#Human #response to live #plague #vaccine EV, #Almaty region, #Kazakhstan, 2014-2015 (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: PLoS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]


Human response to live plague vaccine EV, Almaty region, Kazakhstan, 2014-2015

Zaurbek Sagiyev , Almas Berdibekov , Tatyana Bolger , Almagul Merekenova , Svetlana Ashirova , Zamir Nurgozhin ,Zhandos Dalibayev

Published: June 14, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0218366




In Kazakhstan, a live plague vaccine EV 76 NIIEG has been used for plague prophylaxis since the mid-1930s. Vaccination is administered yearly among people living in plague-enzootic areas. Similar practices are used in other former Soviet Union countries. Yet, to this day, the effectiveness period of the vaccine is unknown. It is also not clear how different factors can affect the effectiveness of the vaccine over time.


We surveyed changes in antibody levels specific for F1 antigens of Yersinia pestis among vaccinated people 4, 8, and 12 months post- vaccination. Blood samples were taken from the participants of the study for producing sera, which was later analyzed using indirect hemagglutination reaction with antigenic erythrocyte assay (micromethod) for identifying antibodies to F1 Y.pestis.


In first-time-receivers of the plague vaccine, antibody titer reached the highest level of antibody that represents a conditionally protective titer after 4 months, dropped drastically after 8 months, and dropped again after 12 months. Similar results were obtained among those who have been vaccinated previously. However, in that group, the percentage of people with a level of antibody that represents a conditionally protective titer remained statistically significant even after 8 and 12 months.


Based on the results of this study, we recommend initiating vaccination campaigns for the medical and veterinary staff, as well as the general population four months prior to the springtime epizootics of plague among wild rodents.


Citation: Sagiyev Z, Berdibekov A, Bolger T, Merekenova A, Ashirova S, Nurgozhin Z, et al. (2019) Human response to live plague vaccine EV, Almaty region, Kazakhstan, 2014-2015. PLoS ONE 14(6): e0218366. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0218366

Editor: Chandra Shekhar Bakshi, New York Medical College, UNITED STATES

Received: October 31, 2018; Accepted: June 1, 2019; Published: June 14, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Sagiyev et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: The study was conducted under FELTP CDC/CAR, 2013-2015 (CDC Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program) to ZS. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Plague; Yersinia pestis; Vaccines; Serology; Kazakhstan.


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Giuseppe Michieli

I am an Italian blogger, active since 2005 with main focus on emerging infectious diseases such as avian influenza, SARS, antibiotics resistance, and many other global Health issues. Other fields of interest are: climate change, global warming, geological and biological sciences. My activity consists mainly in collection and analysis of news, public services updates, confronting sources and making decision about what are the 'signals' of an impending crisis (an outbreak, for example). When a signal is detected, I follow traces during the entire course of an event. I started in 2005 my blog ''A TIME'S MEMORY'', now with more than 40,000 posts and 3 millions of web interactions. Subsequently I added an Italian Language blog, then discontinued because of very low traffic and interest. I contributed for seven years to a public forum (FluTrackers.com) in the midst of the Ebola epidemic in West Africa in 2014, I left the site to continue alone my data tracking job.