[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]
OPEN ACCESS / PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome can masquerade as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome
Rui Qi, Xiang-rong Qin, Ling Wang, Hui-ju Han, Feng Cui, Hao Yu, Jian-wei Liu , Xue-jie Yu
Published: March 29, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007308 / This is an uncorrected proof.
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging viral hemorrhagic fever with a high fatality rate and high frequency of person-to-person transmission and is caused by SFTSV, a tick-borne Phlebovirus. Because SFTS has similar clinical manifestations and epidemic characters (such as spatial and temporal distributions) with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in China, we reason that SFTS patients might be misdiagnosed as HFRS.
Acute-phase sera of 128 clinically diagnosed HFRS patients were retrospectively analyzed for Hantavirus IgM antibodies with ELISA. Hantavirus-negative patients’ sera were further analyzed for SFTSV IgM antibodies with ELISA. ELISA showed that 73 of 128 (57.0%) of clinically diagnosed HFRS patients were IgM antibody positive to Hantaviruses. Among the 55 Hantavirus-IgM negative patients, four (7.3%) were IgM antibody positive to SFTSV. The results indicated that the four SFTS patients were misdiagnosed as HFRS. The misdiagnosed SFTS patients had clinical manifestations common to HFRS and were unable to be differentiated from HFRS clinically.
Our study showed that SFTS patients could be clinically misdiagnosed as HFRS. The misdiagnosis of SFTS as HFRS causes particular concern because it may increase the risk of death of SFTS patients and person-to-person transmission of SFTSV without proper care for and isolation of SFTS patients.
SFTS were clinically misdiagnosed as HFRS. It could cause particular concern in China. Physicians could not rely heavily on the exposure history. Both SFTS and HFRS patients are treated based on the clinical diagnosis in China. Laboratory confirmation of both diseases is not performed in clinical hospitals and the patients’ blood was usually submitted to a local or provincial center for disease control and prevention. In most cases the confirmation diagnosis is to provide retrospective information rather than to guide clinical therapy. Therefore, physicians need to carefully differentiate SFTS and HFRS patients because the fatality of SFTS is much higher than HFRS and SFTS is easily spread from person to person by contacting infected blood or even through aerosol.
Citation: Qi R, Qin X-r, Wang L, Han H-j, Cui F, Yu H, et al. (2019) Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome can masquerade as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(3): e0007308. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007308
Editor: Abdallah M. Samy, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University (ASU), EGYPT
Received: December 11, 2018; Accepted: March 15, 2019; Published: March 29, 2019
Copyright: © 2019 Qi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.
Funding: This study was supported by National Natural Science Funds of China (No. 31570167). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Keywords: SFTS; Hantavirus; HFRS.