[Source: PLoS Pathogens, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]
OPEN ACCESS / PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE
A potent Lassa virus antiviral targets an arenavirus virulence determinant
Ikenna G. Madu, Megan Files, Dima N. Gharaibeh, Amy L. Moore, Kie-Hoon Jung, Brian B. Gowen, Dongcheng Dai, Kevin F. Jones, Shanthakumar R. Tyavanagimatt, James R. Burgeson, Marcus J. Korth, Kristin M. Bedard, Shawn P. Iadonato, Sean M. Amberg
Published: December 21, 2018 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007439 / This is an uncorrected proof.
Arenaviruses are a significant cause of hemorrhagic fever, an often-fatal disease for which there is no approved antiviral therapy. Lassa fever in particular generates high morbidity and mortality in West Africa, where the disease is endemic, and a recent outbreak in Nigeria was larger and more geographically diverse than usual. We are developing LHF-535, a small-molecule viral entry inhibitor that targets the arenavirus envelope glycoprotein, as a therapeutic candidate for Lassa fever and other hemorrhagic fevers of arenavirus origin. Using a lentiviral pseudotype infectivity assay, we determined that LHF-535 had sub-nanomolar potency against the viral envelope glycoproteins from all Lassa virus lineages, with the exception of the glycoprotein from the LP strain from lineage I, which was 100-fold less sensitive than that of other strains. This reduced sensitivity was mediated by a unique amino acid substitution, V434I, in the transmembrane domain of the envelope glycoprotein GP2 subunit. This position corresponds to the attenuation determinant of Candid#1, a live-attenuated Junín virus vaccine strain used to prevent Argentine hemorrhagic fever. Using a virus-yield reduction assay, we determined that LHF-535 potently inhibited Junín virus, but not Candid#1, and the Candid#1 attenuation determinant, F427I, regulated this difference in sensitivity. We also demonstrated that a daily oral dose of LHF-535 at 10 mg/kg protected mice from a lethal dose of Tacaribe virus. Serial passage of Tacaribe virus in LHF-535-treated Vero cells yielded viruses that were resistant to LHF-535, and the majority of drug-resistant viruses exhibited attenuated pathogenesis. These findings provide a framework for the clinical development of LHF-535 as a broad-spectrum inhibitor of arenavirus entry and provide an important context for monitoring the emergence of drug-resistant viruses.
Lassa fever is a viral hemorrhagic fever disease that is transmitted to humans primarily through contact with the urine or feces of infected rodents. The disease is endemic in West Africa, and an unusually large outbreak occurred in Nigeria in early 2018. The case fatality rate was 25% among confirmed cases, underscoring the need for an effective antiviral therapy. Here, we evaluated the small-molecule drug LHF-535, which targets the arenavirus envelope glycoprotein, for broad-spectrum activity against Lassa viruses of different lineages and related arenaviruses that cause hemorrhagic fever diseases in South America. We also selected for LHF-535-resistant viruses and characterized their genotype and phenotype. Using a combination of surrogate systems and wild-type viruses, we determined that all tested Lassa virus strains and New World hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses were sensitive to LHF-535. Sensitivity to the drug was modulated by specific amino acid changes in the viral envelope glycoprotein, and the majority of emerging drug-resistant viruses were attenuated for virulence. Similarly, the live-attenuated vaccine strain for Argentine hemorrhagic fever was also resistant to LHF-535. These findings indicate that LHF-535 targets a viral virulence determinant, the mutation of which may result in the emergence of drug-resistant viruses, but with reduced capacity for virulence.
Citation: Madu IG, Files M, Gharaibeh DN, Moore AL, Jung K-H, Gowen BB, et al. (2018) A potent Lassa virus antiviral targets an arenavirus virulence determinant. PLoS Pathog 14(12): e1007439. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007439
Editor: Jens H. Kuhn, Division of Clinical Research, UNITED STATES
Received: July 11, 2018; Accepted: October 25, 2018; Published: December 21, 2018
Copyright: © 2018 Madu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper.
Funding: This work was funded in part by a grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (5R01AI093387), while continued development of LHF-535 is supported by Wellcome Trust Translation Fund award WT-200439/Z/16/Z (both to SMA). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Competing interests: The authors have read the journal’s policy and have the following competing interests: IGM, MJK, KMB, SPI, and SMA are current employees of Kineta; DNG is a current employee of Sorrento Therapeutics; DD is a current employee of Amgen; SRT is a current employee of CTI BioPharma; JRB is a current employee of SIGA Technologies; DD, JRB, and SMA are listed as inventors on LHF-535 and related patents.
Keywords: Antivirals; Arenavirus; Lassa fever.