#Resistance #proportions for eight priority #antibiotic – #bacterium combinations in #OECD, #EU/EEA and #G20 countries 2000 to 2030: a modelling study (Euro Surveill., abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Resistance proportions for eight priority antibiotic-bacterium combinations in OECD, EU/EEA and G20 countries 2000 to 2030: a modelling study

Tiago Cravo Oliveira Hashiguchi1, Driss Ait Ouakrim1, Michael Padget1, Alessandro Cassini2, Michele Cecchini1

Affiliations: 1 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Paris, France; 2 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), Stockholm, Sweden

Correspondence:  Tiago Cravo Oliveira Hashiguchi

Citation style for this article: Cravo Oliveira Hashiguchi Tiago , Ait Ouakrim Driss , Padget Michael, Cassini Alessandro, Cecchini Michele. Resistance proportions for eight priority antibiotic-bacterium combinations in OECD, EU/EEA and G20 countries 2000 to 2030: a modelling study. Euro Surveill. 2019;24(20):pii=1800445. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.20.1800445

Received: 10 Aug 2018;   Accepted: 21 Mar 2019




Antimicrobial resistance is widely considered an urgent global health issue due to associated mortality and disability, societal and healthcare costs.


To estimate the past, current and projected future proportion of infections resistant to treatment for eight priority antibiotic-bacterium combinations from 2000 to 2030 for 52 countries.


We collated data from a variety of sources including ResistanceMap and World Bank. Feature selection algorithms and multiple imputation were used to produce a complete historical dataset. Forecasts were derived from an ensemble of three models: exponential smoothing, linear regression and random forest. The latter two were informed by projections of antibiotic consumption, out-of-pocket medical spending, populations aged 64 years and older and under 15 years and real gross domestic product. We incorporated three types of uncertainty, producing 150 estimates for each country-antibiotic-bacterium-year.


Average resistance proportions across antibiotic-bacterium combinations could grow moderately from 17% to 18% within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; growth in 64% of uncertainty sets), from 18% to 19% in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA; growth in 87% of uncertainty sets) and from 29% to 31% in Group of Twenty (G20) countries (growth in 62% of uncertainty sets) between 2015 and 2030. There is broad heterogeneity in levels and rates of change across countries and antibiotic-bacterium combinations from 2000 to 2030.


If current trends continue, resistance proportions are projected to marginally increase in the coming years. The estimates indicate there is significant heterogeneity in resistance proportions across countries and antibiotic-bacterium combinations.

© This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; European Region; EU.


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Giuseppe Michieli

I am an Italian blogger, active since 2005 with main focus on emerging infectious diseases such as avian influenza, SARS, antibiotics resistance, and many other global Health issues. Other fields of interest are: climate change, global warming, geological and biological sciences. My activity consists mainly in collection and analysis of news, public services updates, confronting sources and making decision about what are the 'signals' of an impending crisis (an outbreak, for example). When a signal is detected, I follow traces during the entire course of an event. I started in 2005 my blog ''A TIME'S MEMORY'', now with more than 40,000 posts and 3 millions of web interactions. Subsequently I added an Italian Language blog, then discontinued because of very low traffic and interest. I contributed for seven years to a public forum (FluTrackers.com) in the midst of the Ebola epidemic in West Africa in 2014, I left the site to continue alone my data tracking job.