.
KEYWORDS: Middle East respiratory syndrome; animal model; antibody dependent enhancement; coronavirus; vaccine
PMID: 31428074 PMCID: PMC6688523 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.01781
Keywords: MERS-CoV; Vaccines.