Back to the Future for #Influenza #Preimmunity-Looking Back at Influenza Virus History to Infer the #Outcome of Future #Infections (Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Viruses. 2019 Jan 30;11(2). pii: E122. doi: 10.3390/v11020122.

Back to the Future for Influenza Preimmunity-Looking Back at Influenza Virus History to Infer the Outcome of Future Infections.

Francis ME1, King ML2, Kelvin AA3,4,5.

Author information: 1 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3K 6R8, Canada. M.Francis@dal.ca. 2 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3K 6R8, Canada. MorganKing@dal.ca.  3 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3K 6R8, Canada. akelvin@dal.ca. 4 Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3K 6R8, Canada. akelvin@dal.ca. 5 Canadian Centre for Vaccinology, IWK Health Centre, Halifax NS B3K 6R8, Canada. akelvin@dal.ca.

 

Abstract

The influenza virus-host interaction is a classic arms race. The recurrent and evolving nature of the influenza virus family allows a single host to be infected several times. Locked in co-evolution, recurrent influenza virus infection elicits continual refinement of the host immune system. Here we give historical context of circulating influenza viruses to understand how the individual immune history is mirrored by the history of influenza virus circulation. Original Antigenic Sin was first proposed as the negative influence of the host’s first influenza virus infection on the next and Imprinting modernizes Antigenic Sin incorporating both positive and negative outcomes. Building on imprinting, we refer to preimmunity as the continual refinement of the host immune system with each influenza virus infection. We discuss imprinting and the interplay of influenza virus homology, vaccination, and host age establishing preimmunity. We outline host signatures and outcomes of tandem infection according to the sequence of virus and classify these relationships as monosubtypic homologous, monosubtypic heterologous, heterosubtypic, or heterotypic sequential infections. Finally, the preimmunity knowledge gaps are highlighted for future investigation. Understanding the effects of antigenic variable recurrent influenza virus infection on immune refinement will advance vaccination strategies, as well as pandemic preparedness.

KEYWORDS: Spanish influenza; antigenic drift; antigenic shift; immune response; imprinting; influenza virus; original antigenic sin; orthomyxoviridae; pandemic; preimmunity

PMID: 30704019 DOI: 10.3390/v11020122

Keywords: Influenza A; Pandemic Influenza; Immunology.

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Giuseppe Michieli

I am an Italian blogger, active since 2005 with main focus on emerging infectious diseases such as avian influenza, SARS, antibiotics resistance, and many other global Health issues. Other fields of interest are: climate change, global warming, geological and biological sciences. My activity consists mainly in collection and analysis of news, public services updates, confronting sources and making decision about what are the 'signals' of an impending crisis (an outbreak, for example). When a signal is detected, I follow traces during the entire course of an event. I started in 2005 my blog ''A TIME'S MEMORY'', now with more than 40,000 posts and 3 millions of web interactions. Subsequently I added an Italian Language blog, then discontinued because of very low traffic and interest. I contributed for seven years to a public forum (FluTrackers.com) in the midst of the Ebola epidemic in West Africa in 2014, I left the site to continue alone my data tracking job.