[Source: Journal of Clinical Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]
Journal of Clinical Virology / Available online 16 March 2019 / In Press, Accepted Manuscript
Emerging arboviruses of medical importance in the Mediterranean region
Anna Papa, Department of Microbiology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, 54124, Greece
Received 12 January 2019, Revised 6 March 2019, Accepted 11 March 2019, Available online 16 March 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2019.03.007
- The epidemiology of arboviral infection in the Mediterranean region is changing.
- 2018 was a record year for West Nile virus infections.
- Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever emerged in the Western Europe.
- Autochthonous chikungunya and dengue cases occurred in the Mediterranean countries.
- The “One Health” initiative is required for tackling the emerging diseases.
The epidemiology of viral infections transmitted by arthropods is changing due to a variety of parameters related to the virus, the host and the environment. The Mediterranean region is highly affected by changes in the intensity and extension of global-scale climate patterns, and, due to its location, provides a vulnerable environment for emergence of arboviral diseases. The main arboviruses that pose currently a public health threat in the Mediterranean region are West Nile virus and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and, in less extend, tick-borne encephalitis virus. Usutu virus that affects mainly birds can infect also humans, while Dengue and Chikungunya viruses showed that they are capable to cause sporadic autochthonous cases, and even outbreaks in the Mediterranean region. Sandly-transmitted viruses continue to have a public health impact, and novel ones have been identified. The presence of competent vectors (mainly mosquitoes), combined by arbovirus introduction through viremic travelers returning from endemic regions, prompt for increased surveillance to mitigate the risk for local transmission. In order to tackle efficiently and effectively the emerging arboviral diseases, an integrated “One Health initiative” is required to be maintained, involving public health, animal health and environmental authorities. Awareness of medical and veterinary staff and laboratory capacity are crucial for the early detection of pathogens, while reporting the unusual and enhance surveillance are important.
Keywords: Arbovirus – Mediterranean countries – Emerging – Humans
© 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Arbovirus; Climate Change; European Region; Chikungunya fever; Dengue fever; Zika Virus; WNV; CCHF.