[Source: npj Vaccines, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]
Article | OPEN | Published: 29 May 2019
Heterologous prime-boost with A(H5N1) pandemic influenza vaccines induces broader cross-clade antibody responses than homologous prime-boost
Min Z. Levine, Crystal Holiday, Stacie Jefferson, F. Liaini Gross, Feng Liu, Sheng Li, Damien Friel, Philippe Boutet, Bruce L. Innis, Corey P. Mallett, Terrence M. Tumpey, James Stevens & Jacqueline M. Katz
npj Vaccines 4, Article number: 22 (2019)
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5Nx) viruses continue to pose a pandemic threat. US national vaccine stockpiles are a cornerstone of the influenza pandemic preparedness plans. However, continual genetic and antigenic divergence of A(H5Nx) viruses requires the development of effective vaccination strategies using stockpiled vaccines and adjuvants for pandemic preparedness. Human sera collected from healthy adults who received either homologous (2 doses of a AS03A-adjuvanted A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005, A/Turkey), or heterologous (primed with AS03A-adjuvanted A/Indonesia/5/2005, A/Indo, followed by A/Turkey boost) prime-boost vaccination regimens were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization assays against 8 wild-type HPAI A(H5Nx) viruses from 6 genetic clades. Molecular, structural and antigenic features of the A(H5Nx) viruses that could influence the cross-clade antibody responses were also explored. Compared with homologous prime-boost vaccinations, priming with a clade 18.104.22.168 antigen (A/Indo) followed by one booster dose of a clade 2.2.1 antigen (A/Turkey) administered 18 months apart did not compromise the antibody responses to the booster vaccine (A/Turkey), it also broadened the cross-clade antibody responses to several antigenically drifted variants from 6 heterologous clades, including an antigenically distant A(H5N8) virus (A/gyrfalcon/Washington/410886/2014, clade 22.214.171.124) that caused recent outbreaks in US poultry. The magnitude and breadth of the cross-clade antibody responses against emerging HPAI A(H5Nx) viruses are associated with genetic, structural and antigenic differences from the vaccine viruses and enhanced by the inclusion of an adjuvant. Heterologous prime-boost vaccination with AS03A adjuvanted vaccine offers a vaccination strategy to use existing stockpiled vaccines for pandemic preparedness against new emerging HPAI A(H5Nx) viruses.
Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; H5N8; Pandemic Influenza; Pandemic Preparedness; Vaccines.